Cuman Language
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Cuman Language
Cuman
Native toHungary
RegionCumania
EthnicityCumans
Extinct1770, with the death of István Varró
Turkic
Latin
Language codes
qwm
GlottologNone

Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to today's various languages of the Kipchak-Cuman branch. Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus and it was a literary language in Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance. The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde.[1]

History

Codex Cumanicus

The Cumans were nomadic people who lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of the Black Sea, before the Golden Horde. Many Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, Kumyks and Balkars are descended from the Cumans. Today, the speakers of these various languages belonging to the Kipchak-Cuman branch speak variations closely related to the Cuman language.

The Cuman language became extinct in the early 17th century in the region of Cumania in Hungary, which was its last stronghold. Tradition holds that the last speaker of the Cuman language was István Varró, a resident of Karcag (Hungary) who died in 1770.

The Cuman-Kipchaks had an important role in the history of Kazakhstan, Russia, Georgia, Hungary, Romania (see, for example, the Besarab dynasty), Moldavia, Bessarabia and Bulgaria.[2]

Sample

From the book known as the Codex Cumanicus, a Cuman Kipchak Turkic Pater Noster:

Atam?z kim köktesiñ. All? bolsun seniñ at?ñ, kelsin seniñ xanlñ, bolsun seniñ tilemekiñ - neçik kim kökte, alay [da] yerde. Kündeki ötmegimizni bizge bugün bergil. Da yazuqlar?m?zn? bizge bo?atq?l - neçik biz bo?at?rb?z bizge yaman etkenlerge. Da yekniñ s?namaq?na bizni quurmal. Basa barça yamandan bizni qutxarl. Amen![3]

In Oghuz, or Western, Turkish, same text is written as:

Atam?z ki göktesin. Alk olsun senin ad?n, gelsin senin hanln, olsun senin diledi?in - nice ki gökte, öyle de yerde. Gündelik ekme?imizi bize bugün ver. Günahlar?m?z? bala - nice ki balar?z biz, bize yamanl?k edenleri. Ve bizi kötülü?ün s?namas?ndan kurtar. Tüm yamandan bizi kurtar. Amin!

See also

References

  1. ^ "Turkic written memorials". Old.unesco.kz. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ Sun, Kevin (2019-04-07). "Sun Language Theory, Part 2: The Steppes of Tartary (Tatar, Bashkir, Kazakh, Kyrgyz)". Medium. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Kuun, Géza et al.: Codex cumanicus, Bibliothecae ad templum divi Marci Venetiarum primum ex integro editit prolegomenis notis et compluribus glossariis instruxit comes Géza Kuun, Budapest 1880, XLIX". Archive.org. Retrieved 2016.

General references

  • Güner, Galip (2013), K?pçak Türkçesi Grameri, Kesit Press, ?stanbul.
  • Mustafa Argun?ah, Galip Güner (2015), Codex Cumanicus, Kesit Yay?nlar?, ?stanbul.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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