La Convivencia (Spanish: [la kombi'?en?ja], "The Coexistence") is an academic hypothesis regarding the period of Spanish history from the Muslim Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the early eighth century until the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. It claims that in the different Moorish Iberian kingdoms, the Muslims, Christians and Jews lived in relative peace. According to this interpretation of history, this period of religious diversity differs from later Spanish and Portuguese history when - as a result of expulsions and forced conversions - Catholicism became the sole religion in the Iberian Peninsula.
However, some voices have challenged the historicity of the above view of the supposed intercultural harmony as a "myth", with the argument that it depends too strongly on unreliable documentation. "[C]ontemporary ecumenicists appeal to the 'Golden Age' of tolerance" in the 10th and 11th centuries in Córdoba under Muslim rule, but, for the most part, they are not interested in what actually happened among the Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Rather, they mention "tolerance", a concept that "would have had little or no meaning" at that time.
La Convivencia often refers to the interplay of cultural ideas between the three religious groups and ideas of religious tolerance. James Carroll invokes this concept and indicates that it played an important role in bringing the classics of Greek philosophy to Europe, with translations from Greek to Arabic to Hebrew and Latin. Jerrilynn Dodds references this concept in the spatial orientation seen in architecture that draws on building styles seen in synagogues and mosques.
An example of La Convivencia was Córdoba, Andalusia in Al-Andalus, in the ninth and tenth centuries. Córdoba was "one of the most important cities in the history of the world." In it, "Christians and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city."María Rosa Menocal, Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University, further describes the libraries of Córdoba as "a significant benchmark of overall social (not just scholarly) well being, since they represented a near-perfect crossroads of the material and the intellectual." 
James L. Heft, the Alton Brooks Professor of Religion at USC, describes La Convivencia as one of the "rare periods in history" when the three religions did not either keep "their distance from one another, or were in conflict." During most of their co-existing history, they have been "ignorant about each other" or "attacked each other."
While the Reconquista was ongoing, Muslims and Jews who came under Christian control were allowed to practise their religion to some degree. This ended in the late 15th century with the fall of Granada in 1492. Even before this event, the Spanish Inquisition had been established in 1478. In 1492, with the Alhambra decree, those Jews who had not converted to Catholicism were expelled. Many Jews settled in Portugal, where they were expelled in 1497.
Similarly the Muslims of Iberia were forced to convert or face either death or expulsion. This happened even though the Granadan Muslims had been assured of religious freedom at the time of their surrender. Between 1500 and 1502 all remaining Muslims of Granada and Castile were converted. In 1525, Muslims in Aragon were similarly forced to convert. The Muslim communities who converted became known as Moriscos. Still they were suspected by the old Christians of being crypto-Muslims and so between 1609 and 1614 their entire population of 300,000 was forcibly expelled. All these expulsions and conversions resulted in Catholic Christianity becoming the sole sanctioned religion in the Iberian Peninsula.
David Nirenberg challenges the significance of the age of "convivencia", claiming that far from a "peaceful convivencia" his own work "demonstrates that violence was a central and systemic aspect of the coexistence of majority and minority in medieval Spain, and even suggests that coexistence was in part predicated on such violence".
Mark Cohen, professor of Near Eastern studies at Princeton University, in his Under Crescent and Cross, calls the "idealized" interfaith utopia a "myth" that was first promulgated by Jewish historians such as Heinrich Graetz in the 19th century as a rebuke to Christian countries for their treatment of Jews. This myth was met with what Cohen calls the "counter-myth" of the "neo-lachrymose conception of Jewish-Arab history" by Bat Yeor and others, which also "cannot be maintained in the light of historical reality". Cohen aims to present a correction to both these "myths".
The Spanish mediaevalist Eduardo Manzano Moreno wrote that the concept of convivencia has no support in the historical record ["el concepto de convivencia no tiene ninguna apoyatura histórica"]. He further states that there is scarcely any information available on the Jewish and Christian communities during the Caliphate of Cordoba, and that this may come as a shock in view of the huge clout of the convivencia meme ["... quizá pueda resultar chocante teniendo en cuenta el enorme peso del tópico convivencial."] Dr. Manzano attributes the genesis of the convivencia myth to the Spanish philologist Américo Castro (1885-1972). But Castro's conception "... was never converted into a specific and well-documented treatment of el-Andalus, perhaps because Castro never succeeded in finding in the Arabist bibliography materials suitable for incorporation into his interpretation ..."
[...] when contemporary ecumenicists appeal to the 'Golden Age' of tolerance witnessed in a place such as tenth- and eleventh-century Cordoba in Muslim Spain, they are rarely interested in the particulars of the interactions among these three religions 'on the ground.' On the contrary,they make appeals to categories that carry much valence in the modern world (such as 'tolerance'), but that clearly would have had little or no meaning in the time in question.