Congress of the Philippines
Kongreso ng Pilipinas
|18th Congress of the Philippines|
House of Representatives
|Seats||324 (see list) |
Senate political groups
|Majority bloc (20):
Minority bloc (4):
House of Representatives political groups
|Majority bloc (271)
Minority bloc (30)
|Joint committees are chaired by senators|
|Authority||Article VI, Constitution of the Philippines|
Senate last election
|May 13, 2019|
House of Representatives last election
|May 13, 2019|
Government Service Insurance System Building, Pasay
House of Representatives:
Batasang Pambansa Complex, Quezon City
|Senate of the Philippines|
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Kongreso ng Pilipinas) is the national legislature of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate (upper chamber), and the House of Representatives (lower chamber), although colloquially, the term "congress" commonly refers to just the latter.
The Senate is composed of 24 senators half of which are elected every three years. Each senator, therefore, serves a total of six years. The senators are elected by the whole electorate and do not represent any geographical district.
The House of Representatives is currently composed of 306 congressmen. Sec. 5 Art. VI of the Constitution states that the House "shall be composed of not more than 250 members, unless otherwised fixed by law..." There are two types of congressmen: the district and the sectoral representatives. The district congressmen represent a particular geographical district of the country. All provinces in the country are composed of at least one congressional district. Several cities also have their own congressional districts, with some composed of two or more representatives.
The sectoral congressmen represent the minority sectors of the population. This enables these minority groups to be represented in the Congress, when they would otherwise not be represented properly through district representation. Also known as party-list representatives, sectoral congressmen represent labor unions, rights groups, and other organizations.
The Constitution provides that the Congress shall convene for its regular session every year beginning on the 4th Monday of July. A regular session can last until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session in the succeeding year. The President may, however, call special sessions which are usually held between regular legislative sessions to handle emergencies or urgent matters.
When the Philippines was under colonial rule as part of the Spanish East Indies, the colony was not given representation to the Spanish Cortes. It was only in 1809 where the colony was made an integral part of Spain and was given representation in the Cortes. On March 19, 1812, the Constitution of Cádiz was approved, which led to the colony's first representatives at the Cortes in September 24, 1812 by Pedro Pérez de Tagle and José Manuel Coretto. However, with Napoleon I's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, his brother Joseph Bonaparte was removed from the Spanish throne, and the Cádiz Constitution was replaced by the Cortes on May 24, 1816 with a more conservative constitution that removed Philippine representation on the Cortes, among other things. Restoration of Philippine representation to the Cortes was one of the grievances by the Ilustrados, the educated class during the late 19th century.
The Illustrados' campaign transformed into the Philippine Revolution that aimed to overthrow Spanish rule. Proclaiming independence on June 12, 1898, President Emilio Aguinaldo then ordered the convening of a revolutionary congress at Malolos. The Malolos Congress, among other things, approved the 1899 Constitution of the Philippines. With the approval of the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish sold the Philippines to the United States. The revolutionaries, attempting to prevent American conquest, launched the Philippine-American War, but were defeated when Aguinaldo was captured on 1901.
When the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from 1900 to 1907. The President of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission. Furthermore, two Filipinos served as Resident Commissioners to the House of Representatives of the United States from 1907 to 1935, then only one from 1935 to 1946. The Resident Commissioners had a voice in the House, but did not have voting rights.
The Philippine Bill of 1902 mandated the creation of a bicameral or a two-chamber Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in 1907. Through the leadership of then Speaker Sergio Osmeña and then-Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress were substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature.
In 1916, the Jones Law changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished, and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established.
The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution, aside from instituting the Commonwealth which gave the Filipinos more role in government, established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was created. Those elected in 1941 would not serve until 1945, as World War II erupted. The invading Japanese set up the Second Philippine Republic and convened its own National Assembly. With the Japanese defeat in 1945, the Commonwealth and its Congress was restored. The same set up will continue until the Americans granted independence on July 4, 1946.
Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. Successive Congresses were elected until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law on September 23, 1972. Marcos then ruled by decree.
As early as 1970, Marcos had convened a constitutional convention to revise the 1935 constitution; in 1973, the Constitution was approved. It abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be known as the Batasang Pambansa in a semi-presidential system of government. The batasan elected a prime minister. The Batasang Pambansa first convened in 1978. 
Marcos was overthrown after the 1986 People Power Revolution; President Corazon Aquino then ruled by decree. Later that year she appointed a constitutional commission that drafted a new constitution. The Constitution was approved in a plebiscite the next year; it restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. It first convened in 1987.
|In operation||Authority||Legislature||Type||Upper house||Lower house|
|1898-99||República Filipina controlled areas|
|Malolos Constitution||Malolos Congress||Unicameral||Malolos Congress|
|United States Military Government controlled areas|
|War powers authority of the President of the United States||Martial law|
|1900-02||República Filipina controlled areas|
|Malolos Constitution||Malolos Congress||Unicameral||Malolos Congress|
|United States Military Government controlled areas|
|Appointment by the President of the United States||Taft Commission||Unicameral||Philippine Commission|
|1902-07||Insular Government of the Philippine Islands|
|Philippine Organic Act||Philippine Commission||Unicameral||Philippine Commission|
|1907-16||Insular Government of the Philippine Islands|
|Philippine Organic Act||Philippine Legislature||Bicameral||Philippine Commission||Philippine Assembly|
|1916-35||Insular Government of the Philippine Islands|
|Philippine Autonomy Act||Philippine Legislature||Bicameral||Senate||House of Representatives|
|1935-41||Commonwealth of the Philippines|
|1935 Constitution||National Assembly||Unicameral||National Assembly|
|1942-43||Empire of Japan|
|War powers authority of the Emperor of Japan||Martial law|
|1943-44||Second Philippine Republic|
|1943 Constitution||National Assembly||Unicameral||National Assembly|
|1945-46||Commonwealth of the Philippines|
|Amendments to the 1935 Constitution||Congress (Commonwealth)||Bicameral||Senate||House of Representatives|
|1946-73||Third Republic of the Philippines|
|Amendments to the 1935 Constitution||Congress||Bicameral||Senate||House of Representatives|
|Philippines under Martial Law|
|1973 Constitution||National Assembly||Unicameral||National Assembly|
|1978-86||Fourth Republic of the Philippines|
|Amendments to the 1973 Constitution||Batasang Pambansa||Unicameral||Batasang Pambansa|
|1986-present||Republic of the Philippines|
|1987 Constitution||Congress||Bicameral||Senate||House of Representatives|
The powers of the Congress of the Philippines may be classified as:
It consists of the enactment of laws intended as a rule of conduct to govern the relation between individuals (i.e., civil laws, commercial laws, etc.) or between individuals and the state (i.e., criminal law, political law, etc.)
These are the powers which though not expressly given are nevertheless exercised by the Congress as they are necessary for its existence such as:
It has reference to powers which the Constitution expressly and specifically directs to perform or execute.
Powers enjoyed by the Congress classifiable under this category are:
Powers of the Congress that are executive in nature are:
The Congress of the Philippines exercises considerable control and supervision over the administrative branch - e.g.:
Considered as electoral power of the Congress of the Philippines are the Congress' power to:
Constitutionally, each house has judicial powers:
The other powers of Congress mandated by the Constitution are as follows:
The vote requirements in the Congress of the Philippines are as follows:
|Requirement||Senate||House of Representatives||Joint session||All members|
|Majority (50% +1 member)||
In most cases, such as the approval of bills, only a majority of members present is needed; on some cases such as the election of presiding officers, a majority of all members, including vacant seats, is needed.
In the Philippines, the most common way to illustrate the result in a Senate election is via a tally of candidates in descending order of votes. The twelve candidates with the highest number of votes are elected.
|5.||Ronald dela Rosa||HNP||PDP-Laban||19,004,225||40.18%|
|14.||Bam Aquino||Otso Diretso||Liberal||14,144,923||29.91%|
|16.||Mar Roxas||Otso Diretso||Liberal||9,843,288||20.81%|
|17.||Sergio Osmeña III||Independent||9,455,202||19.99%|
|21.||Chel Diokno||Otso Diretso||Liberal||6,342,939||13.41%|
|22.||Juan Ponce Enrile||PMP||5,319,298||11.25%|
|23.||Gary Alejano||Otso Diretso||Liberal||4,726,652||9.99%|
|24.||Neri Colmenares||Labor Win||Makabayan||4,683,942||9.90%|
|25.||Samira Gutoc||Otso Diretso||Liberal||4,345,252||9.19%|
|26.||Romulo Macalintal||Otso Diretso||Independent||4,007,339||8.47%|
|27.||Erin Tañada||Otso Diretso||Liberal||3,870,529||8.18%|
|29.||Florin Hilbay||Otso Diretso||Aksyon||2,757,879||5.83%|
|36.||Ernesto Arellano||KKK, Labor Win||Independent||937,713||2.30%|
|37.||Allan Montaño||Labor Win||Independent||923,419||2.25%|
|38.||Leody de Guzman||Labor Win||PLM||893,506||2.17%|
|46.||Lady Ann Sahidulla||KDP||444,096||1.68%|
|50.||Sonny Matula||Labor Win||PMM||400,339||1,50%|
|52.||Joan Sheelah Nalliw||KKK||Independent||390,165||1,38%|
|Reference: Commission on Elections sitting as the National Board of Canvassers.|
A voter has two votes in the House of Representatives: one vote for a representative elected in the voter's congressional district (first-past-the-post), and one vote for a party in the party-list system (closed list), the so-called sectoral representatives; sectoral representatives shall comprise not more than 20% of the House of Representatives.
To determine the winning parties in the party-list election, a party must surpass the 2% election threshold of the national vote; usually, the party with the largest number of votes wins the maximum three seats, the rest two seats. If the number of seats of the parties that surpassed the 2% threshold is less than 20% of the total seats, the parties that won less than 2% of the vote gets one seat each until the 20% requirement is met.
|PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power)||12,564,335||31.28%||29.38%||127||94||82||26.80%||12|
|Nacionalista (Nationalist Party)||6,554,911||16.32%||6.90%||69||37||42||13.73%||5|
|NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition)||5,644,007||14.05%||2.99%||61||33||36||11.76%||3|
|NUP (National Unity Party)||3,852,909||9.59%||0.08%||42||28||25||8.17%||3|
|Liberal (Liberal Party)||2,321,759||5.78%||35.94%||26||18||18||5.88%|
|Lakas (People Power-Christian Muslim Democrats)||1,928,716||4.80%||3.26%||29||5||11||3.59%||6|
|PFP (Federal Party of the Philippines)||964,929||2.40%||2.40%||32||2||5||1.63%||3|
|HNP (Faction of Change)||651,502||1.62%||1.62%||6||3||3||0.98%|
|Aksyon (Democratic Action)||398,616||0.99%||0.39%||6||0||1||0.33%||1|
|PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses)||396,614||0.99%||0.78%||9||1||1||0.33%|
|(Hope for Bukidnon)||335,628||0.84%||0.49%||3||2||2||0.65%|
|PDDS (Noble Blood Association of Federalists)||262,509||0.65%||0.65%||31||0||0||0.00%|
|LDP (Struggle of Democratic Filipinos)||252,806||0.63%||0.33%||3||3||2||0.65%||1|
|UNA (United Nationalist Alliance)||207,244||0.52%||6.10%||7||0||0||0.00%|
|HTL (Party of the People of the City)||197,024||0.49%||0.35%||1||0||1||0.33%||1|
|PPP (Palawan's Party of Change)||185,810||0.46%||0.46%||2||0||2||0.65%||2|
|Bileg (Ilocano Power)||158,523||0.39%||0.39%||1||1||1||0.33%|
|PRP (People's Reform Party)||138,014||0.34%||0.34%||2||0||1||0.33%||1|
|Unang Sigaw (First Cry of Nueva Ecija)||120,674||0.30%||0.30%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|KDP (Union of Democratic Filipinos)||116,453||0.29%||0.29%||4||0||0||0.00%|
|Asenso Abrenio (Progress for Abrenians)||115,865||0.29%||0.29%||1||0||1||0.33%||1|
|Kambilan (Shield and Fellowship of Kapampangans)||107,078||0.27%||0.27%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|Padayon Pilipino (Onward Filipinos)||98,450||0.25%||0.09%||2||0||0||0.00%|
|Asenso Manileño (Progress for Manilans)||84,656||0.21%||0.29%||2||0||2||0.65%||2|
|Kusog Bicolandia (Force of Bicol)||82,832||0.21%||0.21%||2||0||0||0.00%|
|CDP (Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines)||81,741||0.20%||0.17%||1||0||1||0.33%||1|
|Navoteño (Navotas Party)||80,265||0.20%||0.20%||1||1||1||0.33%|
|KABAKA (Partner of the Nation for Progress)||65,836||0.16%||0.03%||1||1||1||0.33%|
|PDSP (Philippine Social Democratic Party)||56,223||0.14%||0.14%||3||0||0||0.00%|
|Bagumbayan-VNP (New Nation-Volunteers for a New Philippines)||33,731||0.08%||0.08%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|KBL (New Society Movement)||33,594||0.08%||0.45%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|AZAP (Forward Zamboanga Party)||28,605||0.07%||0.07%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|WPP (Labor Party Philippines)||9,718||0.02%||0.00%||2||0||0||0.00%|
|DPP (Democratic Party of the Philippines)||1,110||0.00%||0.00%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|HSS (Surigao Sur Party)||816||0.00%||0.00%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|PGRP (Philippine Green Republican Party)||701||0.00%||0.01%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|Registered voters (without overseas voters)||61,843,771||100%||11.48%|
A. ^ Totals exclude the two legislative districts of Southern Leyte and the two legislative districts of South Cotabato. Elections for these seats will be held within six months of the 2019 general election, after they were reapportioned after the filing of candidacies was made.
|Source: Commission on Elections|
In what could be a unique setup, the two houses of Congress meet at different places in Metro Manila, the seat of government: the Senate sits at a building shared with the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) at Pasay, while the House of Representatives sits at the Batasang Pambansa Complex.
After the Americans defeated the First Republic, the US-instituted Philippine Legislature convened at the Ayuntamiento in Intramuros, Manila from 1907 to 1926, when it transferred to the Legislative Building just outside Intramuros. In the Legislative Building, the Senate occupied the upper floors while the House of Representatives used the lower floors.
Destroyed during the Battle of Manila of 1945, the Commonwealth Congress convened at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse at Sampaloc. Congress met at the school auditorium, with the Senate convening on evenings and the House of Representatives meeting every morning. Congress would return to the Legislative Building, which will be renamed as the Congress Building, on 1949 up to 1973 when President Marcos ruled by decree. Marcos built a new seat of a unicameral parliament at Quezon City, which would eventually be the Batasang Pambansa Complex. The parliament that will eventually be named as the Batasang Pambansa (National Legislature), first met at the Batasang Pambansa Complex on 1978.
With the overthrow of Marcos after the People Power Revolution, the bicameral Congress was restored. The House of Representatives inherited the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate returned to the Congress Building. On May 1997, the Senate moved to the newly constructed building owned by the GSIS on land reclaimed from Manila Bay at Pasay; the Congress Building was eventually transformed into the National Museum of the Philippines.