Get Cockney essential facts below. View Videos or join the Cockney discussion. Add Cockney to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.

Cockney dialect
Native toEngland
RegionLondon (Middlesex, Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent, Surrey)
Early forms
Latin (English alphabet)
Language codes
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

A Cockney is a certain type of Londoner. The term mainly refers to speakers of the distinctive Cockney dialect of English used in and around London, particularly by the working and lower-middle classes; especially people from the East End,[1][2][3] or, traditionally, people born within earshot of Bow Bells.[4][5]

Estuary English is an intermediate accent between Cockney and Received Pronunciation, also widely spoken in and around London, as well as in wider southeastern England.[6][7][8] In multicultural areas of London, the Cockney dialect is, to an extent, being replaced by Multicultural London English--a new form of speech with significant Cockney influence.

Words and phrases

Etymology of Cockney

The earliest recorded use of the term is 1362 in passus VI of William Langland's Piers Plowman, where it is used to mean "a small, misshapen egg", from Middle English coken + ey ("a cock's egg").[9] Concurrently, the mythical land of luxury Cockaigne (attested from 1305) appeared under a variety of spellings, including Cockayne, Cocknay, and Cockney, and became humorously associated with the English capital London.[10][12]

The current meaning of Cockney comes from its use among rural Englishmen (attested in 1520) as a pejorative term for effeminate town-dwellers,[14][9] from an earlier general sense (encountered in "The Reeve's Tale" of Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales c. 1386) of a "cokenay" as "a child tenderly brought up" and, by extension, "an effeminate fellow" or "a milksop".[15] This may have developed from the sources above or separately, alongside such terms as "cock" and "cocker" which both have the sense of "to make a nestle-cock ... or darling of", "to indulge or pamper".[17][18] By 1600, this meaning of cockney was being particularly associated with the Bow Bells area.[4][19] In 1617, the travel writer Fynes Moryson stated in his Itinerary that "Londoners, and all within the sound of Bow Bells, are in reproach called Cockneys."[20] The same year, John Minsheu included the term in this newly restricted sense in his dictionary Ductor in Linguas.[24]

Other terms

  • Cockney sparrow: Refers to the archetype of a cheerful, talkative Cockney.
  • Cockney diaspora: The term Cockney diaspora refers to the migration of Cockney speakers to places outside London, especially new towns.[25] It also refers to the descendants of those people, in areas where there was enough migration for an identification with the East End to persist in subsequent generations.
  • Mockney: Refers to a fake Cockney accent, though the term is sometimes also used as a self-deprecatory moniker, by second, third and subsequent generations of the Cockney diaspora.


Originally, when London consisted of little more than the walled City, the term applied to all Londoners, and this lingered into the 19th century.[10] As the city grew the definitions shifted to alternatives based on more specific geography, or of dialect. The terms "East End of London" and "within the sound of Bow bells" are sometimes used interchangeably, and the bells are a symbol of East End identity. The area within earshot of the bells changes with the wind, but there is a correlation between the two geographic definitions under the typical prevailing wind conditions.

London's East End

The traditional core districts of the East End include Bethnal Green, Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Stepney, Wapping, Limehouse, Poplar, Haggerston, Aldgate, Shoreditch, the Isle of Dogs, Hackney, Hoxton, Bow and Mile End. The informal definition of the East End gradually expanded to include towns in south-west Essex such as East Ham, Leyton, Plaistow, Stratford, Barking, Walthamstow and West Ham as these formed part of London's growing conurbation.

Bow Bells' audible range

The church of St Mary-le-Bow is one of the oldest, largest and historically most important of the many churches in the City of London. The definition based on being born within earshot of the bells,[26] cast at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry, reflects the early definition of the term as relating to all of London.

The audible range of the Bells is dependent on geography and wind conditions. The east is mostly low lying, a factor which combines with the strength and regularity of the prevailing wind, blowing from west-south-west for nearly three-quarters of the year,[27] to carry the sound further to the east, and more often. A 2012 study[28] showed that in the 19th century, and under typical conditions, the sound of the bells would carry as far as Clapton, Bow and Stratford in the east but only as far as Southwark to the south and Holborn in the west. An earlier study[29] suggested the sound would have carried even further. The 2012 study showed that in the modern era, noise pollution means that the bells can only be heard as far as Shoreditch. According to legend, Dick Whittington heard the bells 4.5 miles away at the Highgate Archway, in what is now north London. The studies mean that it is credible that Whittington might have heard them on one of the infrequent days that the wind blows from the south.

The church of St. Mary-le-Bow was destroyed in 1666 by the Great Fire of London and rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren. Although the bells were destroyed again in 1941 in the Blitz, they had fallen silent on 13 June 1940 as part of the British anti-invasion preparations of World War II. Before they were replaced in 1961, there was a period when, by the "within earshot" definition, no "Bow Bell" Cockneys could be born.[30] The use of such a literal definition produces other problems, since the area around the church is no longer residential and the noise pollution means few are born within earshot.[31]


Cockney speakers have a distinctive accent and dialect, and occasionally use rhyming slang. The Survey of English Dialects took a recording from a long-time resident of Hackney in the 1950s, and the BBC made another recording in 1999 which showed how the accent had changed.[32][33] One of the characteristic pronunciations of Cockney is th-fronting.

The early development of Cockney vocabulary is obscure, but appears to have been heavily influenced by Essex and related eastern dialects,[34] while borrowings from Yiddish, including kosher (originally Hebrew, via Yiddish, meaning legitimate) and stumm (/?t?m/ originally German, via Yiddish, meaning mute),[35] as well as Romani, for example wonga (meaning money, from the Romani "wanga" meaning coal),[36] and cushty (Kushty) (from the Romani kushtipen, meaning good) reflect the influence of those groups on the development of the speech.

Recording from 1899 of "My Old Dutch" by Albert Chevalier, a music hall performer who based his material on life as a Cockney costermonger in Victorian London.

John Camden Hotten, in his Slang Dictionary of 1859, makes reference to "their use of a peculiar slang language" when describing the costermongers of London's East End.

Migration and evolution

A dialectological study of Leytonstone in 1964 found that the area's dialect was very similar to that recorded in Bethnal Green by Eva Sivertsen but there were still some features that distinguished Leytonstone speech from Cockney.[37]

Linguistic research conducted in the early 2010s suggests that today, certain elements of the Cockney accent are declining in usage within multicultural areas, where some traditional features of Cockney have been displaced by Multicultural London English, a multiethnolect particularly common amongst young people from diverse backgrounds.[38] Nevertheless, the glottal stop, double negatives, and the vocalisation of the dark L (and other features of Cockney speech) are among the Cockney influences on Multicultural London English, and some rhyming slang terms are still in common usage.

An influential July 2010 report by Paul Kerswill, professor of sociolinguistics at Lancaster University, Multicultural London English: the emergence, acquisition and diffusion of a new variety, predicted that the Cockney accent will disappear from London's streets within 30 years.[38] The study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, said that the accent, which has been around for more than 500 years, is being replaced in London by a new hybrid language. "Cockney in the East End is now transforming itself into Multicultural London English, a new, melting-pot mixture of all those people living here who learnt English as a second language", Kerswill said.[38]

A series of new and expanded towns have often had a strong influence on local speech. Many areas beyond the capital have become Cockney-speaking to a greater or lesser degree, including the new towns of Hemel Hempstead, Basildon and Harlow, and expanded towns such as Grays, Chelmsford and Southend. However, this is, except where least mixed, difficult to discern because of common features: linguistic historian and researcher of early dialects Alexander John Ellis in 1890 stated that Cockney developed owing to the influence of Essex dialect on London speech.[34]

Writing in 1981, the dialectologist Peter Wright identified the building of the Becontree estate near Dagenham in Essex as influential in the spread of Cockney dialect. This very large estate was built by the Corporation of London to house poor East Enders in a previously rural area of Essex. The residents typically kept their Cockney dialect rather than adopt an Essex dialect.[39] Wright also reports that cockney dialect spread along the main railway routes to towns in the surrounding counties as early as 1923, spreading further after World War II when many refugees left London owing to the bombing, and continuing to speak Cockney in their new homes.[40]

A more distant example where the accent stands out is Thetford in Norfolk, which tripled in size from 1957 in a deliberate attempt to attract Londoners by providing social housing funded by the London County Council.[41]

Typical features

Closing diphthongs of Cockney on a vowel chart (from Mott (2012:77)). This chart gives only a general idea of the closing diphthongs of Cockney, as they are much more variable than the realizations shown on the chart. There are also two closing diphthongs that are missing, namely /?i, /.
Centering diphthongs of Cockney on a vowel chart (from Mott (2012:77))
  • As with many accents of the United Kingdom, Cockney is non-rhotic. A final -er is pronounced or lowered in broad Cockney. As with all or nearly all non-rhotic accents, the paired lexical sets COMMA and LETTER, PALM/BATH and START, THOUGHT and NORTH/FORCE, are merged. Thus, the last syllable of words such as cheetah can be pronounced as well in broad Cockney.[42][43][44]
  • Broad /?:/ is used in words such as bath, path, demand. This originated in London in the 16th-17th centuries and is also part of Received Pronunciation (RP).[45]
  • T-glottalisation: use of the glottal stop as an allophone of /t/ in various positions,[46][47] including after a stressed syllable. Glottal stops also occur, albeit less frequently for /k/ and /p/, and occasionally for mid-word consonants. For example, Richard Whiteing spelt "Hyde Park" as Hy' Par'. Like and light can be homophones. "Clapham" can be said as Cla'am (i. e., ['klm?]).[45] /t/ may also be flapped intervocalically, e.g. utter [']. London /p, t, k/ are often aspirated in intervocalic and final environments, e.g., upper ['?p], utter ['?t], rocker ['k], up [p?], out [æt?], rock [k?], where RP is traditionally described as having the unaspirated variants. Also, in broad cockney at least, the degree of aspiration is typically greater than in RP, and may often also involve some degree of affrication [p, t, k]. Affricatives may be encountered in initial, intervocalic, and final position.[48][49]
  • Th-fronting:[50]
    • /?/ can become in any environment. [f?n] "thin", [m?fs] "maths".
    • /ð/ can become in any environment except word-initially when it can be [ð, ð?, d, l, ?, ?]. [dæ?] "they", ['b?v?] "bother".[51][52]
  • Yod-coalescence in words such as tune [t:n] or reduce ['d:s] (compare traditional RP ['tju:n, 'dju:s]).[53]
  • The alveolar stops /t/, /d/ are often omitted in informal Cockney, in non-prevocalic environments, including some that cannot be omitted in Received Pronunciation. Examples include ['dæzn?] Dad's gonna and ['t?:n 'lef] turn left.[54]
  • H-dropping. Sivertsen considers that is to some extent a stylistic marker of emphasis in Cockney.[55][56]
  • Diphthong alterations:[57]
    • /i:/ -> [?i~?i]:[58][59] [b?i?] "beet"
    • /e?/ -> [æ?~a?]:[60] [bæ] "bait"
    • /a?/ -> [] or even [] in "vigorous, dialectal" Cockney. The second element may be reduced or absent (with compensatory lengthening of the first element), so that there are variants such as [~:]. This means that pairs such as laugh-life, Barton-biting may become homophones: [l?:f], [b?:?n?]. But this neutralisation is an optional, recoverable one:[61] [b] "bite"
    • // -> [~o?]:[61] ['to?s] "choice"
    • /u:/ -> [] or a monophthongal [?:], perhaps with little lip rounding, [?:] or [?:]:[58][62] [b?:?] "boot"
    • // -> this diphthong typically starts in the area of the London /?/, [æ?~?]. The endpoint may be , but more commonly it is rather opener and/or completely unrounded, i.e. or . Thus, the most common variants are [æ, æ?, ] and [?], with [æ] and [] also being possible. The broadest Cockney variant approaches [a?]. There's also a variant that is used only by women, namely [?ø ~ oe?ø]. In addition, there are two monophthongal pronunciations, as in 'no, nah' and , which is used in non-prominent variants.[63] [k] "coat"
    • // and /e?/ have somewhat tenser onsets than in RP: [i?], [][44][64]
    • //, according to Wells (1982), is being increasingly merged with /?:/ ~ //.[44]
    • /a?/ may be [æ?][64] or [æ?].[65]
    • //, /e?/, //, // and /a?/ can be monophthongised to , , (if it doesn't merge with /?:/ ~ //), and ~ .[65] Wells (1982) states that "no rigid rules can be given for the distribution of monophthongal and diphthongal variants, though the tendency seems to be for the monophthongal variants to be commonest within the utterance, but the diphthongal realisations in utterance-final position, or where the syllable in question is otherwise prominent."[66]
    • Disyllabic [?i.?, ?i.?, ?u.?, æi.?] realizations of /i?, e?, , æ?/ are also possible, and at least [?i.?, ?u.?, æi.?] are regarded as very strongly Cockney.[67] Among these, the triphthongal realization of // occurs most commonly.[68] There is not a complete agreement about the distribution of these; according to Wells (1982), they "occur in sentence-final position",[59] whereas according to Mott (2012), these are "most common in final position".[68]
  • Other vowel differences include
    • /æ/ may be or [], with the latter occurring before voiced consonants, particularly before /d/:[44][69] [b?k] "back", [b?:?d] "bad"
    • /?/ may be [e?], [e?], or [] before certain voiced consonants, particularly before /d/:[44][70][71][72] [be?d] "bed"
    • /?/ may be a somewhat less open :[44] [k] "cot"
    • /?:/ has a fully back variant, qualitatively equivalent to cardinal 5, which Beaken (1971) claims characterises "vigorous, informal" Cockney.[44]
    • /?:/ is on occasion somewhat fronted and/or lightly rounded, giving Cockney variants such as , .[44]
    • /?/ -> or a quality like that of cardinal 4, :[44][69] [d?am?'t?ap?] "jumped up"
    • /?:/ -> or a closing diphthong of the type [o?~?o] when in non-final position, with the latter variants being more common in broad Cockney:[73][74] [so?s] "sauce"-"source", [lo?d] "lord", ['wo] "water"
    • /?:/ -> or a centring diphthong/triphthong of the type [~?u?] when in final position, with the latter variants being more common in broad Cockney; thus [s] "saw"-"sore"-"soar", [l] "law"-"lore", [w] "war"-"wore". The diphthong is retained before inflectional endings, so that board and pause can contrast with bored [bd] and paws [pz].[74] // has a somewhat tenser onset than the cardinal /?/, that is [].[64]
    • // becomes something around [~?o] or even [a?] in broad Cockney before dark l. These variants are retained when the addition of a suffix turns the dark l clear. Thus a phonemic split has occurred in London English, exemplified by the minimal pair wholly ['hli] vs. holy ['hli]. The development of L-vocalisation (see next section) leads to further pairs such as sole-soul [s] vs. so-sew [s], bowl [b] vs. Bow [b], shoulder ['d?] vs. odour ['d?], while associated vowel neutralisations may make doll a homophone of dole, compare dough [d]. All this reinforces the phonemic nature of the opposition and increases its functional load. It is now well-established in all kinds of London-flavoured accents, from broad Cockney to near-RP.[75]
    • /?/ in some words (particularly good)[76] is central .[77] In other cases, it is near-close near-back , as in traditional RP.[77]
  • Vocalisation of dark L, hence ['m?ow?:] for Millwall. The actual realisation of a vocalised /l/ is influenced by surrounding vowels and it may be realised as [u], [?], [o] or [?]. It is also transcribed as a semivowel [w] by some linguists, e.g., Coggle and Rosewarne.[78] However, according to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), the vocalised dark l is sometimes an unoccluded lateral approximant, which differs from the RP [?] only by the lack of the alveolar contact.[79] Relatedly, there are many possible vowel neutralisations and absorptions in the context of a following dark L ([?]) or its vocalised version; these include:[80]
    • In broad Cockney, and to some extent in general popular London speech, a vocalised /l/ is entirely absorbed by a preceding /?:/: e.g., salt and sort become homophones (although the contemporary pronunciation of salt /s?lt/[81] would prevent this from happening), and likewise fault-fought-fort, pause-Paul's, Morden-Malden, water-Walter. Sometimes such pairs are kept apart, in more deliberate speech at least, by a kind of length difference: ['mdn?] Morden vs. ['m:dn?] Malden.
    • A preceding /?/ is also fully absorbed into vocalised /l/. The reflexes of earlier /?l/ and earlier /?:(l)/ are thus phonetically similar or identical; speakers are usually ready to treat them as the same phoneme. Thus awful can best be regarded as containing two occurrences of the same vowel, /'?:f?:/. The difference between musical and music-hall, in an H-dropping broad Cockney, is thus nothing more than a matter of stress and perhaps syllable boundaries.
    • With the remaining vowels a vocalised /l/ is not absorbed, but remains phonetically present as a back vocoid in such a way that /Vl/ and /V/ are kept distinct.
    • The clearest and best-established neutralisations are those of /?~i:~/ and /?~u:~/. Thus rill, reel and real fall together in Cockney as []; while full and fool are [fo?~f?u] and may rhyme with cruel ['ku]. Before clear (i.e., prevocalic) /l/ the neutralisations do not usually apply, thus ['s?li] silly but ['s?il?n] ceiling-sealing, ['f?li] fully but ['f?ul?n] fooling.
    • In some broader types of Cockney, the neutralisation of /?~u:~/ before non-prevocalic /l/ may also involve /?:/, so that fall becomes homophonous with full and fool [f?o].
    • The other pre-/l/ neutralisation which all investigators agree on is that of /æ~e?~a?/. Thus, Sal and sale can be merged as [sæ?], fail and fowl as [fæ?], and Val, vale-veil and vowel as [væ?]. The typical pronunciation of railway is ['?æ?wæ?].
    • According to Siversten, /?:/ and /a?/ can also join in this neutralisation. They may on the one hand neutralise with respect to one another, so that snarl and smile rhyme, both ending [-], and Child's Hill is in danger of being mistaken for Charles Hill; or they may go further into a fivefold neutralisation with the one just mentioned, so that pal, pale, foul, snarl and pile all end in [-æ?]. But these developments are evidently restricted to broad Cockney, not being found in London speech in general.
    • A neutralisation discussed by Beaken (1971) and Bowyer (1973), but ignored by Siversten (1960), is that of /?~~?/. It leads to the possibility of doll, dole and dull becoming homophonous as [d] or [da]. Wells' impression is that the doll-dole neutralisation is rather widespread in London, but that involving dull less so.
    • One further possible neutralisation in the environment of a following non-prevocalic /l/ is that of /?/ and /?:/, so that well and whirl become homophonous as [w].
  • Cockney has been occasionally described as replacing /?/ with /w/. For example, thwee (or fwee) instead of three, fwasty instead of frosty. Peter Wright, a Survey of English Dialects fieldworker, concluded that this was not a universal feature of Cockneys but that it was more common to hear this in the London area than anywhere else in Britain.[82] This description may also be a result of mishearing the labiodental R as /w/, when it is still a distinct phoneme in Cockney.
  • An unstressed final -ow may be pronounced . In broad Cockney this can be lowered to .[43][44] This is common to most traditional, Southern English dialects except for those in the West Country.[83]
  • Grammatical features:[55]
    • Use of me instead of my, for example, "At's me book you got 'ere". (where 'ere' means 'there'). It cannot be used when "my" is emphasised; e.g., "At's my book you got 'ere."
    • Use of ain't
  • Use of double negatives, for example "I didn't see nuffink".[84]

By the 1980s and 1990s, most of the features mentioned above had partly spread into more general south-eastern speech, giving the accent called Estuary English; an Estuary speaker will use some but not all of the Cockney sounds.[85][86][87]


The Cockney accent has long been regarded as an indicator of low status. For example, in 1909 the Conference on the Teaching of English in London Elementary Schools issued by the London County Council, stating that "the Cockney mode of speech, with its unpleasant twang, is a modern corruption without legitimate credentials, and is unworthy of being the speech of any person in the capital city of the Empire".[88] Others defended the language variety: "The London dialect is really, especially on the South side of the Thames, a perfectly legitimate and responsible child of the old kentish tongue [...] the dialect of London North of the Thames has been shown to be one of the many varieties of the Midland or Mercian dialect, flavoured by the East Anglian variety of the same speech".[88] Since then, the Cockney accent has been more accepted as an alternative form of the English language rather than a lesser one, though the low status mark remains. In the 1950s, the only accent to be heard on the BBC (except in entertainment programmes such as The Sooty Show) was the RP of Standard English, whereas nowadays many different accents, including Cockney or accents heavily influenced by it, can be heard on the BBC.[89] In a survey of 2,000 people conducted by Coolbrands in the autumn of 2008, Cockney was voted equal fourth coolest accent in Britain with 7% of the votes, while The Queen's English was considered the coolest, with 20% of the votes.[90] Brummie was voted least popular, receiving just 2%. The Cockney accent often featured in films produced by Ealing Studios and was frequently portrayed as the typical British accent of the lower classes in movies by Walt Disney, though this was only so in London.


Studies have indicated that the heavy use of South East England accents on television and radio may be the cause of the spread of Cockney English since the 1960s.[91][92][93][94] Cockney is more and more influential and some claim that in the future many features of the accent may become standard.[95]


Studies have indicated that working-class adolescents in areas such as Glasgow have begun to use certain aspects of Cockney and other Anglicisms in their speech.[96] infiltrating the traditional Glasgow patter.[97] For example, TH-fronting is commonly found, and typical Scottish features such as the postvocalic /r/ are reduced.[98] Research suggests the use of English speech characteristics is likely to be a result of the influence of London and South East England accents featuring heavily on television, such as the popular BBC One soap opera Eastenders.[91][92][93][94] However, such claims have been criticised.[99]


Certain features of cockney - Th-fronting, L-vocalisation, T-glottalisation, and the fronting of the GOAT and GOOSE vowels - have spread across the south-east of England and, to a lesser extent, to other areas of Britain.[100] However, Clive Upton has noted that these features have occurred independently in some other dialects, such as TH-fronting in Yorkshire and L-vocalisation in parts of Scotland.[101]

The term Estuary English has been used to describe London pronunciations that are slightly closer to RP than Cockney. The variety first came to public prominence in an article by David Rosewarne in the Times Educational Supplement in October 1984.[102] Rosewarne argued that it may eventually replace Received Pronunciation in the south-east. The phonetician John C. Wells collected media references to Estuary English on a website. Writing in April 2013, Wells argued that research by Joanna Przedlacka "demolished the claim that EE was a single entity sweeping the southeast. Rather, we have various sound changes emanating from working-class London speech, each spreading independently".[103]

Pearly Tradition

The Pearly Kings and Queens are famous as an East End institution, but that perception is not wholly correct as they are found in other places across London, including Peckham and Penge in south London.

A costume associated with Cockneys is that of the pearly King or Queen, worn by London costermongers who sew thousands of pearl buttons onto their clothing in elaborate and creative patterns.

Notable Cockneys

Use in films

See also


  1. ^ Green, Jonathon "Cockney". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  2. ^ Miller, Marjorie (8 July 2001). "Say what? Paris's cockney culture looks a bit different". Chicago Tribune.
  3. ^ Oakley, Malcolm (30 September 2013). "History of The East London Cockney"[permanent dead link]. East London History.
  4. ^ a b "Born within the sound of Bow Bells". Retrieved 2013.
  5. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cockney" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 627.
  6. ^ "Estuary English Q and A - JCW". Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  7. ^ Roach, Peter (2009). English Phonetics and Phonology. Cambridge. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-71740-3.
  8. ^ Trudgill, Peter (1999), The Dialects of England (2nd ed.), p. 80, ISBN 0-631-21815-7
  9. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 2009.
  10. ^ a b Hotten, John Camden (1859). "Cockney". A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant, and Vulgar Words. p. 22. Cockney: a native of London. An ancient nickname implying effeminacy, used by the oldest English writers, and derived from the imaginary fool's paradise, or lubberland, Cockaygne.
  11. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.). Oxford University Press. 2009.
  12. ^ Note, however, that the earliest attestation of this particular usage provided by the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1824 and consists of a tongue-in-cheek allusion to an existing notion of "Cockneydom".[11]
  13. ^ Whittington, Robert. Vulgaria. 1520.
  14. ^ "This cokneys and tytyllynges ... [delicati pueri] may abide no sorrow when they come to age ... In this great cytees as London, York, Perusy and such ... the children be so nycely and wantonly brought up ... that commonly they can little good.[13]
  15. ^ Cumberledge, Geoffrey. F. N. Robinson (ed.). The Poetical Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Oxford University Press. p. 70 & 1063.
  16. ^ Locke, John (1695). Some thoughts concerning education (Third ed.). p. 7.
  17. ^ "... I shall explain myself more particularly; only laying down this as a general and certain observation for the women to consider, viz. that most children's constitutions are spoiled, or at least harmed, by cockering and tenderness."[16]
  18. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "cocker, v.1" & "cock, v.6". Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1891
  19. ^ Rowlands, Samuel. The Letting of Humours Blood in the Head-Vaine. 1600.
  20. ^ "Bow Bells". Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 2010.
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ "Cockney (Grose 1811 Dictionary)". Retrieved 2013.
  23. ^ Grose, Francis. "A classical dictionary of the vulgar tongue". Project Gutenberg e-text. Retrieved 2009.
  24. ^ "A Cockney or a Cocksie, applied only to one born within the sound of Bow bell, that is in the City of London". Note, however, that his proffered etymology -- from either "cock" and "neigh" or from the Latin incoctus -- were both erroneous.[21] The humorous folk etymology which grew up around the derivation from "cock" and "neigh" was preserved by Francis Grose's 1785 A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue: "A citizen of London, being in the country, and hearing a horse neigh, exclaimed, Lord! how that horse laughs! A by-stander telling him that noise was called Neighing, the next morning, when the cock crowed, the citizen to shew he had not forgot what was told him, cried out, Do you hear how the Cock Neighs?"[22][23]
  25. ^ Academic paper on speech changes in the Cockney diaspora
  26. ^ "St Mary-le-Bow".
  27. ^ Prevailing wind al LHR
  28. ^ By 24 Acoustics for the Times Atlas of London
  29. ^ In 2000for the City of London - unable to find the details anywhere, but it said the bells would have been heard up to six miles to the east, five miles to the north, three miles to the south, and four miles to the west.
  30. ^ J. Swinnerton, The London Companion (Robson, 2004), p. 21.
  31. ^ Wright (1981), p. 11.
  32. ^ British Library (10 March 2009). "Survey of English Dialects, Hackney, London". Retrieved 2010.
  33. ^ British Library (10 March 2009). "British Library Archival Sound Recordings". Retrieved 2010.
  34. ^ a b Ellis (1890), pp. 35, 57, 58.
  35. ^ "Definition of shtumm". 14 September 2007. Retrieved 2013.
  36. ^ "money slang history, words, expressions and money slang meanings, london cockney money slang words meanings expressions". Retrieved 2013.
  37. ^ Werth, P.N. (1965). The Dialect of Leytonstone, East London (Bachelor). University of Leeds. p. 16.
  38. ^ a b c "Cockney to disappear from London 'within 30 years'". BBC. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  39. ^ Wright (1981), p. 146.
  40. ^ Wright (1981), p. 147.
  41. ^ The Cockneys of Thetford, The Economist, 21 December 2019
  42. ^ Wright (1981), pp. 133-135.
  43. ^ a b "Cockney English". Retrieved 2010.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wells (1982), p. 305.
  45. ^ a b Wright (1981), pp. 136-137.
  46. ^ Sivertsen (1960), p. 111.
  47. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), pp. 34.
  48. ^ Sivertsen (1960), p. 109.
  49. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  50. ^ Sivertsen (1960), p. 124.
  51. ^ Wright (1981), p. 137.
  52. ^ Wells (1982), p. 329.
  53. ^ "Cockney accent - main features". - Journalist blog. 31 July 2011. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  54. ^ Wells (1982), p. 327.
  55. ^ a b Robert Beard. "Linguistics 110 Linguistic Analysis: Sentences & Dialects, Lecture Number Twenty One: Regional English Dialects English Dialects of the World". Retrieved 2010.
  56. ^ Wells (1982:322)
  57. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), pp. 39-41.
  58. ^ a b Matthews (1938), p. 78.
  59. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 306.
  60. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 307-308.
  61. ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 308, 310.
  62. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 306-307.
  63. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 308-310.
  64. ^ a b c Mott (2012), p. 77.
  65. ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 305, 309.
  66. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 305-306.
  67. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 306, 310.
  68. ^ a b Mott (2012), p. 78.
  69. ^ a b Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  70. ^ Sivertsen (1960), p. 54.
  71. ^ Wells (1982), p. 129.
  72. ^ Cruttenden (2001), p. 110.
  73. ^ Matthews (1938), p. 35.
  74. ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 310-311.
  75. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 312-313.
  76. ^ Mott (2011), p. 75.
  77. ^ a b Mott (2012), p. 75.
  78. ^ Sivertsen (1960), p. 132.
  79. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 193.
  80. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 313-317.
  81. ^ "Phonological change in spoken English". 12 March 2007. Retrieved 2010.
  82. ^ Wright (1981), p. 135.
  83. ^ Wright (1981), p. 134.
  84. ^ Wright (1981), p. 122.
  85. ^ "Rosewarne, David (1984). "Estuary English". Times Educational Supplement, 19 (October 1984)". 21 May 1999. Retrieved 2010.
  86. ^ "Wells, John (1994). "Transcribing Estuary English - a discussion document". Speech Hearing and Language: UCL Work in Progress, volume 8, 1994, pp. 259-67". Retrieved 2010.
  87. ^ "Altendorf, Ulrike (1999). "Estuary English: is English going Cockney?" In: Moderna Språk, XCIII, 1, 1-11" (PDF). Retrieved 2010.
  88. ^ a b "5" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  89. ^ "BBC English". BBC English. Retrieved 2010.
  90. ^ Irvine, Chris (September 2008). "RP still most popular accent". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2009.
  91. ^ a b "Soaps may be washing out accent - BBC Scotland". BBC News. 4 March 2004. Retrieved 2010.
  92. ^ a b "We fink, so we are from Glasgow". Retrieved 2013.
  93. ^ a b ""Scots kids rabbitin' like Cockneys" - "Sunday Herald"". Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 2013.
  94. ^ a b [1] Archived 30 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  95. ^ Rogali?ski, Pawe? (2011). British Accents: Cockney, RP, Estuary English. p. 15.
  96. ^ Is TV a contributory factor in accent change in adolescents? - ESRC Society Today
  97. ^ "Cockney creep puts paid to the patter - "Evening Times"". 4 March 2004. Retrieved 2013.
  98. ^ Stuart-Smith, Jane; Timmins, Claire; Tweedie, Fiona (17 April 2007). "'Talkin' Jockney'? Variation and change in Glaswegian accent". Journal of Sociolinguistics. 11 (2): 221-260. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9841.2007.00319.x. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 2010.
  99. ^ A Handbook of Varieties of English, Volume 1, p. 185.
  100. ^ "Joanna Przedlacka, 2002. Estuary English? Frankfurt: Peter Lang" (PDF).
  101. ^ Upton, Clive (2012). "Modern Regional English in the British Isles". In Mugglestone, Lynda (ed.). The Oxford History of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 395.
  102. ^ "Rosewarne, David (1984). "Estuary English". Times Educational Supplement, 19 (October 1984)". 21 May 1999. Retrieved 2010.
  103. ^ Wells, John (17 April 2013). "estuariality". Retrieved 2014.
  104. ^ "From melodic scouse to Adele's cockney - I love the UK's regional accents | Hannah Jane Parkinson". The Guardian. 20 November 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  105. ^ "Danny Baker". Retrieved 2021.
  106. ^ "Grease performers are Barrymore's kind of people". Warrington Guardian. Retrieved 2021.
  107. ^ "BFI Screenonline: Bass, Alfie (1920-1987) Biography". Retrieved 2021.
  108. ^ a b "Amy Winehouse and David Beckham have UK's most hated accents". Retrieved 2021.
  109. ^ "Rob Beckett profile | Taskmaster | Dave Channel". Retrieved 2021.
  110. ^ "Billy Bragg Biography". Retrieved 2021.
  111. ^ "Eric Bristow: The Crafty Cockney - a darts pioneer". BBC Sport. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 2021.
  112. ^ "Screening Room Special: Michael Caine" (29 October 2007). CNN. 25 June 2015.
  113. ^ a b c d Wright (1981), p. 23.
  114. ^ "Charlie Chaplin: A Look Back". Retrieved 2021.
  115. ^ The Subcultures Network (10 March 2017). Fight Back: Punk, Politics and Resistance. Oxford University Press. p. 39.
  116. ^ "The rise and fall of the cockney Pele". Retrieved 2021.
  117. ^ "Brian McFadden Gets Free KFC For A Year Thanks To Gemma Collins". 14 September 2018. Retrieved 2021.
  118. ^ "Roisin Conaty: Destiny's Dickhead - Review". Funny Women. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 2021.
  119. ^ "It's because he's a Londoner". East London and West Essex Guardian Series. Retrieved 2021.
  120. ^ Reines, Jeff (14 November 2018). "Jim Davidson 'cancels' Cornwall gig because 'people don't want me'". CornwallLive. Retrieved 2021.
  121. ^ "Peter Dean | Aston Management". Retrieved 2021.
  122. ^ "The Cockney geezer who rode the punk wave to fame". The Independent. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 2021.
  123. ^ Archive-Kara-Manning. "Cockney Rocker Ian Dury Dead At 57". MTV News. Retrieved 2021.
  124. ^ "Danny Dyer: everything you need to know about the regal cockney". Closer. Retrieved 2021.
  125. ^ Odell, Michael. "'It's weird that a reality show got me here. But no one can have a life which is pure fantasy'". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2021.
  126. ^ "Reality star Joey Essex displays bizarre 'living Ken doll' look at premiere". Retrieved 2021.
  127. ^ Metro, Larushka Ivan-Zadeh for (2 December 2020). "Craig Fairbrass on not being 'a soap person' and getting typecast a 'hard man'". Metro. Retrieved 2021.
  128. ^ "Contents; Cover story: Perry Fenwick. - Free Online Library". Retrieved 2021.
  129. ^ "Camden New Journal - BOOKS". Retrieved 2021.
  130. ^ "Alan Ford". IMDb. Retrieved 2021.
  131. ^ "East End Boys: Cockney Gangster Legends". Retrieved 2021.
  132. ^ "DUMB LIKE A FOX". Chicago Tribune. 15 March 1987.
  133. ^ "BBC - Derby - Around Derby - Richard Blackwood and Dean Gaffney in Derby". Retrieved 2021.
  134. ^ "Darts players target world record". 26 January 2002. Retrieved 2021.
  135. ^ "Clash of the Titans". 9 January 2002. Retrieved 2021.
  136. ^ Bryant, Toby (17 March 2021). "Len Goodman leaves Tipping Point viewers in stitches with unique tactics". KentLive. Retrieved 2021.
  137. ^ Company, Sudo Null. "Sudo Null - Latest IT News". SudoNull. Retrieved 2021.
  138. ^ O'Sullivan, Kevin (2 June 2007). "WHACKY GOINGS ON IN E17". mirror. Retrieved 2021.
  139. ^ Rayner, Stuart (15 November 2014). "Eddie Hearn tells North East boxers: Come and join me". ChronicleLive. Retrieved 2021.
  140. ^ "Exclusive: Behind-the-scenes of Roy Hodgson's mascot rage". 25 August 2018. Retrieved 2021.
  141. ^ Lawless, Jill (22 May 2014). "'Who Framed Roger Rabbit' actor Bob Hoskins dies at 71". Daily Hampshire Gazette. Northampton, USA. Retrieved 2020.
  142. ^ Hildebrandt, Melinda (16 May 2016). "Bob Hoskins". In McFarlane, Brian; Slide, Anthony (eds.). Encyclopedia of British film. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
  143. ^ "Actor Bob Hoskins dies of pneumonia, aged 71". ITV. London, UK. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 2020.
  144. ^ "Bob Hoskins - from big top to big time". BT News. London, UK. 30 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  145. ^ "Bob Hoskins - obituary". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 2020.
  146. ^ Confirmed on Desert Island Discs, 18th November 1988
  147. ^ Kelly, Fergus (13 September 2012). "Former Daily Express Editor Derek Jameson dies of a heart attack". Retrieved 2021.
  148. ^ "Ken vs. Boris in race to be London's Olympic mayor". FOX Sports. Retrieved 2021.
  149. ^ "The last and only time the Sex..." Chicago Tribune.
  150. ^ Dillon, John (11 August 2014). "Frank Maloney, a personal take on his story and new life". Retrieved 2021.
  151. ^ "Former Chislehurst boxing legend Frank Maloney, now Kellie, speaks out over sex change and return to the sport". News Shopper. Retrieved 2021.
  152. ^ Read An East End Life: My Story Online by Derek Martin | Books.
  153. ^ "East End send-off for a 'diamond geezer'". The Independent. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 2021.
  154. ^ "Joe Pasquale - Comedian with an unforgettable voice. He won New Faces and became a regular face on TV, hosting and guesting". Retrieved 2021.
  155. ^ "981947007282663429". Twitter. Retrieved 2021.
  156. ^ Gall, Charlie (1 December 2008). "Exclusive: I'm a Scot at heart, reveals I'm A Celebrity star Joe Swash". Daily Record. Retrieved 2021.
  157. ^ "Profile: Spurred from Queer Street to Wembley: Terry Venables is in a". The Independent. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 2021.
  158. ^ "Profile: Terry Venables: The wide boy with a history of trouble off the pitch". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2021.
  159. ^ "A grand unified theory of Gregg Wallace". 17 December 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  160. ^ "Ray Winstone: Me cockney accent won the role". WhatsonTV (13 November 2016). Retrieved 2017.
  161. ^ "EastEnders star Jake Wood is 'tipped' for latest series of I'm A Celeb". Retrieved 2021.
  162. ^ "Mark Wright". Who Do You Think You Are Magazine. Retrieved 2021.
  163. ^ Bartlett, Samantha (25 October 2016). "Inbetweeners star James Buckley slams Mark Wright: 'He's like a Cockney Kermit the Frog'". Retrieved 2021.
  164. ^ "Stephen Lewis, actor - obituary". The Daily Telegraph. London. 13 August 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  165. ^ "IMDB - Bronco Bullfrog (1970) - Taglines". IMDb. Retrieved 2019.


  • Cruttenden, A. (2001). Gimson's Pronunciation of English (6th ed.). London: Arnold.
  • Ellis, Alexander J. (1890). English dialects: Their Sounds and Homes.
  • Hughes, Arthur; Trudgill, Peter (1979). English Accents and Dialects: An Introduction to Social and Regional Varieties of British English. Baltimore: University Park Press.
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Matthews, William (1938). Cockney, Past and Present: a Short History of the Dialect of London. Detroit: Gale Research Company.
  • Mott, Brian (2012), "Traditional Cockney and popular London speech", Dialectologia, RACO (Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert), 9: 69-94, ISSN 2013-2247
  • Rogali?ski, Pawe? (2011). British Accents: Cockney, RP, Estuary English. ?ód?. ISBN 978-83-272-3282-3.
  • Sivertsen, Eva (1960). Cockney Phonology. Oslo: University of Oslo.
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 1: An Introduction (pp. i-xx, 1-278), Volume 2: The British Isles (pp. i-xx, 279-466). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52129719-2 , 0-52128540-2 .
  • Wright, Peter (1981). Cockney Dialect and Slang. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes