Claude Burdin
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Claude Burdin
Claude Burdin
Claude Burdin.jpg
Born(1788-03-19)19 March 1788
Died12 November 1873(1873-11-12) (aged 85)
CitizenshipDuchy of Savoy, France
Alma materÉcole Polytechnique, École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris
OccupationEngineer
Known forThe promoter and creator of the first modern water turbine
AwardsLegion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg Knight of the Legion of Honour

Claude Burdin (French: [klod byr.d]; 19 March 1788 – 12 November 1873) was a French engineer. Born in Lépin-le-Lac, Savoie, when it was known as the Duchy of Savoy, he was professor at the school of mines, École nationale supérieure des mines de Saint-Étienne, in Saint-Étienne.[1] He became a French citizen on June 4, 1817. He proposed the concept and developed the term turbine from the Greek word , meaning "whirling" or a "vortex".

Biography

Burdin was born on March 19, 1788 in the Duchy of Savoy. He was part of the class 1807 of the École polytechnique and the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris. He became a professor at the École nationale supérieure des mines de Saint-Étienne. Burdin spent most of his engineering career in Clermont-Ferrand.

In 1822, Burdin submitted his memo "Des turbines hydrauliques ou machines rotatoires à grande vitesse" (Hydraulic turbines or high-speed rotary machines) to the Académie royale des sciences in Paris.[2] However, it was not until 1824 that a committee of the Académie (composed of Prony, Dupin, and Girard) reported favorably on Burdin's memo.[3]

Working on water wheels, he was the promoter and creator of the first modern water turbine, an invention which was perfected by his pupil in Saint-Étienne, Benoît Fourneyron. This turbine - with a vertical axis - was installed in 1825 in a mill located in Pontgibaud; it had an energy efficiency of 67%.[4]

He became a corresponding member of the Académie de Savoie on July 4, 1834[5][6] and of the Académie des sciences in 1842.

References

  1. ^ Carlisle, Rodney P. (2004-07-19). Scientific American inventions and discoveries. John Wiley and Sons. p. 317. ISBN 0-471-24410-4.
  2. ^ Crochard; François Arago; Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, eds. (1822). "Séance du lundi 14 octobre". Annales de chimie et de physique. Paris: Crochard. 21: 183.
  3. ^ Prony; Girard (1824). "Rapport sur le mémoire de M. Burdin intitulé: Des turbines hydrauliques ou machines rotatoires à grande vitesse". Annales de chimie et de physique. Paris: Crochard. pp. 207-217.
  4. ^ Éric Barbier (October 17, 2011). "Technologie : Claude Burdin, un ingénieur du XIX e siècle, a fait l'essentiel de sa carrière à Clermont-Ferrand". www.lamontagne.fr. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  5. ^ "Etat des Membres de l'Académie des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts de Savoie depuis sa fondation (1820) jusqu'à 1909". www.academiesavoie.org. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ "Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Savoie". cths.fr. Retrieved 2020.

Sources

  • Bryan H. Bunch, Alexander Hellemans (2004). The history of science and technology : a browser's guide to the great discoveries, inventions, and the people who made them, from the dawn of time to today. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-6182-2123-3.

External links

  • Extract of "Le corps des mines aux XIX et au XX siècles", "Claude BURDIN (1788-1873)". annales.org. Annales des Mines. Retrieved 2012.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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