Cz%C4%99stochowa
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Cz%C4%99stochowa
Cz?stochowa
Left to right: eclectic tenement house, fountain at Stanis?aw Staszic Park, view of May Third Park and Jasna Góra Monastery, view of Holy Virgin Mary Avenue, Cz?stochowa City Hall
Left to right: eclectic tenement house, fountain at Stanis?aw Staszic Park, view of May Third Park and Jasna Góra Monastery, view of Holy Virgin Mary Avenue, Cz?stochowa City Hall
Flag of Cz?stochowa
Flag
Coat of arms of Cz?stochowa
Coat of arms
Motto(s): Jasne, ?e Cz?stochowa
(Cz?stochowa it's clear)
Cz?stochowa is located in Silesian Voivodeship
Cz?stochowa
Cz?stochowa
Cz?stochowa is located in Poland
Cz?stochowa
Cz?stochowa
Coordinates: 50°48?N 19°7?E / 50.800°N 19.117°E / 50.800; 19.117
Country Poland
Voivodeship Silesian
County city county
Established 11th century
Town rights 1356
Government
 o Mayor Krzysztof Matyjaszczyk
Area
 o City 160 km2 (60 sq mi)
Population (2016)
 o City 227,270
 o Density 1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
 o Metro 400,000
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 o Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 42-200 to 42-229, 42-263, 42-271, 42-280, 42-294
Area code(s) +48 34
Car plates SC
Climate Cfb
Website http://www.czestochowa.pl/

Cz?stochowa, [t?st?'x?va], is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 240,027 inhabitants as of June 2009. It has been situated in the Silesian Voivodeship (administrative division) since 1999, and was previously the capital of the Cz?stochowa Voivodeship (1975-1998). However, Cz?stochowa is historically part of Lesser Poland, not of Silesia, and before 1975 (see: Partitions of Poland), it belonged to the Kraków Voivodeship. Cz?stochowa is located in the Kraków-Cz?stochowa Upland. It is the 13th most populous city in Poland. It is the largest economic, cultural and administrative hub in the northern part of the Silesian Voivodeship.

The city is known for the famous Pauline monastery of Jasna Góra, which is the home of the Black Madonna painting (Polish: Jasnogórski Cudowny obraz Naj?wi?tszej Maryi Panny Niepokalanie Pocz?tej), a shrine to the Virgin Mary. Every year, millions of pilgrims from all over the world come to Cz?stochowa to see it. The city also was home to the Frankism movement in the late 18th and the 19th century. There is also a Lusatian culture excavation site and museum in the city, and ruins of a medieval castle in Olsztyn, approximately 25 kilometres (16 miles) from the city centre (see also Trail of the Eagles' Nests).[1]

City name

The name of Cz?stochowa means Cz?stoch's place and comes from a personal name of Cz?stoch mentioned in the medieval documents also as Cz?stobor and Cz?stomir.[2] Variations of the name include Czanstochowa used in 1220, and Cz?stochow used in 1382 and 1558. A part of today's city called Cz?stochówka was a separate municipality mentioned in the 14th century as the Old Cz?stochowa (Antiquo Czanstochowa, 1382) and Cz?stochówka in 1470-80.[3] The city was also known in German as Tschenstochau and in Russian as (Chenstokhov).

History

Pope Benedict XVI in the Monastery of Jasna Góra

According to archaeological findings, the first Slavic settlement in the location of Cz?stochowa was established in the late 11th century. It was first mentioned in historical documents from 1220, when Bishop of Kraków Iwo Odrow made a list of properties of the Mstów monastery. Two villages, Cz?stochowa and Cz?stochówka were mentioned in the document. Both of them belonged to the basic territorial unit of Slavic tribes (opole), with its capital at Mstów. Cz?stochówka was located on a hill on which the Jasna Góra Monastery was later built. In the late 13th century Cz?stochowa became the seat of a Roman Catholic parish church, which was subjected to the Lelów deanery. The village was located in northwestern corner of Kraków Land, Lesser Poland, near the Royal Castle at Olsztyn. Cz?stochowa lay along a busy merchant road from Lesser Poland to Greater Poland. The village was ruled by a starosta, who stayed at the Olsztyn Castle. It is not known when Cz?stochowa was granted town charter, as no documents have been preserved. It happened some time between 1356 - 1377. In 1502, King Alexander Jagiellon granted a new charter, based on Magdeburg rights to Cz?stochowa. In 1382 the Paulist monastery of Jasna Góra was founded by Vladislaus II of Opole - the Polish Piast prince of Upper Silesia. Two years later the monastery received its famous Black Madonna icon of the Virgin Mary and in subsequent years became a centre of pilgrimage, contributing to the growth of the adjacent town.[1]

Cz?stochowa prospered in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, due to efforts of Sigismund I the Old, the future king of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. At that time, Sigismund ruled the Duchy of G?ogów, and frequently visited Cz?stochowa on his way to the Duchies of Silesia (1498, 1502, 1502, 1503, 1505, 1505, 1506). In 1504, Cz?stochowa was granted the right to collect tolls on the Warta river bridge. In 1508, Cz?stochowa was allowed to organize one fair a year; in 1564, the number of fairs was increased to three annually, and in 1639 to six. In the year 1631, Cz?stochowa had 399 houses, but at the same time, several residents died in a plague, after which 78 houses were abandoned.[1]

In the first half of the 17th century, kings of the House of Vasa turned the Jasna Góra Monastery into a modern Dutch-style fortress, which was one of the pockets of Polish resistance against the Swedish armies during Swedish invasion of Poland in 1655 (for more information, see Siege of Jasna Góra). The town of Cz?stochowa itself was almost completely destroyed by Swedish soldiers. It has been estimated that the town lost 50% of population, and 60% of houses. Nevertheless, the destruction was less severe than at other towns in the area (Przyrów, Olsztyn and Mstów). It took several years for Cz?stochowa to recover from extensive losses. As late as in the 1680s there still were ruined houses in the town. At the same time, the Jasna Góra Monastery prospered. On February 27, 1670, the wedding of king Micha? Korybut Wi?niowiecki with princess Eleanor of Austria took place here. Furthermore, in 1682 the celebration of 300 anniversary of the Black Madonna of Cz?stochowa brought thousands of pilgrims from both Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Silesia. The Jewish community in Cz?stochowa came into existence by about 1700.[1]

Kazimierz Pulaski and the Bar Confederation 1772 defence of Cz?stochowa. Painting by Che?mo?ski.

During the Great Northern War, Cz?stochowa was captured by Swedish army on August 11, 1702. In February 1703 Swedes besieged the monastery, but failed to seize it. In April 1705 the Swedes returned, and appeared at the monastery again in September 1709. Unable to capture the fortified stronghold, they looted villages in the area, set Cz?stochowa on fire and left towards Wielu?. At that time, a village of Cz?stochówk also existed next to Cz?stochowa. The village belonged to the monastery and quickly developed. In 1717 it was granted town charter, and its name was changed into Nowa Cz?stochowa (New Cz?stochowa). The town was completely destroyed during the Bar Confederation. On February 8, 1769, the monastery was seized by rebels of the Bar Confederation, commanded by Kazimierz Pu?aski. Soon the stronghold was besieged by Russians under German-born General Johann von Drewitz. The Russians gave up on January 15, 1771.[1]

Interior of basilica, Jasna Góra Monastery

In 1789, the population of Cz?stochowa (also called Stara Cz?stochowa, Old Cz?stochowa) was app. 1,600, which was less than in the 15th century. After the Sejm passed the Constitution of May 3, 1791, local Sejmiks were obliged to legitimize it. On February 14-15, 1792, a sejmik of the szlachta of northern part of Kraków Voivodeship (counties of Lelów and Ksi Wielki) took place in Cz?stochowa. Traditionally, local sejmiks were organized in ?arnowiec; the fact that it was moved to Cz?stochowa confirms growing importance of the town. In 1760, Jacob Frank, the leader of a Jewish sect mixing Kabbalah, Catholicism and Islam, was imprisoned for heresy in the monastery by the church. His followers established near him, later establishing a cult of his daughter Eve Frank. In August 1772, Frank was released by the Russian general Bibikov, who had taken occupation of the city, promising the Russians that he would convince Jews to convert to Orthodox Christianity.[1]

Partitions of Poland

During the Partitions of Poland, Cz?stochowa was seized by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1793, and incorporated into the province of South Prussia, Department of Kalisz (Kalisch). The Old Cz?stochowa became the seat of a county (see Districts of Prussia). During the Napoleonic Wars, in 1807 Cz?stochowa became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, and in 1815, Russian-controlled Congress Poland, in which it remained until World War One. Old Cz?stochowa remained the seat of a county in 1807-1830. In 1809, the monastery was unsuccessfully besieged by Austrians (see Polish-Austrian War). On April 2, 1813, Jasna Góra was seized by the Russians (see War of the Sixth Coalition), after a two-week siege.[1]

In 1821, the government of Congress Poland carried out a census, according to which the population of New Cz?stochowa was 1,036, while the population of Old Cz?stochowa was 2,758. Furthermore, almost four hundred people lived in several settlements in the area (Zawodzie, Stradom, Kucelin). The idea of a merger of both towns was first brought up in 1815. In 1819, military architect Jan Bernhard planned and started the construction of Aleja Naj?wi?tszej Panny Marii--the Holy Virgin Mary Avenue, which is currently the main arterial road of the modern city, and which connected Old Cz?stochowa with New Cz?stochowa. Finally, both towns were officially merged on August 19, 1826. The new city quickly emerged as the fourth largest urban centers of Congress Poland; larger were only the cities of Warsaw, Lublin, and Kalisz. On September 8, 1862, a patriotic rally took place in the city, in front of St. Sigismund church. As a reprisal, Russian military authorities destroyed app. 65% of Cz?stochowa's Old Town, and martial law was introduced. During the January Uprising, several skirmishes took place in the area of Cz?stochowa, with the last one taking place on July 4, 1864 near Chorzenice.

St. James the Apostle Church

In 1846 the Warsaw-Vienna Railway line was opened, linking the city with the rest of Europe. After 1870 iron ore started to be developed in the area, which gave a boost to the local industry. Among the most notable investments of the epoch was the Huta Cz?stochowa steel mill built by Bernard Hantke, as well as several weaveries and paper factories. Up to the Second World War, like many other cities in Europe, Cz?stochowa had a significant Jewish population: according to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 45,130, Jews constituted 12,000 (so around 26% percent).[4] An anti-Semitic pogrom occurred in 1902, Cz?stochowa pogrom (1902).[5] A mob attacked the Jewish shops, killing fourteen Jews and one gendarme.[6]

Cz?stochowa entered the 20th century as one of leading industrial centers of Russian Poland (together with Warsaw, ?ód?, and Zagbie D?browskie). The city was conveniently located on the Warta and other smaller rivers (Kucelinka, Stradomka, Konopka). Real estate and land prices were low, compared to ?ód?, and the existence of the monastery brought numerous pilgrims, who also were customers of local businesses. In 1904, Cz?stochowa had 678 smaller workshops, which employed 2,000 workers. In 1902, rail connection to the Prussian border crossing at Herby Stare was opened, and in 1911, the line to Kielce was completed. The Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland (1905-1907) began in Cz?stochowa as early as May 1904, when first patriotic rallies took place. On December 25, 1904, a man named Wincenty Makowski tried to blow up a monument of Tsar Alexander II, which stood in front of the monastery. In February 1905, general strike action was declared in the city, with workers demanding pay rises. In June 1905 street clashes took place in Cz?stochowa, in which 20 people were killed by Russian forces. Further protests took place in 1909 and 1912.[1]

World War One

In early August 1914, Cz?stochowa was abandoned by the Imperial Russian Army, and first units of the German Army entered the city on August 3. Four days later drunken German soldiers shot at each other; unknown number died. Residents of the city were accused of killing Germans, and as a punishment, a number of civilians were executed. During German occupation (1914 - 1918), Cz?stochowa was cut off from its traditional Russian markets, which resulted in widespread poverty and unemployment. Furthermore, German authorities closed down several plants, urging unemployed workers to migrate to Upper Silesia, where they replaced men drafted into the army. Altogether, some 20,000 left for Upper Silesia and other provinces of the German Empire. On February 2, 1915, Cz?stochowa was visited by Charles I of Austria. Four days later Emperor Wilhelm II came to the city, and on May 17, 1915, Cz?stochowa hosted King of Saxony Frederick Augustus III. Unlike the city of Cz?stochowa, the Jasna Góra Monastery was since April 26, 1915 under control of Austria-Hungary, after personal intervention of Emperor Franz Joseph I, who was a pious Roman Catholic. The monastery was manned by soldiers under Austrian Army Captain Josef Klettinger and remained under Austrian control until November 4, 1918. In October 1917, the City Council of Cz?stochowa demanded permission to destroy the monument to Tsar Alexander II, to which General Governor of Warsaw Hans Hartwig von Beseler agreed. Polish authorities established control over the entire city on November 11, 1918.

Second Polish Republic

On November 12, 1918, three companies of the freshly created Polish Army marched along the Holy Virgin Mary Avenue. In 1919 - 1921, Cz?stochowa was one of centers of support of Silesian Poles fighting in the Silesian Uprisings. On December 4, 1920, Symon Petliura together with app. 2,000 Ukrainian soldiers. Their arrival spurred widespread protests, as the city, in which food[7] situation was desperate, was obliged to house and feed the Ukrainians.

Match factory modernized in the 1920s, now a museum

In the Second Polish Republic, Cz?stochowa belonged to Kielce Voivodeship, where since 1928 it constituted City County of Cz?stochowa. In the 1920s, local industry still suffered from World War One losses, and cutting off from Russian markets. Unemployment remained high, and thousands of workers left for France in search of jobs. The Great Depression was particularly difficult, with strikes and street clashes with the police. In 1925, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cz?stochowa was created. The city grew in size, when between 1928 and 1934, several local settlements and villages were annexed. In 1939, the population of Cz?stochowa was 138,000, which made it the 8th largest city of Poland. In 1938, Polish government announced plans to liquidate Kielce Voivodeship, and create Sandomierz Voivodeship, based on Central Industrial Area. According to these plans, Cz?stochowa was to be transferred either to ?ód? Voivodeship, or Silesian Voivodeship, together with Zagbie D?browskie.

World War Two

In the Polish Defensive War of 1939, Cz?stochowa was defended by the 7th Infantry Division, part of northern wing of Kraków Army. After the Battle of Mokra and other battles, Polish forces withdrew, and the Wehrmacht entered the city on Sunday, September 3, 1939. Cz?stochowa was renamed into Tschenstochau, and incorporated into the General Government. Monday, September 4, 1939, became known as Bloody Monday or also Cz?stochowa massacre,[8] when 227 people (205 ethnic Poles and 22 Jews) were killed by the Germans (some estimates of victims put the number at more than 1,000; 990 ethnic Poles and 110 Jews). German occupiers from the very beginning initiated a plan of cultural and physical extermination of the Polish nation. Cz?stochowa was a city county (Stadkreis Tschenstochau), part of Radom District of the General Government. The city was located near the border with Upper Silesia Province, and in its area operated units of the Home Army and National Armed Forces (NSZ). On April 20, 1943, a NZS unit attacked local office of the Bank Emisyjny w Polsce. After the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising, Cz?stochowa briefly was the capital of the Polish Underground State. In the autumn 1944, Germans fortified the city, preparing for a lengthy defence. On January 16, 1945, however, the Wehrmacht retreated after one day of fighting.

On April 9, 1941, a ghetto for Jews was created.[9] During World War II approximately 45,000 of Cz?stochowa's Jews, almost the entire Jewish community living here, were killed by the Germans. Life in Nazi-occupied Cz?stochowa is depicted in the Pulitzer Prize-winning graphic novel Maus, by Art Spiegelman, the son of a Jewish Cz?stochowa resident. Before the Holocaust, Cz?stochowa was considered a great Jewish center in Poland. By the end of WWII, nearly all Jews had been killed or deported to be killed, making Cz?stochowa what the Nazis called Judenfrei.

Modern day

Due to the communist idea of fast industrialisation, the inefficient steel mill was significantly expanded and named after Boles?aw Bierut. This, combined with the growing tourist movement, led to yet another period of fast city growth, concluded in 1975 with the creation of a separate Cz?stochowa Voivodeship. In the immediate post-war period, Cz?stochowa belonged to Kielce Voivodeship (1945-1950), and then the city was transferred to Katowice Voivodeship. In the People's Republic of Poland, Cz?stochowa emerged not only as an industrial, but also academic center of the region. The city expanded, with first tram lines opened in 1959. On January 1, 1977, several villages and settlements were annexed by Cz?stochowa. As a result, the area of the city expanded from 90 to 160 square kilometres (35 to 62 sq mi).

In modern times, Pope John Paul II, a native son of Poland, prayed before the Madonna during his historic visit in 1979, several months after his election to the Chair of Peter. The Pope made another visit to Our Lady of Cz?stochowa in 1983 and again in 1987, 1991, 1997 and 1999.[10] On August 15, 1991, John Paul II was named Honorary Citizen of Cz?stochowa. On May 26, 2006, the city was visited by Pope Benedict XVI.

Economy

There are about 26,000 companies registered in Cz?stochowa. They are represented by the Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Cz?stochowa.[11] The investment areas form part of the Katowice Special Economic Zone. The main initiator of activities pertaining to the economic development and investments is the Agency of Regional Development. In 2007, in areas surrounding the ISD Cz?stochowa Steelworks, the Cz?stochowa Industry Park was established. In 2011, three industry clusters were established - The Cluster of Polymers Manufacturing "Plastosfera", Cz?stochowa Communal Cluster "Aglomeracja"and the Regional Cluster of Building Industry and Infrastructure "Budosfera".

Industry Cz?stochowa is the main city in the Cz?stochowa Industrial District, which is the third biggest in the Silesian Voivodship. Since the medieval times, the metal industry has been developing, thanks to the iron ore deposits. The main factories in the city include:

  • The ISD Cz?stochowa Steelworks - one of the biggest steelworks in Poland, initially established in 1896. The Steelworks produces over 65% of steel sheets manufactured in Poland and has an approximate 35% share in the entire national consumption of this product.[12]
  • TRW Automotive Cz?stochowa - a manufacturer of car safety systems.[13]
  • CSF Poland - producer of wires, anti-vibration systems and gaskets[14]
  • Brembo Poland - manufacturer of elements of braking systems[15]
  • CGR Poland - manufacturer of automotive components
  • The Cz?stochowa Cokery Plant - one of the leading coke producers in Poland[16]
  • Guardian Industries Poland - glassworks[17]
  • Stolzle Cz?stochowa - the glassworks specialising in packaging glass for luxury products and perfumes.[18]
  • Iron Cast Foundry "Volcano" - the oldest operating factory in the city, established in 1894
  • Dospel - producer of ventilation systems
  • Metalplast - producer of locks and construction hardware fittings
  • ViperPrint - one of the biggest printing houses in Poland

Trade and commerce In Cz?stochowa, there is the Jurajska Shopping Mall, which was opened in 2009. It has 200 shops, service and catering outlets and a Cinema City multiplex. It provides clients with a multi-storey car park with 2000 parking spaces.[19] Additionally, there are hypermarkets - M1 Shopping Centre and Auchan Northern Cz?stochowa (previously Real, opened in 1997), Tesco (opened in 1999) and Auchan Cz?stochowa Poczesna (opened in 2001).

Tourism

Currently the city is one of the main tourist attractions of the area and is sometimes called the little Nuremberg because of the number of souvenir shops.[20] It attracts millions (4.5 mln - 2005) of tourists and pilgrims every year. The Black Madonna of Cz?stochowa, housed at the Jasna Góra Monastery, is a particularly popular attraction.[10]

Throughout the centuries, many buildings have been erected, most of them now have status of tourist attractions and historical monuments since Cz?stochowa was established already in the Middle Ages. Among those attractions are old townhouses and the urban core of the city centre. The most popular with religious tourism as mentioned above is the Jasna Góra Monastery.

Panorama of Cz?stochowa

Prominent tourist destinations

The main representative artery in the city centre is the Naj?wi?tszej Maryi Panny Avenue (The Holy Virgin Mary Avenue). It was first built in the beginning of the 19th century, as a road linking Cz?stochowa with New Cz?stochowa, cities which were administratively merged in 1826. The most characteristic feature of the avenue is its layout, whereby the lanes are separated by the pedestrianised boulevard. During the pilgrimage period, the Avenues are used by pilgrims heading for Jasna Góra Monastery. The avenues are 1.5 km long and 44 m wide; primarily they perform trade, service, financial and cultural functions. The housing consists mostly of classicist, late-classicist houses, rarely eclectic. More modern buildings can also be noticed. The most interesting townhouses include:

Franke's House
  • Franke's House - in the beginning it belonged to Adolf Franke, a Lutheran hailing from Greater Poland and also an owner of a spinning mill and textile mill. It was being built between 1901 and 1903. Between 1918 and 1939, Hotel 'Victoria' was located there. During World War II, it lay on the border of the Jewish ghetto, which made it the key point for those wanting to escape. After the dismantling of the ghetto, the Franke's House housed German hospital and army hotel, and after the war it was the seat of the High School of Arts and a bursary. Eclectic with prevailing neo-renaissance features.
Basilica of the Holy Family
  • Zapalkiewicz's House is classicist townhouse, built in 1871. It was the seat of a theatre, which was functioning until 1908. Later, until 1923, there was a cinema "Paryskie" and subsequently a number of financial institution have had their branches in the building.
  • Mercantile Townhouse - eclectic townhouse, was being built between 1894 and 1907. At the beginning business and economics courses were taking place there. Before the World War 2, it was the seat of Warsaw Industrial Bank and Cz?stochowa Savings and Loans Bank.
  • Kohn's House is a neo-classicist townhouse, built in 1865. Before the war, a number of enterprises were operating in the building, including Bankers, Jackowski's Restaurant and Cafe, and Bata's Shoe Shop and between 1909 and 1930 a cinema called "Odeon".
  • Polish Bank's Townhouse is an art nouveau townhouse, built in 1904. In the beginning, it was the seat of a local branch of the Russian State Bank. In 1927, the building was taken over by the Polish Bank Inc. After World War II, it became the property of the Polish National Bank. In 1990, the building was sold to the ING Silesian Bank.
  • Biega?ski's House is a one-storey classicist townhouse built in 1880. Initially, it was owned by Karol Henryk Rosenfeld and later by his son-in-law dr. W?adys?aw Biega?ski. After the Second World War, the building was a seat of the Cz?stochowa's Doctors Association.
  • Hantke's Palace is an example of Baroque Revival architecture, built to the order of an industrialist and entrepreneur Bernard Hantke, who established the ISD Cz?stochowa Steel Mill. The palace was built between 1900 and 1903. After WW2, the building was the seat of the Cz?stochowa Steel Mill Culture Centre.
  • Former Orthodox Vicarage - classicist townhouse, built in 1875, until 1918 it was the seat of a local Orthodox priest. In 1918, it was taken over by the local Catholic diocese. After the war, there was a local headquarters of Polish Army. Since the 1970s it has been a property of the Cz?stochowa Regional Museum.
  • Old Square - a square located in the Old Town district with dimensions of 100m by 66m. Since medieval times it operated as the main square of Old Cz?stochowa. There are still preserved old townhouses, which are listed on the historic monuments register. Between the 15th century and 1812, a town hall was located there, which was then damaged because of a fire. In 2007, archaeological works began. As a result, a city well was found and also fundaments of city facilities such as a weigh house and gallows.
  • Wielu?ska Street - one of the historic streets in Cz?stochowa, located in the vicinity of Jasna Góra monastery. It is 300 meters long and the buildings on the street were erected in the late-classicist style in the second half of the 19th century.
  • Jasna Góra Parks are two city parks (Stanis?aw Staszic Park and 3 May Park) located in the city centre, on the slope of Jasna Góra Hill. The parks were established in 1843. The total area of both parks is 11.8 ha. The parks are a popular leisure place and a spot for those enjoying short walks. In 1909, the Great Exhibition of Agriculture and Industry took place in the park, it was attended by 660 exhibitors and 500,000 visitors. In Staszic Park, one can find an astronomical observatory, which was opened in 1909. The parks also accommodate the Iron Ore Museum.
  • Ulica 7 Kamienic (7 Townhouses Street) is one of historical streets in Cz?stochowa. It is 600 metres long; the street was created in the first half of the 19th century. The name derives from the seven houses which had been built at the beginning.
  • Cathedral Basilica of the Holy Family, Cz?stochowa - a cathedral built in the neo-gothic style between 1901-1927. In 1925, it became a cathedral of a Roman Catholic Diocese of Cz?stochowa and in 1992 it became the basilica of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cz?stochowa.
  • St James' Church - built between 1869 and 1872 under the initiative of a Tsar's representative for Cz?stochowa region - Parmen Kashernikov. Initially, it was a seat of an Orthodox parish of Saints Cyril and Methodius. In 1914, it became a property of a Catholic church, serving as an army parish church. After the end of First World War, it was retained by the Catholic church as part of the Recovery of Orthodox Churches in the Second Polish Republic. In 1937, the Archdiocese of Cz?stochowa established a parish of St James.
  • St Sigismund's Church - a gothic church built in the 15th century, making it the oldest parish church in Cz?stochowa.
  • St Barbara's Church - built in the 16th century under the initiative of Father Andrzej Go?donowski from the Pauline Order. The place is linked to the icon of the Black Madonna of Cz?stochowa. Following the desecration of the icon by robbers in 1430 who left it at a spring next to the current location of church.

Transport

Main road connections from Cz?stochowa include a connection with Warsaw (to the north-east) and Katowice (to the south) via the European route E75 (Motorway DK1-PL.svg). There are also three other national roads: DK43-PL.svg to Wielu?, DK46-PL.svg to Opole and DK91-PL.svg to Piotrków Trybunalski. Furthermore, Cz?stochowa is a major railroad hub, located at the intersection of two important lines - west-east (from Lubliniec to Kielce) and north-south (from Warsaw to Katowice). Also, an additional northbound line stems from Cz?stochowa, which goes to Chorzew Siemkowice, where it joins the Polish Coal Trunk-Line. There are six railway stations in the city, the biggest ones being Cz?stochowa Osobowa and Cz?stochowa Stradom. The city has direct connections to many Polish cities as Warsaw, Cracow, Katowice, Wroc?aw and Szczecin.

The public transport is managed by the Cz?stochowa City Council of Roads and Transport. The public transport carriage is contracted to the City Public Transport Corporation (Miejskie Przedsi?biorstwo Komunikacyjne).[21] The public transport in Cz?stochowa comprises 3 tram lines, 30 city bus lines and 8 suburban lines connecting Cz?stochowa with Blachownia, Mstów, Konopiska, Poczesna, Olsztyn. The bus transport connecting Cz?stochowa Bus Station with other towns and villages in the Cz?stochowa region is operated by the Cz?stochowa Bus Transport Ltd. (PKS Cz?stochowa).[22]

The closest airport is the Katowice International Airport, which is located 60 km (37 mi) from Cz?stochowa, and Cz?stochowa - Rudniki airport in Ko?cielec, R?dziny.

Culture

Museums

In Cz?stochowa on top of the Jasna Góra Monastery serving the museum and exhibition functions, other similar institutions include:

  • Cz?stochowa Regional Museum, the oldest museum in Cz?stochowa. The seat of the museum is in the building of a former town hall. The Cz?stochowa Regional Museum consists of a number of venues in Cz?stochowa and its surroundings.
  • Town Hall, the most presentable Museum building in Cz?stochowa. It was built in 1828, because of administrative needs arising from the expansion and merger of two towns: Old Cz?stochowa and New Cz?stochowa. It has been the seat of Cz?stochowa Regional Museum since 1967. There is a permanent historical exhibition - 'History of the City of Cz?stochowa - Stage 1'. It illustrates the development of the city - from its beginnings to the 17th century. The 'Gallery of Prominent Citizens of Cz?stochowa' reminds about individuals important to the local community. In the gallery 'Attic', occasional temporary exhibitions are presented.[23]
  • House of Poetry - Halina Po?wiatowska Museum, located on Jasnogórska Street 23. After the World War 2, Halina Po?wiatowska and her family lived there. It has been opened since 2006. As a part of the permanent exhibition, the visitors can see documents, memorabilia, photographs and scripts of her poems. Sometimes, in the museum poetry evenings are organised.[24]
  • Gallery of 19th and 20th Century Sculpture and Painting, located on Katedralna Street inside a two-storey terrace house from the beginning of the 20th century. There are three exhibitions: Art of Young Poland, Polish Avant-garde and Modern Art, Cz?stochowa's Art of the 19th century and first half of the 20th century.
  • Archaeological Reserve of Lusatian Culture,[25] located in the Raków neighborhood on ?ukasi?skiego Street. This 2500-year-old burial ground was discovered in 1955 during construction works of Cz?stochowa's tram line. It is a permanently maintained burial ground from the early stages of the Iron Age (750-550 years BC). Tourists have been able to visit the site since 1965. Around the burial ground, there are showcases about the Lusatian culture.
  • Museum of Iron Ore Mining,[26] established in 1976 in underground corridors resembling mine corridors. The Museum recreates mine workings and is equipped with mining equipment from the closed down mine "Szczekaczka".

Other museums and galleries

  • City Gallery of Art, established in 1977. Promotes and presents modern art. Zdzis?aw Beksi?ski The museum forms part of the City Gallery of Art. It also organises cyclical cultural events such as IV Triennale of Art 'Sacrum', Jurajska Autumn, City Setting.[27]
  • Museum of Match Production (pl), located inside the building of a former match factory on Ogrodowa Street. The visitors can see the historic machine park from the late 19th century and retrace the match-making process - from barking through making 'sticks' to packing the matches. In the museum, there are also documents relating to the match-making industry and an exhibition called 'Sculptures from a single match'. In another hall, one can see a phillumenistic exhibition, where matchbox labels from various periods are displayed.[28]
  • Museum of Railway History, where souvenirs, railway equipment and railway elements are gathered. The museum is located on the first floor of Cz?stochowa Stradom railway station. It was established in 2001. Two historical steam engines are under the care of the museum.
  • Museum of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cz?stochowa. The museum is located in the building of the Theological College of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cz?stochowa on ?w. Barbary Street. It was established in 1997. Among exhibits are sculptures (including Mary the Virgin's sculpture from 1430, sculpture of St Martin from 1500) and pictures showing scenes from the life of Jesus Christ and Mary the Mother of God and saints. Additionally, there are commemoration numismatics and medals.
  • Tomasz S?towski's Museum of Imagination[29]
  • Museum of Coins and Medals commemorating John Paul II[30]
  • Gallery 'Konduktorownia'[31]

Music

Philharmonic of Cz?stochowa

The Bronis?aw Huberman Philharmonic of Cz?stochowa is located in the city centre on Wilson Street, in the building erected between 1955 and 1965 on foundations of New Synagogue, which had been burnt down on 25 December 1939. The Philharmonic has at its disposal two concert halls and one rehearsal hall. The large concert hall can accommodate 825 people, whilst the small hall has 156 seats.

The concert hall of the Philharmonic of Cz?stochowa is a place where concerts of symphonic orchestra take place. The building itself is younger than the history of symphonic concerts in Cz?stochowa, as the first concert took place in March 1945. The mixed choir has been functioning since the Philharmonic was set up. The choir was professionalized in September 2012 and it was named The Cz?stochowa Philharmonic Choir "Collegium Cantorum".[32]

The Philharmonic is also a co-organiser and a co-performer of operas, operettas and ballets. It is also a place where various exhibitions take place. The Philharmonic annually organises Bronis?aw Huberman International Violin Festival, Reszek Vocal Competition, Festival of Traditional Jazz "Hot Jazz Spring". The Philharmonic also engages in organising the "Night of Culture", the International Festival of Sacral Music "Gaude Mater" and the Bach Family Music Festival.

Music education is also an important part of the Philharmonic's activity. Its educational functions are carried out through series of concerts such as "Music for children", "FEEL harmony - feel the climate!" and "Sunday Mornings with Philharmonic". In 2010, the building of The Philharmonic of Cstochowa was refurbished through the financial support from the European Fund of Regional Development.[33]

In Cz?stochowa, there are many functioning female, male and mixed choirs. The oldest is the Male Choir "Pochodnia" (Torch). Others include the Academic Choir of the Cz?stochowa University of Technology, the Jasna Góra Vocal Ensemble "Camerata" and the Archcathedral Choir of the Holy Family "Basilica Cantans".

Theatre

Adam Mickiewicz Theatre

Adam Mickiewicz Theatre is located on Kili?ski Street in the city centre. The building was erected between 1928 and 1931. Between 1979 and 1984 it was refurbished. The theatre has three halls: Big, Small, Histrion and Marek Perepeczko Foyer. The Theatre organises "Festival of Important Plays - Through Touch", "Festival of High School Theatres" and "Children's Land of Sensitivity". It also takes part in annually organised "Night of Culture".[34]

Festivals

The Centre for the Promotion of Culture 'Gaude Mater' is a cultural institution established in 1991. It is the organiser of various cultural events in Cz?stochowa, such as:

  • International Festival of Sacral Music 'Gaude Mater'. It has been organised since 1991 and it takes place each year in the beginning of May. It is organised under the auspices of The Ministry of Culture and National Heritage and the Polish Episcopal Conference. The main aim of the festival is to bring various cultures closer through presenting music typical of different religions. It also seeks to present contemporary Polish music and to promote young composers through "Musica Sacra" - The International Competition for Young Composers. The Gaude Mater festival also addresses problematic aspects of sacrum in music during various seminars organised during the Festival.[35]
  • The Night of Culture, the annual cultural event organised in Cz?stochowa. For a single fare, one can attend plays, performances, concerts and exhibitions specially prepared for that night.
  • Days of Cstochowa
  • Days of European Folk Culture
  • Days of Christian Culture
  • Low-key Jazz
  • Kalina J?drusik Festival
  • Worldwide Congress of Cz?stochowians
  • The Cz?stochowa Song and Dance Ensemble operating under the auspices of Gaude Mater

Music festivals

  • The International Festival of Sacral Music "Gaude Mater"[36]
  • The International Festival of Traditional Jazz "Hot Jazz Spring Cz?stochowa"[37]
  • Cz?stochowa Festival of Alternative Culture "Frytka-OFF"[38]
  • ReaggeON Cz?stochowa[39]
  • HipHop Elements[40]
  • Aleje tu si? dzieje (Avenues - Something's going on here)[41]

Cinemas

In Cz?stochowa, there are three cinemas. Two are part of chain of cinemas Cinema City Poland: Cinema City "Wolno" (Freedom), which has 1766 seats, and Cinema City Galeria Jurajska, opened in 2009.[42] There is also an independent cinema, O?rodek Kultury Filmowej (Centre of Cinematography[43]), established in 1991.

Healthcare

  • Regional Specialist Hospital (Nowobialska Street and PCK Street)
  • City Polyclinical Hospital (Bona Street, Mickiewicz Street and Mirowska Street)
  • Weigel Hospital in Blachownia
  • Metallurgic Hospital in Cz?stochowa

Education

Some of the tertiary educational institutions in Cz?stochowa include:

  • Cz?stochowa University of Technology[44]
  • Jan D?ugosz University (previously Wy?sza Szko?a Pedagogiczna)[45]
  • Polonia University (previously Wy?sza Szko?a J?zyków Obcych i Ekonomii)[46]
  • Wy?sza Szko?a Hotelarstwa i Turystyki (School of Graduate Studies in Hospitality Management and Tourism)[47]
  • Wy?sza Szko?a Lingwistyczna (College of Foreign Language Studies)[48]
  • Wy?sza Szko?a Zarz?dzania (College of Management)[49]
  • Centrum J?zyków Europejskich - Nauczycielskie Kolegium J?zyków Obcych ( Center of European Languages - Teacher's College of Foreign Languages)[50]
  • Wy?sze Seminarium Duchowne Archidiecezji Cz?stochowskiej (Theological College of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cz?stochowa)[51]
  • Centralna Szko?a Pa?stwowej Stra?y Po?arnej w Cz?stochowie (The Central School of the State Fire Services in Cz?stochowa)[52]

Sports

CKM W?ókniarz Cz?stochowa stadium
Raków Cz?stochowa Stadium
Sports Hall Cz?stochowa

The most popular sports in Cz?stochowa are speedway, volleyball and football. The following teams represent Cz?stochowa on national level:

Speedway

  • CKM W?ókniarz Cz?stochowa - speedway team from Cz?stochowa, established in 1946 3rd place in season 2005, 2nd place in season 2006 first place in season 2003, 3rd place in 2009. W?ókniarz finished last season in 1 Liga (2nd Tier) on 3rd place and obtained promotion to Speedway Ekstraliga.[53]

Volleyball

  • AZS Cz?stochowa - men's volleyball team playing in Krispol 1. Liga Siatkarzy (Polish 2nd Division), 6 times Polish champion, 6 times 2nd place in Polish championship, 4 times 3rd place in Polish championship, twice Polish Cup winner, winner of the CEV Challenge Cup 2011/2012, 16th place and relegation from PlusLiga in season 2016/2017. The club was established in 1945.
  • KS Norwid Cz?stochowa - men's volleyball team playing in Krispol 1. Liga Siatkarzy (2nd level in the Polish volleyball league system). The club was established in 2002.
  • KS AJD Cz?stochowianka Cz?stochowa - women's volleyball team playing in PZPS Druga Liga Kobiet (3rd level in the Polish volleyball league system).

Football

  • Raków Cz?stochowa - Cz?stochowa's greatest football team, plays in the I liga (Poland) (3rd level of the Polish football league system). Runners-up of the Polish cup in 1966-67. As youngsters, both Jerzy Brz?czek and Jakub B?aszczykowski played for Raków, as well as Jacek Krzynówek. The club was established in 1921. They finished season 2016/2017 in II liga (3rd level in the Polish football league system) on 1st place and obtained promotion to I liga (Poland) .
  • Skra Cz?stochowa - Cz?stochowa's second best football team, plays in the III Liga Opole-Silesia Division (4th level of the Polish football league system). The club was established in 1926. They finished season 2015/2016 on 7th place.
  • Victoria Cz?stochowa - team playing in Liga Okr?gowa - Cz?stochowa Regional Division (6th level of the Polish football league system). The club was established in 1922.
  • KS Stradom Cz?stochowa - team playing in Liga Okr?gowa - Cz?stochowa Regional Division (6th level of the Polish football league system). The club was established in 1934.
  • LKS P?omie? Ku?nica Marianowa - team playing in Liga Okr?gowa - Cz?stochowa Regional Division (6th level of the Polish football league system). The club was established in 1982.
  • Orze? Kiedrzyn - team playing in Liga Okr?gowa - Cz?stochowa Regional Division (6th level of the Polish football league system). The club was established in 1950.
  • UKS Ajaks Cz?stochowa - team playing in Klasa B - Cz?stochowa Regional Division (8th level of the Polish football league system). The club was established in 1998.
  • Gol Cz?stochowa - women's football team playing in I Liga Kobiet (2nd level of the Polish female football league system). The club was on 6th place in season 2014/15.

Other teams

  • KU AZS Cz?stochowa - Cz?stochowa's basketball team, plays in Druga Liga PzKosz (4th level of the Polish basketball league system)
  • Rugby Club Cz?stochowa - Cz?stochowa's rugby team, plays in Polish 3rd League rugby XV and in 7's League, established in 2005
  • Saints Cz?stochowa - American Football team playing in PLFA II. The club was established in 2010.
  • Defenders Cz?stochowa - Baseball team playing in Polish Baseball 2nd League. The club was established in 2013.
  • Table Tennis - AJD Print Cycero Rolnik AZS Cz?stochowa, AZS AJD Mustang Cz?stochowa
  • Tennis - CzKT Victoria
  • Badminton - Kolejarz Cz?stochowa
  • Chess - Hetman Cz?stochowa
  • Weightlifting - KS Polonia Cz?stochowa
  • Velodrome team - Lwy Cz?stochowa

Sport venues

  • Arena Cz?stochowa - multifunctional stadium located in Zawodzie district. It is mostly used by speedway club W?ókniarz Cz?stochowa. The stadium was built in 1946. Following the modernisation, it can accommodate 16,850 spectators.
  • Sports Hall Cz?stochowa - multifunctional sports hall located in Zawodzie district. It can accommodate 7,100 spectators. It meets all the criteria as set out by the FIVB and FIBA. It was officially opened on 29 September 2012. The hall has hosted various events including vollebay league matches of AZS Cz?stochowa, boxing fights and concerts.
  • Polonia Hall - multifunctional sports hall in Tysi?clecie district. The hall was officially opened in 1985. It is administered by the City Council Centre of Sport and Leisure. The hall is mostly used by volleyball and basketball teams. It can accommodate 3,015 spectators.[54]
  • City Football Stadium "Raków" - a football stadium located in Raków district. It is mostly used by Raków Cz?stochowa and Gol Cz?stochowa. The stadium was officially opened in 1955. Currently, it can accommodate up to 8,000 spectators. The stadium has 3,720 seats. There are further plans for modernisation, which include increasing the number of seats to 10,100.
  • City Athletics Stadium - a stadium administered by the City Council Centre of Sport and Leisure. The stadium was built in 1965, but extensively modernised in 2000. The stadium has 894 seats.[55]
  • Rosa Private Golf Club - located in Konopiska, 17 km (11 mi) from Cz?stochowa[56]
  • Three indoor swimming pools and one outdoor swimming pool

Administration

Cz?stochowa is a city with powiat rights. Residents of Cz?stochowa elect 28 city councilors. The executive branch of local government is a city mayor. The city hall is located in ?l?ska Street 11/13.

The city is divided into 20 neighborhoods. The residents of each neighborhood elect Neighborhood Council members.

The neighborhoods of Cz?stochowa include: B?eszno, Cz?stochówka-Parkitka, D?bów, Gnaszyn-Kawodrza, Grabówka, Kiedrzyn, Lisiniec, Mirów, Ostatni Grosz, Podjasnogórska, Pó?noc, Raków, Stare Miasto, Stradom, ?ródmie?cie, Trzech Wieszczów, Tysi?clecie, Wrzosowiak, Wyczerpy-Anio?ów, and Zawodzie-D?bie.

Map of Cz?stochowa's neighborhoods

Politics

Local government

The current Mayor of Cz?stochowa is Krzysztof Matyjaszczyk, a member of Democratic Left Alliance.

In the Cz?stochowa 2014 mayoral elections the results were as follows. In the first round: Krzysztof Matyjaszczyk (Democratic Left Alliance) 42.16%, Artur Warzocha (Law and Justice) 27.89%, Marcin Maranda (Residents of Cz?stochowa) 15.62%, Andrzej Szewi?ski (Civic Platform) 10.26%, S?awomir Kokot (Congress of the New Right) 2.33%, Grzegorz Boski (Polish People's Party) 0.95%, Armand Ryfi?ski (Free City Cz?stochowa) 0.79%. In the second round: Krzysztof Matyjaszczyk received 56.72%, and Artur Warzocha 43.28% of votes.

In the Cz?stochowa City Council Elections 2014 the results were as follows. Seats in the city council: Law and Justice (29.76%) 10, Left Democratic Alliance (26.59%) 9, Civic Platform (17.65%) 5, Residents of Cz?stochowa (13.69%) 4, Polish People's Party (6.48%) 0, Congress of the New Right (3.58%) 0, Free Cz?stochowa (2.25%) 0.

Cz?stochowa constituency

The Members of the lower house of Parliament (Sejm) elected by the Cz?stochowa constituency included Szymon Gi?y?ski (Law and Justice), Konrad Gbocki (Law and Justice), Lidia Burzy?ska (Law and Justice), Andrzej Gawron (Law and Justice), Izabela Leszczyna (Civic Platform), Halina Rozpondek (Civic Platform), and Tomasz Jaskó?a (Kukiz'15).

The Members of the higher house of Parliament (Senate) elected by Cz?stochowa constituencies included Artur Warzocha (Law and Justice) - City of Cz?stochowa constituency (Constituency no. 69), and Ryszard Majer (Law and Justice) - Cz?stochowa County, Lubliniec County, Myszków County, and K?obuck county constituency (Constituency no. 68).

Media

Daily newspapers
  • Gazeta Wyborcza - since 1991 it has been published with a local supplement
  • Dziennik Zachodni - published with local supplement
  • ?ycie Cz?stochowy i Powiatu (Life of Cz?stochowa and Region) - it has been published since 1947
Weeklies
  • Gazeta Cz?stochowska (Cz?stochowa's newspaper) - since 1956
  • Cz?stochowski Tygodnik Regionalny - 7 dni (Cz?stochowa's Regional Weekly - 7 days) - since 2004
  • Niedziela (Sunday) - nationwide Catholic weekly newspaper that has been published since 1926
  • Poniedzia?ek (Monday)
  • Tydzie? w Czestochowie.pl

There are also published cultural quarterlies such as: Aleje 3, Bulion; a monthly Puls Regionu and an annual - Ziemia Cz?stochowska

Radio and TV

Religion and places of worship

In addition to the Roman Catholic Church and Polish Orthodox Church, various denominations are present in Cz?stochowa, including Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland, Baptist Union of Poland, Jehovah Witnesses, Pentecostal Church, Plymouth Brethren, Seventh-day Adventist Church, and Polish Catholic Church. Cz?stochowa is the Seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cz?stochowa, as well as Holy Family Archdiocese Cathedral in Cz?stochowa, and the Jasna Góra Monastery along with 50 Catholic Parish Churches.[57]

International relations

Twin towns -- sister cities

Cz?stochowa is twinned with:[58]

Notable people

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Cz?stochowa Official Website". Urz?d Miasta Cz?stochowy, ul. ?l?ska 11/13, 42-217 Cz?stochowa. Retrieved 2014. 
  2. ^ "Cz?stoch" w S?owniku geograficznym Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów s?owia?skich, Tom I (Aa - Dereneczna) z 1880 (in Polish)
  3. ^ Franciszek Kulczycki, "Monumenta mediiaevi historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia", Tomus IX, Cracoviae, 1886, p. 27.
  4. ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the Politics of Nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p.16
  5. ^ Theodore R. Weeks Polish-Jewish relations 1903-1914: The view from the chancellery, Canadian Slavonic Papers, Sep-Dec 1998
  6. ^ Anti-Semitic outbreak, New York Times, September 14, 1902
  7. ^ Ellan.pl. "Viola - pizzeria Cz?stochowa, pizza na telefon z dowozem - pub - imprezy". www.pizzeriaviola.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  8. ^ "Czestochowa, Poland (Pages 39-47)". www.jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2018. 
  9. ^ "Holocaust Survivors: Encyclopedia - "Czestochowa Ghetto"". www.holocaustsurvivors.org. Retrieved 2018. 
  10. ^ a b Duricy, Michael P. "Black Madonnas: Our Lady of Cz?stochowa". © 2008 The Marian Library/International Marian Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio. Archived from the original on 2011-10-12. Retrieved . 
  11. ^ "Regionalna Izba Przemys?owo-Handlowa w Cz?stochowie". www.riph.czest.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  12. ^ "Home". isd-poland.com. Retrieved 2018. 
  13. ^ "We've moved!". www.trw.com. Retrieved 2018. 
  14. ^ "Cooper Standard". Cooper Standard. Retrieved 2018. 
  15. ^ "Home page". Brembo - Official WebSite. Retrieved 2018. 
  16. ^ "Wyst?pi? bd..." www.koksownianowa.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  17. ^ http://www.strony.com.pl/, Kaczka Studio -. "Guardian Cz?stochowa". guardian-czestochowa.com. Retrieved 2018. 
  18. ^ http://www.stoelzle.com/en-stoelzle_czestochowa-138.html
  19. ^ "Galeria Jurajska Cz?stochowa - sklepy, kino, restauracje". www.galeriajurajska.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  20. ^ "Wyborcza.pl". czestochowa.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  21. ^ "MPK in Cz?stochowie Sp. z o. o. - Home". www.mpk.czest.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  22. ^ "PKS Cz?stochowa". PKS Cz?stochowa. Retrieved 2018. 
  23. ^ "Muzeum Cz?stochowskie". Muzeumczestochowa.pl. Retrieved . 
  24. ^ "Dom Poezji - Muzeum Haliny Po?wiatowskiej". Poswiatowska.muzeumczestochowa.pl. Retrieved . 
  25. ^ "Rezerwat ArcheologicznyDotknij przesz?o?ci...Zapraszamy nauczycieli wraz z uczniami na warsztaty! - Muzeum Cz?stochowskie". www.muzeumczestochowa.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  26. ^ "Muzeum Górnictwa Rud ?elaza - Muzeum Górnictwa Rud ?elaza - Muzeum Cz?stochowskie". kopalnia.muzeumczestochowa.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  27. ^ www.trustnet.pl. "Miejska Galeria Sztuki w Cz?stochowie". www.galeria.czest.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  28. ^ imoli.pl. "Cz?stochowskie Muzeum Zapa?ek". www.zapalki.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  29. ^ "Tomek S?towski - Fabryka Snów - Muzeum". Setowski.art.pl. Retrieved . 
  30. ^ "Museum of Coins and Medals Commemorating John Paul II". Jp2muzeum.pl. Retrieved . 
  31. ^ "Konduktorownia". Konduktorownia.eu. Retrieved . 
  32. ^ "Collegium Cantorum Excellence comes from experience". Collegiumcantorum.com. Retrieved . 
  33. ^ 2013, Kaczka Studio, www.kaczka.com ®. "Bronislaw Huberman Czestochowa Philharmonic Hall". www.filharmonia.com.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  34. ^ Redhand.pl - Strony Internetowe Cz?stochowa. "Teatr im. Adama Mickiewicza w Cz?stochowie". Teatr-mickiewicza.pl. Retrieved . 
  35. ^ "Festiwal Muzyki Sakralnej Gaude Mater 2014 :: Glowna :: Mi?dzynarodowy Festiwal Muzyki Sakralnej w Cz?stochowie" (in Polish). Gaudemater.com. Retrieved . 
  36. ^ "Gaudemater" (in Polish). Gaudemater.pl. Retrieved . 
  37. ^ Szymon Mro?ek (2011-03-22). "X Mi?dzynarodowy Festiwal Jazzu Tradycyjnego Hot Jazz Spring". Hotjazzspring.eu. Retrieved . 
  38. ^ "Cz?stochowski Festiwal Kultury Alternatywnej FRYTKA OFF ::: 21-22 czerwca 2013". Frytkaoff.czestochowa.pl. 2013-01-24. Retrieved . 
  39. ^ "ReggaeOn - Cz?stochowa". Reggaeon.czestochowa.pl. 2013-01-24. Retrieved . 
  40. ^ "HIP HOP Elements Cz?stochowa". pl-pl.facebook.com. Retrieved 2018. 
  41. ^ Bielecka, Katarzyna (2013-01-24). "Aleje - tu si? dzieje". Aleje.czestochowa.pl. Retrieved . 
  42. ^ "Premiery filmowe - Zapowiedzi - Filmy 3D - Cinema City - Strona g?ówna". www.cinema-city.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  43. ^ "O?rodek Kultury Filmowej w Cz?stochowie". Okf.czest.pl. Retrieved . 
  44. ^ "Politechnika Cz?stochowska - 67 lat do?wiadczenia w dzia?alno?ci naukowej i edukacyjnej". www.pcz.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  45. ^ Akademia Jana D?ugosza (previously Wy?sza Szko?a Pedagogiczna)
  46. ^ "Akademia Polonijna - Polonia University - studia ekonomia, piel?gniarstwo licencjat piel?gniarstwo magister, studia pomostowe praca socjalna filologia angielska prawo w biznesie studia podyplomowe, kryminalistyka, ekspertyza dokumentów, przygotowanie pedagogiczne". www.ap.edu.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  47. ^ "School of Graduate Studies in Hospitality Management and Tourism in Cz?stochowa". Wshit.edu.pl. Retrieved . 
  48. ^ "Studiuj Online - Wy?sza Szko?a Lingwistyczna w Cz?stochowie". www.wsl.edu.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  49. ^ "Dla kandydatów" (in Polish). Wsz.edu.pl. Retrieved . 
  50. ^ "CJE-NKJO Cz?stochowa - News" (in Polish). Cjenkjo.edu.pl. Retrieved . 
  51. ^ "Wy?sze Seminarium Duchowne Archidiecezji Cz?stochowskiej" (in Polish). Seminarium.czest.pl. Retrieved . 
  52. ^ imoli.pl. "Strona g?ówna - Centralna Szko?a Pa?stwowej Stra?y Po?arnej w Cz?stochowie" (in Polish). Cspsp.pl. Retrieved . 
  53. ^ W?ókniarz Cz?stochowa (2013). Najlepsze biegi sezonu [The best games of the season] (Sports TV broadcast). Cz?stochowa: Speedway W?ókniarz Cz?stochowa. 
  54. ^ Plus, Internet. "Miejski O?rodek Sportu i Rekreacji w Cz?stochowie". www.mosir.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  55. ^ Plus, Internet. "Miejski O?rodek Sportu i Rekreacji w Cz?stochowie". www.mosir.pl. Retrieved 2018. 
  56. ^ http://rpgc.pl
  57. ^ "Kuria Metropolitalna w Cz?stochowie | Parafie alfabetycznie" (in Polish). Kuriaczestochowa.pl. Retrieved . 
  58. ^ a b c d e "Association of Towns awarded The Europe Prize". www.czestochowa.um.gov.pl. Retrieved . 
  59. ^ "Twinning with Palestine". © 1998-2008 The Britain - Palestine Twinning Network. Archived from the original on 2012-06-28. Retrieved . 
  60. ^ "::Bethlehem Municipality::". www.bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on 2010-07-24. Retrieved . 
  61. ^ "Hershl Sperling testimony on the Treblinka Death Camp". Holocaust Research Project. Archived from the original on 2012-12-20. 

Further reading

External links

Coordinates: 50°48?N 19°07?E / 50.800°N 19.117°E / 50.800; 19.117


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