Counties of Romania
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Counties of Romania
Counties of Romania
Romanian: Jude?ele României
Timiş CountyArad CountyBihor CountySatu Mare CountyMaramureş CountySălaj CountyCluj CountyBistriţa-NăsăudCaraş-SeverinHunedoara CountyAlba CountySibiu CountyMureş CountySuceava CountyHarghita CountyBotoşani CountyBraşov CountyCovasna CountyNeamţ CountyIaşi CountyVaslui CountyBacău CountyVrancea CountyGalați CountyTulcea CountyConstanţa CountyMehedinţi CountyGorj CountyVâlcea CountyArgeş CountyDâmboviţa CountyPrahova CountyBuzău CountyBrăila CountyIalomiţa CountyCălăraşi CountyGiurgiu CountyTeleorman CountyDolj CountyOlt CountyIlfov CountyBucharestOutline showing the territory of modern Romania and its division into 41 counties and the Bucharest municipal district.
The 41 counties of Romania and Municipality of Bucharest (clickable imagemap)
CategoryUnitary state
LocationRomania
Created1995 (Current form, 41 + Bucharest)
1859 (33)
1926 (71)
1941 (73)
1968 (38 + Bucharest + Ilfov Agricultural Sector)
Abolished1950-1968
Number41 (as of 1995)
Additional statuselectoral constituency
Populations210,177 (CV) - 772,348 (IS)/1,883,425 (B)
Areas228 km2 (88 sq mi) (B)/1,583 km2 (611 sq mi) (IF) - 8,697 km2 (3,358 sq mi) (TM)
GovernmentCounty Council and County Council President
SubdivisionsMunicipality/town/commune/sector

A total of 41 counties (Romanian: jude?e), along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the country's NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics - Level 3) statistical subdivisions within the European Union and each of them serves as the local level of government within its borders. Most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat.

The earliest organization into jude?e of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (where they were termed ?inuturi) dates back to at least the late 14th century. For most of the time since modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division system has been similar to the French departments one. The system has been changed several times since then, and the number of counties has varied over time, from the 71 jude?e that existed before World War II to only 39 after 1968. The current format has largely been in place since 1968 as only small changes have been made since then, the last of which was in 1997.

According to a 2011 census data from the National Institute of Statistics, the average population of Romania's 41 counties is about 445,000, with Ia?i County as the most populous (772,000) and Covasna County (210,000) the least. The average county's land area is 5,809 square kilometres (2,243 sq mi), with Timi? County (8,697 square kilometres (3,358 sq mi)) the largest and Ilfov County (1,583 square kilometres (611 sq mi)) the smallest. The municipality of Bucharest, which has the same administrative level as that of a county, is both more populous and much smaller than any county, with 1,883,425 people and 228 square kilometres (88 sq mi).

History

Colored map showing the territory of Romania and its division into 71 counties before the World War II.
The 71 counties of Romania between 1925 and 1940
Outline showing the territory of present Romania and its into counties superimposed over the colored map of the inter-war counties.
Current counties imposed over the inter-war counties

The earliest organization into jude?e (for Wallachia), and ?inuturi (for Moldavia), dates back at least to the late 14th century.[note 1][1][2][3] Inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire, each jude? was ruled by a jude (or pârc?lab for a ?inut), a person officially appointed with administrative and judicial functions.[3][4]Transylvania was divided into royal counties headed by comes (royal counts) with administrative and judicial functions.[3]

After modern Romania was formed in 1859 through the union of Wallachia and the rump of Moldavia, the administrative division was modernized using the French administrative system as a model, with jude? as the basic administrative unit.[5][6] Aside from the 1950-1968 period, this system has remained in place until today. Since 1864, for each jude? there exists a prefect, a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and representative of the government inside the county; he is also the head of local administration for areas not delegated to local authorities.[5][6] Until 1948, each jude? was further divided into several pli, each administered by a pretor.[7]

After the adoption of a new Constitution in 1923, the traditional local administrative systems of the newly acquired regions of Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia were made uniform in 1925 with that of the Romanian Old Kingdom. County borders were kept largely intact, with few adjustments, and the total number of counties was raised to 71; this lasted until the beginning of World War II.[6]

In 1938, King Carol II modified the law on the administration of the Romanian territory according to the fascist model.[8] Ten ?inuturi (approx. translation "lands") were created, ruled by Reziden?i Regali (Royal Residents), appointed directly by the Monarch. The ?inuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country, as the county borders were not erased.[5][9]

Due to the territorial changes during World War II, this style of administration did not last, and the administration at the jude? level was reintroduced after the war.[5] Between 1941-1944, Romania administered the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of 13 separate counties.[10]

After taking over the administration of the country in 1945, the Communist Party changed the administrative model to that of the Soviet Union (regions and raions) in 1950, but changed it back in 1968.[11] Nevertheless, the county borders set then were quite different from those present during the interbellum, as only 39 counties were formed from the 56 remaining after the war.[12]

In 1981, Giurgiu and C?l?ra?i were split from Ialomi?a and the former county of Ilfov,[12] while in 1997, Ilfov County, which had been a dependency of the municipality of Bucharest for nearly two decades, was reinstated.[13][14] The county borders set in 1968 are still largely in place today, but the functions of different authorities have changed due to administrative reforms in the 1990s.[5][6]

At present, Romania is divided into 41 counties and one municipality (Bucharest); these are assigned as the NUTS-3 geocode statistical subdivision scheme of Romania within the European Union.[15] Each of the counties is further divided into cities (some of which have municipality status) and communes. The prefect and his administration have executive prerogatives within the county limits, while limited legislative powers are assigned to a County Council elected every four years during local elections.[16] The territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government.[5]

Current list

County
County seat
Name origin
[note 2][17]
Development
region

ISO code
[note 3]
Postal code
[note 4][18]
Area code
[note 5][19]
NUTS code
[note 6][20]
Population
(2011)[21]
Area
[22]
Map
Alba
Coat of arms of Alba County
Alba Iulia
Coat of arms of Alba Iulia
Alba River Center AB 51 58 RO121 342,376 6,250 km2 (2,410 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Alba County
Arad
Coat of arms of Arad County
Arad
Coat of arms of Arad
county seat West AR 31 57 RO421 430,629 7,746 km2 (2,991 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Arad County
Arge?
Coat of arms of Arge? County
Pite?ti
Coat of arms of Pite?ti
Arge? River South-Muntenia AG 11 48 RO311 612,431 6,822 km2 (2,634 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Arge? County
Bac?u
Coat of arms of Bac?u County
Bac?u
Coat of arms of Bac?u
county seat North-East BC 60 34 RO211 616,168 6,622 km2 (2,557 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Bac?u County
Bihor
Coat of arms of Bihor County
Oradea
Coat of arms of Oradea
Biharia commune North-West BH 41 59 RO111 575,398 7,539 km2 (2,911 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Bihor County
Bistri?a-N?s?ud
Coat of arms of Bistri?a-N?s?ud County
Bistri?a
Coat of arms of Bistri?a
Bistri?a River and N?s?ud city North-West BN 42 63 RO112 286,225 5,358 km2 (2,069 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Bistri?a-N?s?ud County
Boto?ani
Coat of arms of Boto?ani County
Boto?ani
Coat of arms of Boto?ani
county seat North-East BT 71 31 RO212 412,626 4,987 km2 (1,925 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Boto?ani County
Bra?ov
Coat of arms of Bra?ov County
Bra?ov
Coat of arms of Bra?ov
county seat Center BV 50 68 RO122 549,217 5,361 km2 (2,070 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Bra?ov County
Br?ila
Coat of arms of Br?ila County
Br?ila
Coat of arms of Br?ila
county seat South-East BR 81 39 RO221 321,212 4,766 km2 (1,840 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Br?ila County
Bucharest
Coat of arms of Bucharest
(Municipality of Bucharest)
[note 7]
last name Bucur[23] Bucharest-Ilfov B 01-06
[note 8]
1x
[note 9]
RO321 1,883,425 240 km2 (93 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting the location of Bucharest
Buz?u
Coat of arms of Buz?u County
Buz?u
Coat of arms of Buz?u
Buz?u River South-East BZ 12 38 RO222 451,069 6,101 km2 (2,356 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Buz?u County
Cara?-Severin
Coat of arms of Cara?-Severin County
Re?i?a
Coat of arms of Re?i?a
defunct Cara? and Severin Counties West CS 32 55 RO422 295,579 8,532 km2 (3,294 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Cara?-Severin County
C?l?ra?i
Coat of arms of C?l?ra?i County
C?l?ra?i
Coat of arms of C?l?ra?i
county seat South-Muntenia CL 91 42 RO312 306,691 5,087 km2 (1,964 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting C?l?ra?i County
Cluj
Coat of arms of Cluj County
Cluj-Napoca
county seat North-West CJ 40 64 RO113 691,106 6,672 km2 (2,576 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Cluj County
Constan?a
Coat of arms of Constan?a County
Constan?a
Coat of arms of Constan?a
county seat South-East CT 90 41 RO223 684,082 7,104 km2 (2,743 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Constan?a County
Covasna
Coat of arms of Covasna County
Sfântu Gheorghe
Coat of arms of Sfântu Gheorghe
Covasna River Center CV 52 67 RO123 210,177 3,707 km2 (1,431 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Covasna County
Dâmbovi?a
Coat of arms of Dâmbovi?a County
Târgovi?te
Coat of arms of Târgovi?te
Dâmbovi?a River South-Muntenia DB 13 45 RO313 518,745 4,056 km2 (1,566 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Dâmbovi?a County
Dolj
Coat of arms of Dolj County
Craiova
Coat of arms of Craiova
Jiu River[note 10] South-West Oltenia DJ 20 51 RO411 660,544 7,425 km2 (2,867 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Dolj County
Gala?i
Coat of arms of Gala?i County
Gala?i
Coat of arms of Gala?i
county seat South-East GL 80 36 RO224 536,167 4,465 km2 (1,724 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Gala?i County
Giurgiu
Coat of arms of Giurgiu County
Giurgiu
Coat of arms of Giurgiu
county seat South-Muntenia GR 08 46 RO314 281,422 3,544 km2 (1,368 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Giurgiu County
Gorj
Coat of arms of Gorj County
Târgu Jiu
Coat of arms of Târgu Jiu
Jiu River[note 11] South-West Oltenia GJ 21 53 RO412 341,594 5,572 km2 (2,151 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Gorj County
Harghita
Coat of arms of Harghita County
Miercurea Ciuc
Coat of arms of Miercurea-Ciuc
Harghita Mountains Center HR 53 66 RO124 310,867 6,637 km2 (2,563 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Harghita County
Hunedoara
Coat of arms of Hunedoara County
Deva
Coat of arms of Deva
Hunedoara city West HD 33 54 RO423 418,565 7,072 km2 (2,731 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Hunedoara County
Ialomi?a
Coat of arms of Ialomi?a County
Slobozia
Coat of arms of Slobozia
Ialomi?a River South-Muntenia IL 92 43 RO315 274,148 4,455 km2 (1,720 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Ialomi?a County
Ia?i
Coat of arms of Ia?i County
Ia?i
Coat of arms of Ia?i
county seat North-East IS 70 32 RO213 772,348 5,477 km2 (2,115 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Ia?i County
Ilfov
Coat of arms of Ilfov County
Buftea
Coat of arms of Buftea
Ilfov River Bucharest-Ilfov IF 07 1x
[note 9]
RO322 388,738 1,564 km2 (604 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Ilfov County
Maramure?
Coat of arms of Maramure? County
Baia Mare
Coat of arms of Baia Mare
Maramure? historical region North-West MM 43 62 RO114 478,659 6,303 km2 (2,434 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Maramure? County
Mehedin?i
Coat of arms of Mehedin?i County
Drobeta-Turnu Severin
Coat of arms of Drobeta-Turnu Severin
Mehadia commune South-West Oltenia MH 22 52 RO413 265,390 4,942 km2 (1,908 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Mehedin?i County
Mure?
Coat of arms of Mure? County
Târgu Mure?
Coat of arms of Târgu Mure?
Mure? River Center MS 54 65 RO125 550,846 6,705 km2 (2,589 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Mure? County
Neam?
Coat of arms of Neam? County
Piatra Neam?
Coat of arms of Piatra Neam?
Neam? River North-East NT 61 33 RO214 470,766 5,897 km2 (2,277 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Neam? County
Olt
Coat of arms of Olt County
Slatina
Coat of arms of Slatina
Olt River South-West Oltenia OT 23 49 RO414 436,400 5,503 km2 (2,125 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Olt County
Prahova
Coat of arms of Prahova County
Ploie?ti
Coat of arms of Ploie?ti
Prahova River South-Muntenia PH 10 44 RO316 762,886 4,715 km2 (1,820 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Prahova County
Satu Mare
Coat of arms of Satu Mare County
Satu Mare
Coat of arms of Satu Mare
county seat North-West SM 44 61 RO115 344,360 4,420 km2 (1,710 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Satu Mare County
S?laj
Coat of arms of S?laj County
Zal?u
Coat of arms of Zal?u
S?laj River North-West SJ 45 60 RO116 224,384 3,867 km2 (1,493 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting S?laj County
Sibiu
Coat of arms of Sibiu County
Sibiu
Coat of arms of Sibiu
county seat Center SB 55 69 RO126 397,322 5,432 km2 (2,097 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Sibiu County
Suceava
Coat of arms of Suceava County
Suceava
Coat of arms of Suceava
Suceava River North-East SV 72 30 RO215 634,810 8,553 km2 (3,302 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Suceava County
Teleorman
Coat of arms of Teleorman County
Alexandria
Coat of arms of Alexandria
Teleorman River South-Muntenia TR 14 47 RO317 380,123 5,788 km2 (2,235 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Teleorman County
Timi?
Coat of arms of Timi? County
Timi?oara
Coat of arms of Timi?oara
Timi? River West TM 30 56 RO424 683,540 8,692 km2 (3,356 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Timi? County
Tulcea
Coat of arms of Tulcea County
Tulcea
Coat of arms of Tulcea
county seat South-East TL 82 40 RO225 213,083 8,484 km2 (3,276 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Tulcea County
Vaslui
Coat of arms of Vaslui County
Vaslui
Coat of arms of Vaslui
Vaslui River North-East VS 73 35 RO216 395,499 5,317 km2 (2,053 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Vaslui County
Vâlcea
Coat of arms of Vâlcea County
Râmnicu Vâlcea
Coat of arms of Râmnicu Vâlcea
medieval county of Vîlcea[1][note 12] South-West Oltenia VL 24 50 RO415 371,714 5,764 km2 (2,225 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Vâlcea County
Vrancea
Coat of arms of Vrancea County
Foc?ani
Coat of arms of Foc?ani
medieval county of Vrancha[24][note 13] South-East VN 62 37 RO226 340,310 4,854 km2 (1,874 sq mi) Map of Romania highlighting Vrancea County

See also

Coat of arms of Romania

politics and government of
Romania

Notes

  1. ^ Jude? originates from the Latin judicium and ?inut probably from the Latin tenutum.
  2. ^ Most of the names of the present counties originate from one of the larger rivers that flow through the county. In a number of cases, the name of the county seat or another large city in the county is the same as that river.
  3. ^ These are the ISO 3166-2:RO codes which coincide with the license plate ones; they are also used as usual abbreviations, such as in mailing addresses.
  4. ^ The postal code format is of the type xxyzw, with xx being the numbers associated with the county; the digits y, z, and w indicate the city, the street, part of the street, or even the building of the address.
  5. ^ Landline phone numbers are of the type +40-abb-xxx-xxx, where 40 is the country code, bb is the area code, and a is a digit indicating the operator: 2 for the former national operator, Romtelecom, and 3 for the other ground telephone networks. Mobile phone numbers, however, only start with the digit 7 (for a) and do not follow county borders.
  6. ^ The development region code follows the format ROxyz, where x is the macroregion number, y represents the development region and is either 1 or 2, and z is the county number within the region.
  7. ^ Bucharest is not a county, but a municipality that has an identical administrative status to all the other 41 counties.
  8. ^ Due to Bucharest's significantly larger population, it has a different postal code for each of its six sectors.
  9. ^ a b Bucharest and Ilfov county have the same code. Due to their large population, phone numbers have only the suffix "1" (unlike two-digit suffixes for counties) followed by seven digits (only six digits for anywhere else).
  10. ^ Dolj is a shortened form of Dolu (Slavic for "valley") Jiu, in reference to the county's location in the lower part of Jiu river.
  11. ^ Gorj is a shortened form of Gora (Slavic for "mountain") Jiu, in reference to the county's location in the upper part of Jiu river.
  12. ^ Vâlcea is the Romanian word for a narrow valley.
  13. ^ Vran is a substratum word believed to mean "forest" or "mountain".

References

  1. ^ a b "Primele atestari documentare ale judetului Valcea (First Historical Mentions of Vâlcea County)" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). Archived from the original on 2011-07-20. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Cornel ?omâcu (2009-09-09). "De la sat la jude? în istoria Olteniei (From Village to County in the History of Oltenia)" (in Romanian). Vertical. ISSN 1841-6063. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b c Cosmin Dariescu (2008). "21: Organizarea administrativ-teritorial? a rii Române?ti ?i a Moldovei în evul mediu (21: Administrative Divisions in Wallachia and Moldavia in the Middle Ages)". Istoria statului ?i dreptului românesc din antichitate pân? la Marea Unire (History of Romanian State and Law from Antiquity until the Unification) (in Romanian). C.H. Beck. pp. 47-51. ISBN 978-973-115-337-7.
  4. ^ Cosmin Dariescu (2008). "16: Domnia în rile Române medievale (16: Rulers in the Romanian Principalities in the Middle Ages)". Istoria statului ?i dreptului românesc din antichitate pân? la Marea Unire (History of Romanian State and Law from Antiquity until the Unification) (in Romanian). C.H. Beck. pp. 35-39. ISBN 978-973-115-337-7.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Scurt? privire istoric? (Short View on History)" (in Romanian). Institu?ia Prefectului jude?ul Arge?. Archived from the original on 2012-05-20. Retrieved .
  6. ^ a b c d 2003-2005 National Human Development Report: Local Governance in Romania (PDF) (Report). United Nations Development Programme. p. 35.
  7. ^ Valeriu Nicolescu. "Un ?inut de legend?, jude?ul Buz?u (A legendary Land, Buzau County)" (in Romanian). Buzau.com. Retrieved .
  8. ^ Günther H. Tontsch (2000). "Juristische Literatur zur rumänischen Verwaltungsgeschichte im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Law Literature on the Romanian Administrative History in the 19th and 20th Centuries)". Jahrbuch für Europäische Verwaltungsgeschichte (Yearbook of European Administrative History) (in German). 12. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag. p. 285. ISSN 0937-7107.
  9. ^ Ioan Scurtu; Theodora St?nescu-Stanciu; Georgiana Margareta Scurtu (2002). "8.7. Decret-lege pentru reforma electoral? (Law Decree for electoral reform)". Istoria românilor între anii 1918-1940 (The History of the Romanians in 1918-1940) (in Romanian). University of Bucharest. Archived from the original on 2015-03-22. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Anatol Petrenci (2006). Basarabia în timpul celui de-al doilea r?zboi mondial: 1939-1945 (Bessarabia During the Second World War: 1939-1945) (in Romanian). Chi?in?u, Moldova: Ed. Prut Interna?ional. ISBN 978-9975-69-049-2.
  11. ^ "Istoria Banatului - În linii mari (History of Banat - A Quick View)" (in Romanian). Vestul.ro. 2008-09-10. Archived from the original on 2013-05-21. Retrieved .
  12. ^ a b Petre Mihai Bacanu (2010-03-11). "Cum ar trebui s? arate harta redesenat? a României? (How Should Romania's Redrawn Map Look Like?)" (in Romanian). România Liber?. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "Prezentarea Judetului Ilfov (Overview of Ilfov County)" (PDF) (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-23. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "Istoria Ilfov (History of Ilfov)" (in Romanian). Camera de Comert si Industrie a Judetului Ilfov. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics - Introduction". Eurostat. Retrieved .
  16. ^ "CEMR - Members - Romania". Council of European Municipalities and Regions. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "Istoria numelor jude?elor din România. De unde provine denumirea regiunii în care locui?i" (in Romanian). Retrieved .
  18. ^ "Postal code search" (in Romanian). Compania Nationala Posta Romania SA. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "List of the county prefixes in Romania" (in Romanian). National Regulatory Authority for Communications and Information Technology (Romania). 2005-04-26. Archived from the original on 2012-02-05. Retrieved .
  20. ^ "Publications Office, European Union, EU". Simap - Information about European public procurement. Retrieved .
  21. ^
    Population at the Censuses of 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992, 2002 and 2011 - By Localities and Counties (XLS) (Report) (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 2013-07-04. pp. 1-2. Retrieved .
  22. ^ Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2017 (PDF) (Report). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 2018. p. 17. Retrieved .
  23. ^ "DEX online - Search: "bucura"". Romanian Etymological Dictionary 1958-1966 (in Romanian). Dexonline.ro. Retrieved .
  24. ^ "Jude?ul Vrancea (Vrancea County)" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). Archived from the original on 2010-11-29. Retrieved .

External links


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