Cornmeal
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Cornmeal
Cornmeal

Cornmeal is a meal (coarse flour) ground from dried maize (corn). It is a common staple food, and is ground to fine, medium, and coarse consistencies, but not as fine as wheat flour.[1] In the United States, very finely ground cornmeal is referred to as corn flour.[1] When fine cornmeal is made from maize that has been soaked in an alkaline solution, e.g., limewater (a process known as nixtamalization), it is called masa flour, which is used for making arepas, tamales and tortillas. Boiled cornmeal is called polenta in Italy and is also a traditional dish and bread substitute in Romania.

Types

There are various types of cornmeal:

  • Blue cornmeal is light blue or violet in color. It is ground from whole blue corn and has a sweet flavor. The cornmeal consists of dried corn kernels that have been ground into a fine or medium texture.[2]
  • Steel-ground yellow cornmeal, which is common mostly in the United States, has the husk and germ of the maize kernel almost completely removed. It is conserved for about a year if stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.[3]
  • Stone-ground cornmeal retains some of the hull and germ, lending a little more flavor and nutrition to recipes. It is more perishable, but will store longer if refrigerated. However, it too can have a shelf life of many months if kept in a reasonably cool place.[2]
  • White cornmeal (mielie-meal), made from white corn, is more common in parts of Africa. It is also popular in the Southern United States for making cornbread.[2]

Regional usage

Caribbean

  • Cou-cou - part of the national dish of Barbados, "cou-cou and flying fish".[]
  • Funchi also known as fungi/fungee - a cornmeal mush cooked and cooled into a stiff pudding, sometimes eaten with saltfish and/or pepperpot. It is consumed on the island of Curaçao and is part of the national dish of Antigua and Barbuda.[]

East Asia

  • Tie Bing ( sticking bread) - This product can either be fluffy like a mantou or more flatbread-like. It is traditionally stuck around the outer rim of a large wok while meat or fish is being cooked. Generally, an alkalizing agent such as baking soda is added to increase the nutrient value. It is also found in northern China.[]
  • Corn congee (?) - A porridge made from plain cornmeal. It is normally thinner than grits or polenta and is often eaten with Chinese pickles.[]
  • Wo tou ( nest head) - Shaped like a hollow cone, this cornbread looks like a bird's nest, after which it is named. It is commonly eaten in northern China, and may contain dried jujubes and other flavoring agents.[]

Rest of Sub-Saharan Africa

Southern Africa's Nshima cornmeal (top right corner), served with three relishes.

Europe

  • Arapash or harapash - Albania (similar to the Romanian style but often combined with lamb organs, or/and goat cheese)[]
  • Farina di granturco - Italy (not the same as farina, which is made from wheat)[]
  • G'omi ( Georgian: ?), mchadi (Georgian?), tchvishtari - Georgia (g'omi is similar to polenta, mchadi - cornbread, tshvishtari - cheese cornbread). Known by different names in local languages (Abkhazian: abysta, Adyghe: mamrys, Ingush: - juran-hudar, Nogai: ? mamyrza, Ossetian: dzykka or ? sera), it is also widespread in other Caucasian cuisines.[]
  • Kachamak (?) - Bulgaria, North Macedonia and Serbia[]
  • M?lai - Romania (the cornmeal itself; prepared as m?m?lig?)[]
  • Polenta - southern Europe, especially Italy[]

Horn of Africa

East Africa

  • Ugali - Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania
  • Cornmeal is a staple food in the East Africa region. It is used to make Ugali and Uji.

Indian Ocean

This is a local dessert dish made from maize flour in which milk, sugar, dried sultanas and cardamon powder are cooked together. The cooked paste is poured on a tray and coconut powder is sprinkled thereon and left to cool. This dessert is often cut into triangular shapes and can be bought from food vendors in the streets of Port Louis and also in market fairs around the island.

South America

Grindstones inside Mingus Mill, in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina. Corn is placed in a hopper (top right) which slowly feeds it into the grindstone (center). The grindstone grinds the corn into cornmeal, and empties it into a bucket (lower left). The grindstones are turned by the mill's water-powered turbine.

North America

A corn muffin.

South Asia

In parts of northern India and Pakistan ground corn flour is used to make thick slabs of bread which can be eaten with a wide variety of curry dishes or it can be coated in clarified butter or ghee and eaten with yogurt or lassie which is a yogurt based drink especially in summer.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Herbst, Sharon, Food Lover's Companion, Third Edition, Pg. 165, Barrons Educational Series Inc, 2001
  2. ^ a b c Kilbride, Philip; Goodale, Jane; Ameisen, Elizabeth, eds. (1990). Encounters With American Ethnic Cultures. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama. p. 82. ISBN 0-8173-0471-1. Retrieved 2010.
  3. ^ "Section II: Food Commodity Fact Sheets". Commodities Reference Guide. USAID. Archived from the original on 2013-02-17. Retrieved .
  4. ^ a b Blazes, Marian. "Masarepa - - Precooked Corn Flour for Making Arepas". About Food. Retrieved 2015.
  5. ^ "La storia della polenta" [The history of polenta]. I primi d'Italia (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ "Fried Cornmeal Mush Recipe". Allrecipes. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Network, The FOURnet Information. "Samp - Recipe - Cooks.com". www.cooks.com. Retrieved .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Cornmeal
 



 



 
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