Cobble Hill is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. A small neighborhood comprising 40 blocks, Cobble Hill sits adjacent to Brooklyn Heights to the north, Boerum Hill to the east, Carroll Gardens to the south, and the Columbia Street Waterfront District to the west. It is bounded by Atlantic Avenue (north), Court Street (east), Degraw Street (south) and the Brooklyn Queens Expressway (west). Other sources add to the neighborhood a rectangle bounded by Wyckoff Street on the north, Hoyt Street on the east, Degraw Street on the south, and Court Street on the west.
Through its early history, the area now called "Cobble Hill" was considered to be part of South Brooklyn, Red Hook, or simply the Sixth Ward, or as part of Brooklyn Heights. The current name, a revival of a name which had died out by the 1880s, was adopted in 1959. Much of the neighborhood, which has "one of the city's finest collections of nineteenth-century houses", is included in the Cobble Hill Historic District.
Cobble Hill is part of Brooklyn Community Board 6, and is served by the 76th Precinct of the New York City Police Department at 191 Union Street. Engine Company 206 and Ladder Company 108 of the Fire Department of New York City in nearby Carroll Gardens service the neighborhood.
Cobble Hill - which was named after the conical shaped hill called "Cobleshill" or "Ponkiesbergh", located where the current intersection of Atlantic Avenue, Pacific Street, and Court Street now lies - was originally settled during the 1640s by Dutch farmers when Willem Kieft, the director of New Netherland, granted patents in the area. The hill was used as a fort - known as "Cobble Hill Fort", "Smith's Barbette", or "Corkscrew Fort" - during the American War of Independence; the British cut off the top of the hill during their occupation, so it could not be used to look down on their headquarters in Brooklyn Heights. They also seized the estate of Philip Livingston for use as a naval hospital. Cobble Hill was again fortified for the War of 1812, and was then called "Fort Swift".
In 1834, the Village of Brooklyn - chartered in 1816 and primarily made up of present-day Brooklyn Heights - became a city and soon expanded south beyond Atlantic Street (now Atlantic Avenue) to include South Brooklyn.
Until the establishment of the South Ferry, which connected Atlantic Avenue to Manhattan's Whitehall Street in 1836, South Brooklyn was primarily rural. After that time, with the guidelines for a gridiron street pattern already established in 1834, the area developed rapidly. New streets were being laid progressively, and with the development of new buildings - which started nearer to the waterfront and moved inward - the rural community slowly started changing into a middle-class suburban residential community dominated by small rows of houses, which began to be built as early as 1835. The transformation of the neighborhood was nearly completed by 1860; none of the farm houses from the neighborhood's rural period are extant.
According to the 1840 tax list and street directory, the neighborhood of present-day Cobble Hill contained 45 houses and 112 residents. Although this housing boom caused prices to rise, in 1850 it was still possible for a clerk to pay rent of $200 a year ($6,130 in 2018 dollars) for a row house with a large backyard, albeit on a narrow lot. This provoked an influx of new residents from Manhattan.:728
Philanthropist Alfred Tredway White built two experimental housing projects in the neighborhood. These were the Romanesque revival "Towers" and "Home" buildings (now collectively known as Cobble Hill Towers), at 417-435 and 439-45 Hicks Street, meant as affordable housing for the working class, with adequate light and air for all; and the "Workingman's Cottages" of Warren Place, a one block mews from Warren Street to Baltic Street between Henry and Hicks Streets, which was two rows of narrow single family houses (11 feet (3.4 m) wide) built around a private courtyard. These were intended for slightly more upscale workers. All were built on adjoining lots in 1876 and were designed by William Field & Son; they were restored in 1986 by Maitland, Strauss & Behr. With these projects, which served Native Americans, Irish, Swedes, Norwegians, English, and German workmen, White became the first builder of low rent/low profit housing in the United States. His philosophy was "Philanthropy plus 5%".
Beginning in the 1840s and progressing into the 1870s, wealthier Manhattanites, including bankers and merchants, began to move to various parts of Brooklyn, including Cobble Hill.:971-972 By 1880 the population of the area was solidly upper-middle class, and the cost of houses had almost equaled those in Brooklyn Heights, of which Cobble Hill was an outgrowth.:719
The Cobble Hill Historic District Designation Report lists the architecture of the neighborhood as including many rowhouses in the Greek Revival and Italianate styles and their offshoots, but also examples of the Romanesque Revival, Gothic Revival, Queen Anne, French Second Empire, and neo-Grec styles.
The 20th century saw an influx of immigrants into the neighborhood from Ireland, Italy, and the Middle East; some low-rise apartment buildings were constructed prior to the 1920s. After a period of relative quiet, by 1950, brownstones were being rejuvenated and the neighborhood began to experience a renaissance, leading to the revival of the "Cobble Hill" name, perhaps engendered by a real estate agent who saw the name "Cobles Hill" on a 1766 map and updated it. Organized community groups fought against large housing projects, and prevailed on the city to make the area an historic district.
The historic district - first designated by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (NYLPC) on December 20, 1969 and extended on June 7, 1988, - is roughly bordered by Atlantic Avenue to the north, Court Street to the east, Degraw Street to the south, and Hicks Street to the west, with a "bite" removed from the northeast corner of that rectangle. Its area measures approximately twenty-two city blocks. According to the NYLPC, the Cobble Hill Historic District is an "unusually fine 19th century residential area" and "retains an aura of the past with its charming streets and architecture." The Cobble Hill Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.
Today on the two main commercial streets - Court and Smith Streets - generations-old family-run stores and businesses such as Italian meat markets and old time barber shops sit side-by-side with trendy new shops, restaurants, and cafes. Atlantic Avenue, the northern border of the neighborhood, features one of New York City's largest collections of Middle-Eastern shops, some of which have been there for decades. The northern part of Smith Street is known as Brooklyn's "Restaurant Row" due to the large number of eateries and watering holes that opened on the street during the late 1990s and early 2000s. With a second blossoming of specialized bars along the corridor in the late 2000s, Smith Street became an upscale weekend nightlife destination.
Cobble Hill Park, on Clinton Street between Verandah Place and Congress Street, was created in 1965. The site had been the location of two mansions (the Weber and Whitten Mansions) and the Second Unitarian Church, which was abandoned by the 1940s, when the site was purchased by the Bohack Corporation, a supermarket chain. The mansions were demolished, and in the 1960s the corporation planned to build a supermarket on the site, a proposition which was opposed by the Cobble Hill community, which felt the need for a park for the neighborhood. Bohack sold the site to developers in 1962, who planned to build a low-rise apartment building. The community collected signatures and successfully petitioned the city to create a park.
The city bought the property in 1963 and the park was dedicated in 1965. It was reconstructed in 1989, winning the 1988 Annual Award for Excellence in Design from the Art Commission and the Parks Council's Philip Winslow Award for Public Projects in 1990, the first time it was awarded. The new design reflected the 19th-century brick-and-stone character of the tree-lined neighborhood.
Christ Church and Holy Family Episcopal Church by Richard Upjohn (1841-42)
Strong Place Baptist Church by Minard Lafever, later St. Francis Cabrini Roman Catholic Chapel, now apartments (1851-52)
Old St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church by Gamaliel King (1838, with later additions)
Congregation Baith Israel Anshei Emes, the oldest Jewish congregation in Brooklyn, is located in the Kane Street Synagogue, originally built as the Middle Dutch Reformed Church (1855-56)
In the northeast corner of the neighborhood, located partially in the Historic District, was University Hospital of Brooklyn at Long Island College Hospital, which was founded by German immigrants in 1857. It began a school of medicine, the Long Island College of Medicine, in 1850; the school became a separate institution in 1930, and since 1954 was the primary teaching affiliate of SUNY Downstate Medical Center. The first private bacteriological laboratory in the United States, Hoagland Laboratory, was built in 1888 at 335 Henry Street, but was destroyed by fire and is no longer extant. The Polhemus Building, now Polhemus Memorial Clinic, was built in 1897 and was designed by Marshall Emery in the French Mannerist style. Dudley Memorial, designed by William Hough was built in 1902. Other buildings were designed by D. Everett Waid and William Higginson. Further expansion took place in the modern era, with buildings raised in 1963, 1974, 1984, and 1988. The hospital was the sixth largest in Brooklyn. After the closure of Long Island College Hospital in August 2014, a freestanding emergency department--NYU Cobble Hill, part of NYU Langone Medical Center--opened in October 2014. The hospital plans to replace the existing facility with a new ambulatory care center and freestanding emergency department at the site, estimated to cost $200 million.
The Cobble Hill Tunnel, under Atlantic Avenue, was built in 1844 to replace the railroad tracks that ran down the middle of Atlantic Avenue as part of the Atlantic Avenue Railroad. Trains used these tracks to transport goods to and from the waterfront during the 1840s, and the tunnel was built to avoid the trains' need to climb a steep hill. The tunnel is now abandoned, but originally ran from Times Plaza to the Ferry Terminal. The brick-lined vaulted tunnel is 17 feet (5.2 m) high by 21 feet (6.4 m) wide and 1,611 feet (491 m) long. Walt Whitman, the poet and editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, said the tunnel was "a passage of solemnity and darkness".
New York City Subway service is available at the Bergen Street station on the IND Culver Line ( and trains). The B61 and B63 (Atlantic Avenue) and B57 (Court Street) bus routes also serve the area.
The emergency department that opened when Brooklyn's Long Island College Hospital closed is getting a $204 million overhaul. NYU Langone Medical Center disclosed in a state filing that it wants to build an ambulatory care center and freestanding emergency department on the site in Cobble Hill, replacing a nearby facility that has been handling patients' health care needs.... The current freestanding emergency department opened last October.
'To me, and this is partly generational, it feels like the seventies were the last time it was possible to collectively imagine the world as something other than what it is,' says the author over sushi near his home in Cobble Hill, where he lives with his wife, Elise, and two young sons.
Todd Rosenberg's two hermit crabs -- dull pets of last resort, yes, but the landlord bans dogs and Mr. Rosenberg is allergic to cats -- reside in a tacky aquarium next to the broken blue vacuum cleaner and other deceased appliances stored in the hall outside his Warren Street walk-up in Cobble Hill, Brooklyn.
Or the fact that her grandmother helped pay for her nice Cobble Hill, Brooklyn apartment when she was a struggling, jobless actress.
God of Carnage unleashes its all-star quartet, disguised as concerned parents of boys who have just had a violent after-school altercation, in a fussy loft in one of those Brooklyn neighborhoods that have become a pricey residential annex of Manhattan. This is where Veronica (Harden), a writer and art lover with a particular obsession with all things African, and her husband, Michael (Gandolfini), a household goods wholesaler, live with their two children, one of whom has just had a couple of his teeth knocked out in Cobble Hill Park.