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Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also called cleidocranial dysplasia, is a birth defect that mostly affects the bones and teeth. The collarbones are typically either poorly developed or absent, which allows the shoulders to be brought close together. The front of the skull often does not close until later, and those affected are often shorter than average. Other symptoms may include a prominent forehead, wide set eyes, abnormal teeth, and a flat nose. Symptoms vary among people; however, intelligence is typically unaffected.
Treatment includes supportive measures such as a device to protect the skull and dental care. Surgery may be performed to fix certain bone abnormalities. Life expectancy is generally normal.
It affects about one per million people. Males and females are equally commonly affected. Modern descriptions of the condition date to at least 1896. The term is from cleido meaning collarbone, cranial from the Greek ? meaning skull, and dysostosis meaning formation of abnormal bone.
Cleidocranial dysostosis is a general skeletal condition so named from the collarbone (cleido-) and cranium deformities which people with it often have.
People with the condition usually present with a painless swelling in the area of the clavicles at 2-3 years of age. Common features are:
Clavicles (collarbones) can be partly missing leaving only the medial part of the bone. In 10% of cases, they are completely missing. If the collarbones are completely missing or reduced to small vestiges, this allows hypermobility of the shoulders including ability to touch the shoulders together in front of the chest. The defect is bilateral 80% of the time. Partial collarbones may cause nerve damage symptoms and therefore have to be removed by surgery.
A soft spot or larger soft area in the top of the head where the fontanelle failed to close, or the fontanelle closes late.
Bones and joints are underdeveloped. People are shorter and their frames are smaller than their siblings who do not have the condition.
The permanent teeth include supernumerary teeth. Unless these supernumeraries are removed they will crowd the adult teeth in what already may be an underdeveloped jaw. If so, the supernumeraries will probably need to be removed to make space for the adult teeth. Up to 13 supernumerary teeth have been observed. Teeth may also be displaced. Cementum formation may be deficient.
Different features of the dysostosis are significant. Radiological imaging helps confirm the diagnosis. During gestation (pregnancy), clavicular size can be calculated using available nomograms. Wormian bones can sometimes be observed in the skull.
Diagnosis of CCD spectrum disorder is established in an individual with typical clinical and radiographic findings and/or by the identification of a heterozygous pathogenic variant in RUNX2 (CBFA1).
Poor development of the clavicles and a bell-shaped rib cage in a person with CCD
Around 5 years of age, surgical correction may be necessary to prevent any worsening of the deformity. If the mother has dysplasia, caesarian delivery may be necessary. Craniofacial surgery may be necessary to correct skull defects. Coxa vara is treated by corrective femoral osteotomies. If there is brachial plexus irritation with pain and numbness, excision of the clavicular fragments can be performed to decompress it. In case of open fontanelle, appropriate headgear may be advised by the orthopedist for protection from injury.
Several studies have reported that life expectancy appears to be normal for people with CCD.
Cleidocranial dysostosis affects about one per million people.
In 1987, a young girl named Jessica McClure fell down a narrow well pipe in her family's Texas property. Ron Short, a roofing contractor who was born without collarbones because of cleidocranial dysostosis and thus could collapse his shoulders to work in cramped corners, arrived at the site and offered to go down the shaft. The rescuers did not end up using him, though McClure was successfully recovered from the well.
^Saraswathivilasam S. Suresh, A Family With Cleidocranial Dysplasia And Crossed Ectopic Kidney In One Child, Acta Orthop. Belg. 2009, N° 4 (Vol. 75/4) p.521-527. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-06-26. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
^ abLovell, Wood (2006). Lovell & Winter's Pediatric Orthopaedics, 6e. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 240. ISBN9780781753586.
^Nebgen, Denise; Wood, Robert S.; Shapiro, Robert D. (1991). "Management of a mandibular fracture in a patient with cleidocranial dysplasia: Report of a case and review of the literature". Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 49 (4): 405-409. doi:10.1016/0278-2391(91)90380-5. PMID2005496.