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Cri%C8%99ana
Cri?ana region in Romania

Cri?ana (Hungarian: Körösvidék, German: Kreischgebiet) is a geographical and historical region in north-western Romania, named after the Cri? (Körös) River and its three tributaries: the Cri?ul Alb, Cri?ul Negru, and Cri?ul Repede. In Romania, the term is sometimes extended to included areas beyond the border, in Hungary; in this interpretation, the region is bounded to the east by the Apuseni Mountains, to the south by the Mure? River, to the north by the Some? River, and to the west by the Tisza River, the Romanian-Hungarian border cutting it in two.[1][2] However, in Hungary, the area between the Tisza River and the Romanian border is usually known as Tiszántúl.

Map of Cri?ana in Hungary and Romania (sometimes almost identical to "Tiszántúl")
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History

Ancient history

In ancient times, this area was settled by Celts, Dacians, Sarmatians, and Germanic peoples. In the first century BC, it was part of the Dacian Kingdom under Burebista.

Middle Ages

Menumorut's duchy
Cri?ana ("Kazár-országa" or Khazars' Land) in blue on a Hungarian map (from the 1890s) based on the Gesta Hungarorum

In the Middle Ages, it was ruled by the Hunnic Empire, the Kingdom of the Gepids, the Avar Empire, the Bulgarian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. Hungarian maps based on the Gesta Hungarorum call it Kazárország. The largest city in the region, Oradea (Hungarian: Nagyvárad, BiUarad, Bihar), was most probably established during the early years of Hungarian rule. It is first mentioned in 1113 under the name "Varadinum" in a diploma belonging to Benedictine Zobor Abbey. The Romanian name Oradea originates from the Hungarian name Várad, meaning "fortified place". The city was one of the most important cultural centres of the medieval Hungarian state: two Hungarian kings, Ladislaus I (1077-1095) and Sigismund (1387-1437) were buried there. After the canonization of Ladislaus I in 1192, his shrine at Várad became a Catholic pilgrimage site.

Modern History

After the Battle of Mohács (1526), the region became part of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom. In 1552, the Ottoman Empire occupied the southern part of Cri?ana and included it in the newly established Teme?var Eyalet. According to the Treaty of Speyer (1570), the rest of Cri?ana became part of the Principality of Transylvania, a successor state of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom. John Sigismund Zápolya abdicated as King of Hungary and in return, Maximilian II of Habsburg recognized John Sigismund's authority over the eastern territories of the Kingdom of Hungary. John Sigismund became princeps Transsylvaniae et partium regni Hungariae dominus - Prince of Transylvania and of a part of the Kingdom of Hungary (Partium). Cri?ana was included in the Partium.

Partium within the Principality of Transylvania in 1570

The Ottoman Varat Eyalet that was formed in the second half of the 17th century was centered on Cri?ana. Since the end of the 17th century, the whole region became part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy and was administratively divided between the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, the Habsburg Principality of Transylvania and the Habsburg Military Frontier.

Following the abolition of the Theiß-Muresch section of the Habsburg Military Frontier (in 1750) and the abolition of the Principality of Transylvania in 1867, the whole area was included again into the Kingdom of Hungary, which was then part of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. During Habsburg administration, Cri?ana did not, on the whole, have special status such as that of Transylvania or the Banat; briefly, from 1850 to 1860, it was organized as the Military District of Großwardein. After disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Cri?ana was divided between Romania (eastern part) and Hungary (western part).

Geography

Romanian Cri?ana is bounded in Romania by Maramure? to the north, Transylvania proper to the east, Banat to the south, and Hungary to the west. The region consists of the current Romanian counties of Arad (most of it), Bihor and some parts of S?laj, Satu Mare, parts of Maramure? County (Codru, Chioar) and Hunedoara counties. Nowadays it is sometimes considered part of the historical region Transylvania, although it did not fall fully within the boundaries of the historical principality.

Hungarian Körösvidék is covered by the areas of Hajdú-Bihar County and Békés County. The southern part of Cri?ana, near the Mure? River, was called Pomori?je by the Serbs.

Cities

The most important cities are:

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Boia, Lucian (2001-01-01). Romania: Borderland of Europe. Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781861891037.
  2. ^ White, George W. (2000-01-01). Nationalism and Territory: Constructing Group Identity in Southeastern Europe. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780847698097.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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