Close-mid Back Unrounded Vowel
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Close-mid Back Unrounded Vowel
Close-mid back unrounded vowel
?
IPA Number315
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɤ
Unicode (hex)U+0264
X-SAMPA7
Braille? (braille pattern dots-256)? (braille pattern dots-135)
Audio sample

The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨?⟩, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, ⟨?⟩, which has a descender. Despite that, some writings[2] use this symbol for the voiced velar fricative.

Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was ⟨Latin letter small capital Gamma.svg⟩, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top; this symbol was in turn derived from and replaced the inverted small capital A, ???, that represented the sound before the 1928 revision to the IPA.[3] The symbol was ultimately revised to be ⟨Ram's horns.svg⟩, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gamma?⟩.[4]Unicode provides only ɤ LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN (HTML ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aklanon saeamat [samat] 'thanks'
Bashkir ??/tu?ïð 'nine'
Chinese Southern Min ?/ô [] 'oyster'
English Cape Flats[5] foot [f?t] 'foot' Possible realization of /?/; may be or instead.[5] See South African English phonology
Indian South African[6] Possible realization of /?/; may be a weakly rounded instead.[6] See South African English phonology
Estonian[7] kõrv [k?rv] 'ear' Can be close-mid central or close back instead, depending on the speaker.[7] See Estonian phonology
Gayo[8] kule [ku'l?:] 'tiger' Close-mid or mid; one of the possible allophones of /?/.[8]
Irish Ulster[9] Uladh [?lu] 'Ulster' See Irish phonology
Kaingang[10] mo ['?b?] 'tail' Varies between back [?] and central [11]
Korean Gyeongsang dialect /geogi ['k?] 'there' See Korean phonology
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect mânp?umán [?mã'pu?mã?] 'it was squeezed' May be central instead. See Taos phonology
Scottish Gaelic doirbh [drv] 'difficult' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Thai[12] ???/thoe [t:] 'you'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  3. ^ International Phonetic Association (1912). The principles of the International Phonetic Association. Paris, Association Phonétique Internationale. pp. 10.
  4. ^ Nicholas, Nick (2003). "Greek-derived IPA symbols". Greek Unicode Issues. University of California, Irvine. Archived from the original on 2013-12-19. Retrieved .
  5. ^ a b Finn (2004), p. 970.
  6. ^ a b Mesthrie (2004), p. 956.
  7. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 369.
  8. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  9. ^ Ní Chasaide (1999:114-115)
  10. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676-677, 682.
  11. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  12. ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 25.

References

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367-372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
  • Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823869-X
  • Eades, Domenyk; Hajek, John (2006), "Gayo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 107-115, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002416
  • Finn, Peter (2004), "Cape Flats English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 934-984, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675-685
  • Mesthrie, Rajend (2004), "Indian South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 953-963, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111-16, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Nowikow, Wieczys?aw (2012) [First published 1992], Fonetyka hiszpa?ska (3rd ed.), Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 978-83-01-16856-8
  • Tingsabadh, M. R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (1): 24-28, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746

External links


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Close-mid_back_unrounded_vowel
 



 



 
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