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|Extinct||1770, with the death of István Varró|
Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to today's various languages of the Kipchak-Cuman branch. Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus and it was a literary language in Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance. The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde.
The Cumans were nomadic people who lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of the Black Sea, before the Golden Horde. Many Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, Kumyks and Balkars are descended from the Cumans. Today, the speakers of these various languages belonging to the Kipchak-Cuman branch speak variations closely related to the Cuman language.
The Cuman language became extinct in the early 17th century in the region of Cumania in Hungary, which was its last stronghold. Tradition holds that the last speaker of the Cuman language was István Varró, a resident of Karcag (Hungary) who died in 1770.
Atam?z kim köktesiñ. All? bolsun seniñ at?ñ, kelsin seniñ xanlñ, bolsun seniñ tilemekiñ - neçik kim kökte, alay [da] yerde. Kündeki ötmegimizni bizge bugün bergil. Da yazuqlar?m?zn? bizge bo?atq?l - neçik biz bo?at?rb?z bizge yaman etkenlerge. Da yekniñ s?namaq?na bizni quurmal. Basa barça yamandan bizni qutxarl. Amen!
Atam?z ki göktesin. Alk olsun senin ad?n, gelsin senin hanln, olsun senin diledi?in - nice ki gökte, öyle de yerde. Gündelik ekme?imizi bize bugün ver. Günahlar?m?z? bala - nice ki balar?z biz, bize yamanl?k edenleri. Ve bizi kötülü?ün s?namas?ndan kurtar. Tüm yamandan bizi kurtar. Amin!