Close Front Unrounded Vowel
Get Close Front Unrounded Vowel essential facts below. View Videos or join the Close Front Unrounded Vowel discussion. Add Close Front Unrounded Vowel to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Close Front Unrounded Vowel
Close front unrounded vowel
IPA Number301
Entity (decimal)i
Unicode (hex)U+0069
Braille? (braille pattern dots-24)
Audio sample

The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet--and often called long-e in American English.[2] Although in English this sound has additional length (usually being represented as /i:/) and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong), some dialects have been reported to pronounce the phoneme as a pure sound.[3] A pure [i] sound is also heard in many other languages, such as French, in words like chic.

The close front unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the palatal approximant [j]. They alternate with each other in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, [i?] with the non-syllabic diacritic and [j] are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.

Languages that use the Latin script commonly use the letter ⟨i⟩ to represent this sound, though there are some exceptions: in English orthography that letter is usually associated with /a?/ (as in bite) or /?/ (as in bit), and /i:/ is more commonly represented by ⟨e⟩, ⟨ea⟩, ⟨ee⟩, ⟨ie⟩ or ⟨ei⟩, as in the words scene, bean, meet, niece, conceive; (see Great Vowel Shift). Irish orthography reflects both etymology and whether preceding consonants are broad or slender, so such combinations as ⟨aí⟩, ⟨ei⟩, and ⟨aío⟩ all represent /i:/.


  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned close to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned forward in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[4] dief [dif] 'thief' See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard[5] /diin [d?i:n] 'religion' See Arabic phonology
Catalan[6] sic ['sik] 'sic' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin[7][8] ? / q? 'seven' See Standard Chinese phonology
Chuvash ç [ip] 'thread'
Czech[9][10] bílý 'white' See Czech phonology
Dutch[11][12] biet 'beet' See Dutch phonology
English[13] All dialects free 'free' Depending on dialect, can be pronounced as a diphthong. See English phonology
Australian[14] bit [bit] 'bit' Also described as near-close front .[15] See Australian English phonology
French[16][17] fini [fini] 'finished' See French phonology
German[18][19] Ziel 'goal' See Standard German phonology
Greek Modern Standard[20][21] ?? / kípos ['c?ipo?s?] 'garden' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[] Modern Standard ? [?ä?ivä] 'thinking' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[22] ív [i:v] 'arch' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[23] bile ['bi:le?] 'rage' See Italian phonology
Japanese[24] ?/gin 'silver' See Japanese phonology
Khmer / lôtth? [latt?i?] 'doctrine' See Khmer phonology
Korean[25] / ai [?i] 'child' See Korean phonology
Kurdish[26][27] Kurmanji (Northern) ?îr [?i:?] 'milk' See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central) /?îr
Palewani (Southern)
Lithuanian vyras [vi:r?s?] 'man' See Lithuanian orthography
Malay Malaysian Malay ikut [i.k?t] 'to follow' See Malay phonology
Polish[28] mi? 'teddy bear' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[29] fino 'thin' Also occurs as an unstressed allophone of other vowels. May be represented by ⟨y⟩. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[30] insul? ['in?s?ul?] 'island' See Romanian phonology
Rungus[31] rikot ['ri.kot] 'to come'
Russian[32] ??/list 'leaf' Only occurs word-initially or after palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[33] ?? / vile [?île?] 'hayfork' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[34] tipo ['t?ipo?] 'type' May also be represented by ⟨y⟩. See Spanish phonology
Sotho[35] ho bitsa [hu?bit?s'] 'to call' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[35] See Sotho phonology
Swedish Central Standard[36][37] bli [bli:] 'to stay' Often realized as a sequence [ij] or [i?] (hear the word: ); it may also be fricated [i?:] or, in some regions, fricated and centralized .[37][38] See Swedish phonology
Tagalog ibon ['?ib?n] 'bird'
Thai[39] ?/krit [krìt] 'dagger'
Turkish[40][41] ip [ip] 'rope' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[42] ??/misto ['misto] 'city, town' See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh es i [e:s i:] 'I went' See Welsh phonology
Yoruba[43] síbí [síbí] 'spoon'


  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Maddox, Maeve. "DailyWritingTips: The Six Spellings of "Long E"". Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ Labov, William; Sharon, Ash; Boberg, Charles (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter. chpt. 17. ISBN 978-3-11-016746-7.
  4. ^ Donaldson (1993), p. 2.
  5. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 38.
  6. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  7. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  8. ^ Duanmu (2007), pp. 35-36.
  9. ^ Dankovi?ová (1999), p. 72.
  10. ^ ?imá?ková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 228.
  11. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  12. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  13. ^ Roach (2004), p. 240.
  14. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007), p. 344.
  15. ^ Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 65.
  16. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  17. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  18. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 78, 107.
  19. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  20. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  21. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  22. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  23. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  24. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  25. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  26. ^ Thackston (2006a), p. 1.
  27. ^ Khan & Lescot (1970), pp. 8-16.
  28. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  29. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 92.
  30. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  31. ^ Forschner, T. A. (December 1994). Outline of A Momogun Grammar (Rungus Dialect) (PDF). Kudat. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2020.
  32. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 30.
  33. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  34. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  35. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  36. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  37. ^ a b Riad (2014), p. 21.
  38. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 141.
  39. ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 24.
  40. ^ Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  41. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  42. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  43. ^ Bamgbo?e (1969), p. 166.


External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes