Dai Zhuang Language
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Dai Zhuang Language
Dai Zhuang
Wen-Ma Southern Zhuang
Distribution of Dai Zhuang language
Native toChina
RegionWenshan Prefecture
Native speakers
100,000 (2008)[1]
Language codes
zhd - Dai Zhuang
tyl - Thu Lao (duplicate code)

Dai Zhuang is a Tai language spoken in Wenshan Prefecture, Yunnan, China, in Yanshan, Wenshan, Maguan, Malipo, Guangnan counties. It is also spoken in Honghe Prefecture and Vietnam. The largest concentrations are in Wenshan (50% of total Zhuang population) and Yanshan (20% of total Zhuang population) counties (Johnson 2011b).


Below are various names (both autonyms and exonyms) for speakers of Dai Zhuang (Johnson 2011a:43).

Subdivisions and distribution

Johnson (2011b) splits Dai Zhuang into 4 dialects according to tonal splitting patterns: Northern, Central, Southern, and Northeastern. They roughly correspond with the following ethnic subdivisions (Johnson 2011a).

  • Northern: Piled Headdress Tu (Da Tou Tu, , Daigelai, Black Tulao). Spoken in northern Wenshan and western Yanshan counties.
  • Central: Flat Headdress Tu (Ping Tou Tu, , River Bank Tulao). Spoken around the city of Wenshan, and in central Wenshan County's Panzhihua () Township.
  • Southern: Pointed Headdress Tu (Jian Tou Tu, ). Spoken in Malipo and Maguan counties.
  • Northeastern: Slanted Headdress Tu (Pian Tou Tu, ). Spoken in Guangnan and eastern Yanshan counties.

In Vietnam, Thu Lao (autonym: La H?, meaning 'black earth') is spoken in the following 7 villages (Nguy?n 2014:14).[2]

Jerold Edmondson describes Thu Lao as a Central Tai language with about 200 speakers that retains voiced initial consonants in low tones, like Tay of Trùng Khánh District, Cao B?ng Province.[3]

Yunnan (1979)[4] reports that a Tai-speaking group called the Baiyi live in Wenshan City, Maguan County, and Qiaotou Township ? of Hekou Yao Autonomous County. Yunnan (1979) suggests that it may be similar to Tai Lue. The Baiyi are classified as ethnic Dai in Hekou, and as Zhuang in Wenshan and Maguan. In 1960, the Baiyi had a population of 6,958.


Many Dai Zhuang dialects preserve voiced stops inherited from Proto-Tai (L-Thongkum 1997). L-Thongkum calls the dialects with the voiced stops "Dai Tho," and the dialects without any voiced stops "Tai Tho."

See also


  1. ^ Dai Zhuang at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Thu Lao (duplicate code) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nguy?n Hùng M?nh. 2014. Tri thúc dân gian trong vi?c bao v? r?ng thiêng, r?ng u ngu?n c?a ngi Thu Lao (Xã T? Gia Khâu, Huy?n Mng Khng, T?nh Lào Cai). Nhà xu?t b?n v?n hóa thông tin. ISBN 978-604-50-1511-7
  3. ^ http://www.uta.edu/faculty/jerry/research/map.html
  4. ^ Yunnan minzu shibie zonghe diaocha zubian (1979). Yunnan minzu shibie zonghe diaocha baogao (1960 nian) (1960?). Kunming: Yunnan minzuxue yanjiu suoyin .

Further reading

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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