Close-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
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Close-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
Close-mid front unrounded vowel
e
IPA Number302
Encoding
Entity (decimal)e
Unicode (hex)U+0065
X-SAMPAe
Braille? (braille pattern dots-15)
Audio sample

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩.

For the close-mid front unrounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨?⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨e⟩, the vowel is listed here.

There is also the mid front unrounded vowel (About this soundlisten ) in some languages, which is slightly lower. It is normally written ⟨e⟩, but if precision is required, diacritics may be used, such as ⟨e?⟩ or ⟨⟩ (the former, indicating lowering, being more common).

For many of the languages that have only one phonemic front unrounded vowel in the mid-vowel area (neither close nor open), the vowel is pronounced as a true mid vowel and is phonetically distinct from either a close-mid or open-mid vowel. Examples are Basque, Spanish, Romanian, Japanese, Turkish, Finnish, Greek, Hejazi Arabic, Serbo-Croatian and Korean (Seoul dialect). A number of dialects of English also have such a mid front vowel. However, there is no general predisposition. Igbo and Egyptian Arabic, for example, have a close-mid [e], and Bulgarian has an open-mid [?], but none of these languages have another phonemic mid front vowel.

Kensiu, spoken in Malaysia and Thailand, is claimed to be unique in having true-mid vowels that are phonemically distinct from both close-mid and open-mid vowels, without differences in other parameters such as backness or roundedness.[2]

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[3] bed [bet] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. The height varies between close-mid [e] and mid .[3] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Hejazi[4] ? [be?:t] 'home' Mid.[4] See Hejazi Arabic phonology
Azerbaijani gec? [?e'dæ] 'night'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[5] [example needed]
Breton[6] [example needed] Unstressed /?/ can be mid or close-mid instead.[6]
Catalan[7] més [mes] 'more' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin[8] ? / y? 'also' Mid.[8] See Standard Chinese phonology
Shanghainese[9] ? [ke] 'should' Near-front; realization of /?/, which appears only in open syllables. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /?/ , which appears only in closed syllables.[9]
Danish Standard[10][11] hæl ['he:?l] 'heel' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?:⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[12] vreemd [vre:mt] 'strange' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [e?]. See Dutch phonology
Some speakers[13] zet [zt] 'shove' (n.) Open-mid in Standard Dutch.[13] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[14] bed [bed] 'bed' See Australian English phonology
Conservative Received Pronunciation Mid; often realized as open-mid in contemporary RP. See English phonology
New Zealand[15] The height varies from near-close in broad varieties to mid in the Cultivated variety.[15] See New Zealand English phonology
General American[16] may [me:] 'may' Most often a closing diphthong [e?].[16]
General Indian[17]
General Pakistani[18] Can be a diphthong [e?] instead, depending on speaker.
Geordie[19]
Scottish[20]
Singaporean[21]
Ulster[22] Pronounced [?:~i?] in Belfast.
Some Cardiff speakers[23] square [skwe:] 'square' More often open-mid .[23]
Yorkshire[24] play [ple?:] 'play'
Scottish[20] bit [bë] 'bit' Near-front,[20] may be (also ) instead for other speakers.
Cockney[25] bird [b:d] 'bird' Near-front; occasional realization of /?:/. It can be rounded or, more often, unrounded central instead.[25] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?:⟩.
Estonian[26] keha ['ke?] 'body' See Estonian phonology
Finnish[27][28] menen ['me?ne?n] 'I go' Mid.[27][28] See Finnish phonology
French[29][30] beauté [bot?e] 'beauty' See French phonology
German Standard[31][32] Seele 'soul' See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[33] Jäger ['je:] 'hunter' Outcome of the /?:-e:/ merger found universally in Northern Germany, Eastern Germany and Eastern Austria (often even in formal speech) and in some other regions.[33] See Standard German phonology
Southern accents[34] Bett [b?et] 'bed' Common realization of /?/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[34] See Standard German phonology
Swabian accent[34] Contrasts with the open-mid .[34] See Standard German phonology
Bernese dialect[35] rède ['rd] 'to speak' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. See Bernese German phonology
Greek Modern Standard[36] ??? / pes [pe?s?] 'say!' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[37] [ke?n] 'yes' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[38] hét [he:t?] 'seven' Also described as mid .[39] See Hungarian phonology
Ibibio[40] [sé?] 'look' Mid.[40]
Icelandic[41] kenna ['cn:ä] 'to teach' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. The long allophone is often diphthongized to [e?].[42] See Icelandic phonology
Italian Standard[43] stelle ['s?t?elle] 'stars' See Italian phonology
Standard[44] crederci ['kre:d?e?rti] 'to believe' Common realization of the unstressed /e/.[44] See Italian phonology
Northern accents[45] penso ['peso] 'I think' Common realization of /e/.[45] See Italian phonology
Japanese[46] 'smile' Mid.[46] See Japanese phonology
Jebero[47] ['i?ë?k] 'bat' Near-front; possible realization of /?/.[47]
Limburgish Most dialects[48][49][50] leef [le:f] 'dear' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Maastrichtian[48] bèd [bt] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩.
Norwegian le [le:] 'laugh' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian.[51][52] See Norwegian phonology
Urban East[53][54] nett [nt:] 'net' See Norwegian phonology
Persian [se] 'three'
Polish[55] dzie? 'day' Allophone of /?/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[56] mesa ['mez?] 'table' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[57] fete ['fe?t?e?] 'girls' Mid.[57] See Romanian phonology
Russian[58] ??? 'neck' Close-mid [e] before and between soft consonants, mid [e?] after soft consonants.[58] See Russian phonology
Saterland Frisian[59] tään [te?:n] 'thin' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?:⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /?/ . The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨e:⟩ is actually near-close .[59]
Serbo-Croatian[60] ??? / tek [tk] 'only' Mid.[60] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[61] sedem ['sè:d?m] 'seven' See Slovene phonology
velikan [?e?li'ká?:n] 'giant' Unstressed vowel,[62] as well as an allophone of /e/ before /j/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[63] See Slovene phonology
Slovak Standard[64][65] beha? ['bäc?] 'to run' Mid;[64][65] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. See Slovak phonology
Sotho[66] ho jwetsa [h?et?s'] 'to tell' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[66] See Sotho phonology
Spanish[67] bebé [be?'e?] 'baby' Mid.[67] See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[68][69] se [s?e:] 'see' Often diphthongized to [e] (hear the word: ). See Swedish phonology
Upper Sorbian njebjo ['?b] 'sky' Allophone of /?/ between soft consonants and after a soft consonant, excluding /j/ in both cases.[70] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Tahitian vahine [vahine] 'woman'
Tera[71] ze [zè?:] 'spoke'
Turkish[72][73] ev [e?v] 'house' Mid.[72][73] See Turkish phonology
Yoruba[74] [example needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Bishop, N. (1996). A preliminary description of Kensiw (Maniq) phonology. Mon-Khmer Studies Journal, 25.
  3. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded mid-front vowel /?/".
  4. ^ a b Abdoh (2010), p. 84.
  5. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  6. ^ a b Ternes (1992), p. 433.
  7. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  8. ^ a b Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  9. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  10. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  11. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  12. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  13. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  14. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  15. ^ a b Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 609.
  16. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 487.
  17. ^ Wells (1982), p. 626.
  18. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1010.
  19. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268-269.
  20. ^ a b c Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  21. ^ Deterding (2000), p. ?.
  22. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF).
  23. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  24. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 179.
  25. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 305.
  26. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  27. ^ a b Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  28. ^ a b Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  29. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  30. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  31. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  32. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  33. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 64-65.
  34. ^ a b c d Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  35. ^ Marti (1985), p. 27.
  36. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  37. ^ Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  38. ^ Krá? (1988), p. 92.
  39. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  40. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  41. ^ Brodersen (2011).
  42. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 57-60.
  43. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  44. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), pp. 137-138.
  45. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 137.
  46. ^ a b Okada (1999), p. 117.
  47. ^ a b Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 101.
  48. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  49. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  50. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  51. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13-14.
  52. ^ Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 4.
  53. ^ Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15-16.
  54. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  55. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 106.
  56. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  57. ^ a b Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  58. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 41, 44.
  59. ^ a b Peters (2017), p. ?.
  60. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  61. ^ ?u?tar?i?, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 137.
  62. ^ Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF).
  63. ^ ?u?tar?i?, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 138.
  64. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  65. ^ a b Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  66. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  67. ^ a b Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  68. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  69. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  70. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), p. 34.
  71. ^ Tench (2007), p. 230.
  72. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  73. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  74. ^ Bamgbo?e (1969), p. 166.

References

External links


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Close-mid_front_unrounded_vowel
 



 



 
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