|Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales|
|Formed||28 January 1960CNIE) 28 May 1991 (As CONAE)(As|
|Headquarters||Buenos Aires, A.C.|
|Annual budget||1.963 billion ARS (US$45.3 million) (2019)|
During the 1940s, Teófilo Tabanera organized a group of foreign and Argentine specialists as the Sociedad Argentina Interplanetaria, SAI (Argentine Interplanetary Society). Tabanera's efforts ensured that Argentina was the first Latin American nation to create a spaceflight organisation and in 1952 was one of the founding members of the International Astronautical Federation. Argentine Aldo Cocca was a pioneer in space law and helped originate the idea of space being the common heritage of humankind, later enshrined in United Nations treaties of the 1960s.
CNIE worked with the Argentine Air Force's Instituto de Investigaciones Aeronáuticas y Espaciales (IIAE) to develop a number of indigenous multistage high-altitude sounding rockets and missiles. Argentina was the first country in Latin America to send an object into space using an indigenously-developed rocket.
During the 1970s, Argentina regularly launched the American two-stage solid-propellant Castor rocket up to 500 kilometers altitude. This rocket carried international experiments for several countries.
In the 1980s, Argentina took part in a multinational effort to develop the Condor missile. Under United States pressure, the Condor program was cancelled in 1991. The associated development and production facilities at Falda del Carmen were closed down, the Fabrica Militar de Aviones, which concentrated on development of surveillance satellites for Earth resource and environmental monitoring.[clarification needed]
The present commission (CONAE) was created on 28 May 1991 during the government of Carlos Menem, after the cancellation of the military Condor missile program in an attempt to move all the commission efforts to civilian purposes. It received the Air Force aerospace facilities in Córdoba and Buenos Aires of the former CNIE, as well as some of the civil personnel involved in the cancelled project.
Since the 1990s the new commission signed agreements with NASA and European agencies and has developed a number of Earth Observation satellites, including SAC-A, the failed mission SAC-B, and the SAC-C launched in 2000 and still operating.
The administration of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner renationalised Fabrica Militar de Aviones in 2009 and the Falda del Carmen facility has been reactivated to support the development of the new Tronador II rocket. Defense missile and rocket development has been restarted under the umbrella of CITEFA.
Responsible for the tracking, command and control (TT&C) of the Argentine satellites, and for the ingestion, cataloging and archiving of satellite data products. CONAE's Córdoba Ground Station (ETC) has been in operation since 1997. It has capacity for data reception and TT&C. Currently, it receives data from 12 international satellites, besides the data from Argentine missions. The National Space Program foresees the setting up of a second ground station in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego Province, at the southern tip of Argentina, to enable the collection of data on the Antarctic continent.
Responsible for planning, commands elaboration and monitoring the Argentine satellites. Today the SAC-C Mission Operation Center is fully operative and SAC-D mission operation centre is being implemented in order to control the SAC-D/Aquarius satellites launched on 10 June 2011.
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For the promotion of advanced knowledge and innovative use of space information, it also aims at developing highly skilled human resources. It has been named in honor of former CONAE physicist Mario Gulich, who conceived the first Argentine satellite for scientific applications: the SAC-B. Mr. Gulich died in 1994.
CONAE built a rocket test site at Las Pipinas, Punta Indio Partido in the Buenos Aires Province, named "Polo Espacial de Punta Indio". It's intended to test the Vex rockets, technological demonstrators for the Tronador II launcher.
The Tronador launch site will be called "Complejo Argentino de Acceso Al Espacio" (Argentine Space Access complex). It's located at Punta Alta, some 578 km from Buenos Aires. The site is located inside the Marine's camp Base de Baterías.
The national space program provides for two satellite series and both are devoted to Earth observation: one with main Argentine instruments in the optical range (SAC) and the other one in the microwave range (SAOCOM).
The SAC series has been developed by the CONAE together with the Argentine company INVAP and a number of local universities, in close cooperation with the NASA. It has also included the participation of Brazil, Denmark, Italy and Germany.
In 2019, five Argentine satellites have been launched: SAC-A, a technological demonstration satellite, SAC-B, which was devoted to scientific research, SAC-C, the first Earth Observation Satellite of Argentina, SAC-D and SAOCOM 1A.
In this context, CONAE has joined efforts with NASA in the creation of the First International Earth Observation Constellation, with Argentine SAC-C and the U.S. Landsat 7, EO-1 and Terra missions.
The satellite launched by CONAE was SAC-D/Aquarius, which was launched on 10 June 10, 2011. It will carry the NASA-provided Aquarius mission for taking measurements of sea salinity which will contribute to the better understanding of the environment, together with CONAE-provided sensors which will contribute to monitoring possible fire focuses.
On the other hand, the SAOCOM series involves the construction of two missions with an L-band full polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) as main payload, with Belgium and Italian partnership.
The SARE satellites are under study. They will weight around 200 kg and employ nanotechnology.
The Tronador (rocket), under development, is a multi-stage satellite launcher. It was expected to start flight tests in 2012. The T-4000 third stage test-rocket (with a diameter of 43.8 cm) is also being developed, with the current version using a liquid propellant engine of 40 kN trust. However, in the last 4 years, 1 third stage prototype and 1 first stage pre-prototype launch attempts have been unsuccessful. The last of these attempts ended with the rocket falling in the side of the launcher structure without any fire or explosion due to the rocket being loaded with only 460 kg of fuel for a short combustion in order to test the engine in flight for a few seconds, no material, human or environmental harm resulting.
CONAE is actually operating a self developed airborne SAR called SARAT. The radar is capable of obtaining full polarimetric L-band data with a resolution of 3 x 0.4 m. It is intended as a pre-SAOCOM test bench.
These missions will be part of the Italian-Argentine System of Satellites for Emergency Management (SIASGE), together with the Italian COSMO-SkyMed missions (see related article Orfeo Programme). Knowing the great advantages of combining the information provided by L and X Band radars and the convenience of a shorter revisit period, Argentina and Italy are joining efforts to develop this system, which will be fully devoted the provision of information to lessen the consequences of natural disasters.
CONAE, in July 2003, joined the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters', which aims to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters through authorized users.
The agency secured an agreement with the European Space Agency on 24 June 2009 for the installation of a 35-m antenna and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory, near Malargüe, Mendoza. The facility will contribute to the ESA's Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta space probe projects, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research and the ESA's planned Deep Space project. One of only three such ESA installations in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock.