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Cynodon hirsutissimus(Litard. & Maire) Caro & E.A.Sánchez
Cynodon laeviglumisCaro & E.A.Sánchez
Cynodon mucronatusCaro & E.A.Sánchez
Cynodon nitidusCaro & E.A.Sánchez
Cynodon occidentalisWilld. ex Steud. nom. inval.
Cynodon portoricensisWilld. ex Steud. nom. inval.
Cynodon repensDulac nom. illeg.
Cynodon sarmentosusGray nom. illeg.
Cynodon umbellatus(Lam.) Caro
Cynosurus dactylon(L.) Pers.
Dactilon officinaleVill. nom. illeg.
Dactylus officinalisAsch. nom. inval.
Digitaria ambigua(Lapeyr. ex DC.) Mérat
Digitaria dactylon(L.) Scop.
Digitaria glumaepatula(Steud.) Miq.
Digitaria glumipatula(Steud.) Miq.
Digitaria linearis(L.) Pers.
Digitaria linearis(Retz.) Spreng.
Digitaria littoralisSalisb. nom. illeg.
Digitaria maritima(Kunth) Spreng.
Digitaria stoloniferaSchrad. nom. illeg.
Fibichia dactylon(L.) Beck
Fibichia umbellataKoeler nom. illeg.
Milium dactylon(L.) Moench
Panicum ambiguum(DC.) Le Turq.
Paspalum dactylon(L.) Lam.
Phleum dactylon(L.) Georgi
Syntherisma linearis(L.) Nash
Vilfa linearis(Retz.) P.Beauv.
Vilfa stellata(Willd.) P.Beauv.
Cynodon dactylon, known as Bermuda grass, Dhoob, d?rv? grass, ethana grass, dubo, dog's tooth grass,Bahama grass, devil's grass, couch grass, Indian doab, arugampul, grama, wiregrass and scutch grass, is a grass that is native to most of the eastern hemisphere. Although it is not native to Bermuda, it is an abundant invasive species there. In Bermuda it has been known as crab grass (also a name for Digitaria sanguinalis).
The blades are a grey-green colour and are short, usually 2-15 cm (0.79-5.91 in) long with rough edges. The erect stems can grow 1-30 cm (0.39-11.81 in) tall. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in colour.
The seed heads are produced in a cluster of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem, each spike 2-5 cm (0.79-1.97 in) long.
It has a deep root system; in drought situations with penetrable soil, the root system can grow to over 2 metres (6.6 ft) deep, though most of the root mass is less than 60 centimetres (24 in) under the surface. The grass creeps along the ground with its stolons and roots wherever a node touches the ground, forming a dense mat. C. dactylon reproduces through seeds, stolons, and rhizomes. Growth begins at temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F) with optimum growth between 24 and 37 °C (75 and 99 °F); in winter, the grass becomes dormant and turns brown. Growth is promoted by full sun and retarded by full shade, e.g., close to tree trunks.
Cynodon dactylon is widely cultivated in warm climates all over the world between about 30° S and 30° N latitude, and that get between 625 and 1,750 mm (24.6 and 68.9 in) of rainfall a year (or less, if irrigation is available). It is also found in the U.S., mostly in the southern half of the country and in warm climates. Detailed study using experimental animals exhibited anti-stress, adaptogenic activities and improved male fertility.
This list is not all inclusive. Hundreds of cultivars have been created specifically for environmental tolerance and stakeholder requirements. New cultivars are released yearly.
In India, commonly known as "durva" or d?rv?yugma, this grass is used in the Ayurveda system of medicine. In Hinduism, it is considered important in the worship of Lord Ganesha. It has been a part of Hindu rituals since Vedic times.
This grass is a Yoruba herb used for Esu or Elegba in the Ifa Orisa System.
Cynodon dactylon has shown significant effects against intestinal helminth infections in rodents Yadav and Nath: Intercult Ethnopharmacol, 6).
It is fast-growing and tough, making it popular and useful for sports fields, as when damaged it will recover quickly. It is a highly desirable turf grass in warm temperate climates, particularly for those regions where its heat and drought tolerance enable it to survive where few other grasses do. This combination makes it a frequent choice for golf courses in the southern and southeastern U.S. It has a relatively coarse-bladed form with numerous cultivars selected for different turf requirements.
Cynodon dactylon (foreground, the background grass is a separate species) at Peradeniya Royal Botanical Garden
It is a highly aggressive invasive species, crowding out most other grasses and invading other habitats, and has become a hard-to-eradicate weed in some areas (it can be controlled somewhat with Triclopyr, Mesotrione, Fluazifop-P-butyl [de], and Glyphosate). This weedy nature leads some gardeners to give it the name of "devil grass". Bermuda grass is incredibly difficult to control in flower beds and most herbicides do not work. However, Ornamec, Ornamec 170, Turflon ester (tricyclopyr), and Imazapyr have shown some effectiveness. All of these items are difficult to find in retail stores, as they are primarily marketed to professional landscapers.