Emblem of the Court of Justice of the European Union
Palais de la Cour de Justice, Luxembourg
|Judicial branch overview|
|Jurisdiction||European Union and the United Kingdom[a]|
|Headquarters||Kirchberg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg|
|Annual budget||EUR 357,060,000 (2015)|
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (French: Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the judicial branch of the European Union (EU). Seated in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, this EU institution consists of two separate courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court. From 2005 to 2016 it also consisted of the Civil Service Tribunal. It has a sui generis court system, meaning 'of its own kind', and is a supranational institution.
CJEU is the chief judicial authority of the European Union and oversees the uniform application and interpretation of European Union law, in co-operation with the national judiciary of the member states. CJEU also resolves legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions, and may take action against EU institutions on behalf of individuals, companies or organisations whose rights have been infringed.
CJEU consists of two major courts:
CJEU's specific mission is to ensure that "the law is observed" "in the interpretation and application" of the Treaties of the European Union. To achieve this, it:
CJEU was originally established in 1952 as a single court called the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities (as of 1958 the Court of Justice of the European Communities (CJEC)).
The General Court was created in 1988 (known as the Court of First Instance) and the Civil Service Tribunal was created in 2004.
With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, the court system obtained its current name (Court of Justice of the European Union), while the original court itself (the former CJEC) was renamed "Court of Justice".
In accordance with the terms of the withdrawal agreement, the Court of Justice is to continue to have jurisdiction in any proceedings brought by or against the UK before the end of the transition period, which is set as 31 December 2020. It is also to continue to have jurisdiction to give preliminary rulings on requests from courts and tribunals of the UK made before the end of the transition period.