Civil War (college Football Game)
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Civil War College Football Game
Other namesCivil War (1929-2019)
Oregon Classic (1894-1928)
State Championship Game
(1894-1928)
SportCollege football
First meetingNovember 3, 1894
126 years ago
OAC 16, Oregon 0
Latest meetingNovember 27, 2020
Oregon State 41, Oregon 38
Next meeting2021 in Eugene
Statistics
Meetings total124
All-time seriesOregon leads, 66-48-10 (.573)[1]
Largest victoryOregon, 69-10  (2017)
Longest win streakOregon, 8 (1975-82, 2008-15)
Oregon State, 8 (1964-71)
Current win streakOregon State, 1 (2020-present)
Locations of Oregon and Oregon State

The Oregon-Oregon State football rivalry was an American college football rivalry game played annually in the state of Oregon, between the Ducks of the University of Oregon in Eugene and the Beavers of Oregon State University in Corvallis as part of their ongoing college rivalry.[2]

The rivalry was officially known as the Civil War until 2020, when both schools announced on June 20 they would no longer refer to the game by that name because of its "connection to a war fought to perpetuate slavery."[3]

First played 126 years ago in 1894, it is the fifth-most played college football rivalry game in the Football Bowl Subdivision. Both universities are members of the North Division of the Pac-12 Conference and the campuses are less than fifty miles (80 km) apart in the Willamette Valley. The series has now been played continuously since 1945.

Series history

The game was first played in 1894 and has been contested 122 times through 2018; Oregon leads the series The game was not held in 1900, 1901, 1911, 1943, and 1944 and two games were played in 1896 and 1945. The first reference to the "Civil War" name was in 1929 and came into common use in 1937. Prior to that, it was called the "Oregon Classic" or the "State Championship Game."[4]

The 1922 Civil War; the University of Oregon defeated Oregon Agricultural College 10-0
at Bell Field in Corvallis

The game is usually played in even-numbered years at the home field of Oregon State in Corvallis (Reser Stadium, formerly Parker Stadium, beginning in 1954) and in odd-numbered years at the home field of Oregon in Eugene (since 1967, Autzen Stadium). Seven games were played at Multnomah Field/Stadium (now Providence Park) in Portland: in 1908, 1917, 1933, 1934, 1938, 1950, and 1952. In an effort to mitigate rioting, the 1912 and 1913 games were played at a neutral site in Albany following riots after the 1910 game that led to the 1911 game's cancellation.[5]

From 1997 through 2006, the home team won the game. The streak was snapped in 2007, when Oregon State beat Oregon at Autzen Stadium 38-31 in double overtime. In 2008, the Ducks returned the favor in Corvallis by beating OSU 65-38. The streak of visiting teams winning was snapped at two games in 2009 when the Ducks won 37-33 in Eugene.

From 1959 to 1961, the Platypus Trophy was awarded to the winner; it was lost for over forty years and finally found in 2005. Beginning with the 2007 game, it is awarded to the winning school's alumni association.[6]

Both share the longest winning streak in the series at eight games, but the Ducks had an undefeated run of thirteen games (1975-1987), with twelve wins and a scoreless tie in 1983.

Memorable games

1933: In a game played before 32,183 spectators at Multnomah Stadium in Portland, both teams came into the game undefeated: the Beavers were and the Ducks The Beavers scored first, but the rest was all Oregon, with fullback (and future Chicago Cardinal) "Iron Mike" Mikulak rushing for 89 yards on the way to a 13-3 victory. The Ducks won a share of the PCC championship, but Stanford got the bid to the Rose Bowl.[7]

1957: The Ducks had a 6-1 conference record and the Beavers were 5-2. A Beaver win at Hayward Field would give them a share of the conference title, but since the Beavers had been to the previous season's Rose Bowl, the Pacific Coast Conference's no-repeat rule meant that no matter what, the Ducks were headed for the Pasadena on New Year's Day, their first Rose Bowl appearance since January 1920. Both teams scored on their first possession, but that ended the scoring until late in the third quarter, when Beaver kicker Ted Searle put Oregon State on top, 10-7. A late fumble by the Ducks' Jim Shanley secured the win--but not the Rose Bowl--for Oregon State.[7][8]

1959: The Ducks came into the game with just one loss. An Oregon win, coupled with a Washington loss, could have earned the Ducks a Rose Bowl invitation. Meanwhile, Oregon State was 2-6, its first losing record in five years. The Beavers started shakily, fumbling on their first two possessions and falling behind 7-0 in the first quarter. The rest was all Beavers as they salvaged their season with two touchdowns and a field goal to upset the Ducks, 15-7.[7][9]

1969: With the score tied at seven and less than a minute left, Oregon State placekicker Mike Nehl attempted a 29-yard field goal to put the Beavers ahead. Nehl had already had one field goal blocked and missed one field goal on the day, and this one was blocked by Oregon's Jim Franklin, hit an official, bounced off the foot of Oregon linebacker Don Graham, and was recovered by Oregon State tight end Bill Plumeau at the Duck four-yard line. Nehl again came on to try his fourth field goal, and this time, connected on a 21-yard kick to give the Beavers a 10-7 win--the sixth on the way to what would be eight straight OSU wins in the series.[7] This was the first game played on artificial turf.

1983: (Main article: 1983 Oregon State vs. Oregon football game) Played during a rainstorm and pitting two mediocre squads against each other, the game ended in a scoreless tie and is commonly known as the "Toilet Bowl" because of the poor quality of play exhibited in the game. There were eleven fumbles, five interceptions, and four missed field goals. It was the last Division I football game to end in a scoreless tie; the NCAA instituted overtime rules in 1996.[7][10] This was the tenth and final tie in the series, six of which were scoreless.

1987: Oregon earned what was at the time the most lopsided victory in the series, a 44-0 drubbing led by Ducks quarterback Bill Musgrave.[7]

1988: The Beavers last win was fourteen years earlier, and Oregon head coach Rich Brooks had not lost a game in the series in 21 attempts (18-0-3) as either a Ducks coach or Beavers coach or player. Both streaks ended on this day, as the Beavers scored two fourth quarter touchdowns for a

1994: Oregon needed a win at hostile Parker Stadium to secure a bid to the Rose Bowl, but trailed in the fourth quarter. Quarterback Danny O'Neil took the Ducks on a 70-yard drive that culminated in a 19-yard pass to Dino Philyaw for a win and their first Rose Bowl in 37 years.[7][11]

1998: Oregon State prevails in double overtime (the first ever overtime game in the series), 44-41. Beaver fans rushed the field after the first overtime after the Ducks failed to score on fourth down, but a pass interference penalty gave the Ducks another chance. It took officials 15 minutes to clear the field, after which the Ducks scored to send the game to a second overtime. The Ducks managed a field goal in their possession, but Beavers running back Ken Simonton scored to give the Beavers an upset win, their fifth win of the season, and their best record since 1971.[4][7]

2000: Oregon came into the game ranked #5 in the country with Oregon State at #8, the first time both teams have been ranked in the top 10 simultaneously. With a win, Oregon would go to the Rose Bowl; the Beavers needed a win to force a tie between the two teams, and keep alive hopes of going to the Rose Bowl. Oregon State won the game 23-13, but was denied a Rose Bowl bid when Washington beat Washington State later the same day. Oregon State was extended an at-large invitation to BCS' Fiesta Bowl, where they defeated Notre Dame 41-9.[7]

2001: Oregon came into the game needing only a victory over their arch-rival for the team's first outright Pacific-10 Conference championship since 1994 and a trip to the Fiesta Bowl; the Beavers needed a win to secure a winning season. After OSU initially took a 6-3 lead into halftime, Oregon rallied behind a Keenan Howry punt return for a touchdown to give the Ducks a lead they would not relinquish, amidst a driving rainstorm. Final score: Ducks 17, Beavers 14.[7]

2007: Oregon State wins 38-31 in double overtime at Autzen, the first road team to win the game in 10 attempts. The game featured a blocked Oregon State field goal with 1:01 remaining, followed by a missed Oregon field goal as regulation expired.

2008 Oregon State needed a victory to get a bid to the 2009 Rose Bowl, their first Rose Bowl in 44 years. Instead, Oregon ran away with a 65-38 blowout, setting series records for the most points scored by one team and the most total points scored.

2009: Called the "War for the Roses", because it was the first time a win guaranteed a Rose Bowl berth.[10] In a back-and-forth game, Oregon won, 37-33. The Ducks represented the Pac-10 in the 2010 Rose Bowl, their first appearance since 1995.

2010: Oregon, coming into the game second in the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) standings, needed to win the game to secure a spot in the BCS championship game. Oregon State, at 5-6, needed a win to become bowl eligible. With ESPN's College GameDay staged in Corvallis for the first time, the Ducks won 37-20 to secure a spot against Auburn in the national title game.

2017: Both the Ducks and Beavers entered this game carrying sub-par seasons. The Ducks stood at 6-5, while the Beavers were riding a nine-game losing streak at The game was one for the history books, with Oregon rolling to a 69-10 win, setting records for the series in both points scored and margin of victory. It was Oregon's ninth win in the last ten meetings, and it offered a sense of revenge for the Ducks after dropping the prior year's meeting in Corvallis. Royce Freeman scored two rushing TDs in the first half of to break OSU's Ken Simonton's all-time Pac-12 rushing touchdown record, which stood at 59 for 16 years. It would mark Royce's 60th rushing touchdown for the Ducks.[12] He also piled up 122 rushing yards which moved him into seventh all-time in NCAA history.[13]

2020: In the COVID-19 pandemic-shortened 2020 season, No. 15 Oregon entered the game with a 3-0 record to Oregon State's 1-2. After dropping behind by 12 entering the fourth quarter, Jermar Jefferson led the Beavers to an improbable 41-38 win on a foggy night in Corvallis in front of an empty stadium, knocking the Ducks out of playoff contention and notching the Beavers' first victory over a ranked opponent since 2014.[14]

Notable game-related incidents

1910: Following a 12-0 Oregon victory in Corvallis, fans of both teams began a verbal argument that escalated into exceedingly rowdy behavior as Ducks fans returned to the train station to leave. The UO's public relations department spread stories of Oregon Agricultural College hooliganism to the statewide press, offending students of OAC and causing the rivalry to be suspended for 1911.[15]

1937: After defeating Oregon 14-0 in Corvallis, Oregon State fans had a large rally the next evening that lasted for six hours. Approximately 2,000 Oregon State students decided to caravan the following day to Eugene and have another celebration. State police initially halted the group, then agreed to lead them through the town if they agreed to behave. However, once Oregon students got out of class, the situation escalated with Ducks pelting Beavers with tomatoes and water balloons, some Oregon State students were thrown into the millrace, and other OSU students taken to Skinner Butte, stripped and forced to repaint the "O" hillside letter yellow and slide down the painted surface.[15]

1954: Approximately 50 UO students infiltrated Corvallis and lit the traditional OSU homecoming bonfire early. While it had been done before, this time OSU students were able to capture 25 UO students and hold them "prisoner".[16] The captured students had their heads shaved, were painted orange and black and some were forced to do menial labor for OSU fraternities. One captured UO student was marched through the OSU campus with a sign that said "I'm a dumb Duck".[15] Meanwhile, the UO raiding party kidnapped a single OSU student and paraded him around the UO campus.[16]

1960: A UO student abducted the OSU homecoming queen from the front of her home in Corvallis. She was returned unharmed thirty minutes later, but before that the OSU student body president received a ransom note demanding he ride a child's scooter to the center of Eugene and make a public appeal for her return.

1972: After a 30-3 UO victory at Corvallis which ended an eight-game win streak in the series by the Beavers, Ducks fans stormed the OSU field to take down goal posts; after taking down the south goalposts, Beavers fans attempted to defend the north goalposts, resulting in a large brawl.[15]

2010: After a 37-20 victory which sent the Ducks to the 2011 Tostitos BCS National Championship Game, a group of Duck fans lit on fire a t-shirt with the phrase "I hate your Ducks" over the Beavers logo on the field. The resulting fire caused significant damage to the artificial turf. Police used a photo of the incident from the Portland Tribune to arrest a University of Oregon student and charge him with riot and several misdemeanors.[17]

Game results

Oregon victoriesOregon State victories
No.DateLocationWinnerScore
1 November 3, 1894 Corvallis, OR Oregon Agricultural 16-0
2 October 26, 1895 Eugene, OR Oregon 44-0
3 November 7, 1896 Eugene, OR Oregon 2-0
4 November 14, 1896 Corvallis, OR Oregon 12-8
5 November 20, 1897 Eugene, OR Oregon Agricultural 26-8
6 December 10, 1898 Corvallis, OR Oregon 38-0
7 November 30, 1899 Eugene, OR Oregon 38-0
8 November 8, 1902 Corvallis, OR Tie0-0
9 November 21, 1903 Eugene, OR Oregon 5-0
10 November 19, 1904 Corvallis, OR Oregon 6-5
11 November 11, 1905 Eugene, OR Oregon 6-0
12 November 24, 1906 Corvallis, OR Tie0-0
13 November 9, 1907 Eugene, OR Oregon Agricultural 4-0
14 November 21, 1908 Portland, OR Oregon 8-0
15 November 19, 1909 Eugene, OR Oregon 12-0
16 November 12, 1910 Corvallis, OR Oregon 12-0
17 November 23, 1912 Albany, OR Oregon 3-0
18 November 8, 1913 Albany, OR Tie10-10
19 November 21, 1914 Corvallis, OR Tie3-3
20 November 20, 1915 Eugene, OR Oregon 9-0
21 November 25, 1916 Corvallis, OR Oregon 27-0
22 November 29, 1917 Portland, OR Oregon Agricultural 14-7
23 November 16, 1918 Corvallis, OR Oregon 13-6
24 November 15, 1919 Eugene, OR Oregon 9-0
25 November 20, 1920 Corvallis, OR Tie0-0
26 November 19, 1921 Eugene, OR Tie0-0
27 November 18, 1922 Corvallis, OR Oregon 10-0
28 November 24, 1923 Eugene, OR Oregon Agricultural 6-0
29 November 22, 1924 Corvallis, OR Oregon 7-3
30 November 14, 1925 Eugene, OR Oregon Agricultural 24-13
31 November 20, 1926 Corvallis, OR Oregon Agricultural 16-0
32 November 11, 1927 Eugene, OR Oregon State 21-7
33 November 17, 1928 Corvallis, OR Oregon 12-0
34 November 16, 1929 Eugene, OR Oregon 16-0
35 November 15, 1930 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 15-0
36 November 14, 1931 Eugene, OR Tie0-0
37 November 5, 1932 Corvallis, OR Oregon 12-6
38 November 11, 1933 Portland, OR Oregon 13-3
39 November 10, 1934 Portland, OR Oregon 9-6
40 November 9, 1935 Eugene, OR Oregon 13-0
41 November 21, 1936 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 18-0
42 October 23, 1937 Eugene, OR Oregon State 14-0
43 November 26, 1938 Portland, OR Oregon State 14-0
44 November 11, 1939 Eugene, OR Oregon State 19-14
45 November 30, 1940 Corvallis, OR Oregon 20-0
46 November 29, 1941 Eugene, OR #17 Oregon State 12-7
47 November 21, 1942 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 39-2
48 October 13, 1945 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 19-6
49 December 1, 1945 Eugene, OR Oregon State 13-12
50 November 23, 1946 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 13-0
51 November 22, 1947 Eugene, OR Oregon 14-6
52 November 20, 1948 Corvallis, OR #13 Oregon 10-0
53 November 19, 1949 Eugene, OR Oregon State 20-10
54 November 25, 1950 Portland, OR Oregon State 14-2
55 November 24, 1951 Eugene, OR Oregon State 14-7
56 November 22, 1952 Portland, OR Oregon State 22-19
57 November 21, 1953 Eugene, OR Oregon State 7-0
58 November 20, 1954 Corvallis, OR Oregon 33-14
59 November 19, 1955 Eugene, OR Oregon 28-0
60 November 24, 1956 Corvallis, OR Tie14-14
61 November 23, 1957 Eugene, OR Oregon State 10-7
62 November 22, 1958 Corvallis, OR Oregon 20-0
63 November 21, 1959 Eugene, OR Oregon State 15-7
No.DateLocationWinnerScore
64 November 19, 1960 Corvallis, OR Tie14-14
65 November 25, 1961 Eugene, OR Oregon State 6-2
66 November 24, 1962 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 20-17
67 November 30, 1963 Eugene, OR Oregon 31-14
68 November 21, 1964 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 7-6
69 November 20, 1965 Eugene, OR Oregon State 19-14
70 November 19, 1966 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 20-15
71 November 18, 1967 Eugene, OR #8 Oregon State 14-10
72 November 23, 1968 Corvallis, OR #16 Oregon State 41-19
73 November 22, 1969 Eugene, OR Oregon State 10-7
74 November 21, 1970 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 24-9
75 November 20, 1971 Eugene, OR Oregon State 30-29
76 November 18, 1972 Corvallis, OR Oregon 30-3
77 November 24, 1973 Eugene, OR Oregon State 17-14
78 November 23, 1974 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 35-16
79 November 22, 1975 Eugene, OR Oregon 14-7
80 November 20, 1976 Corvallis, OR Oregon 23-14
81 November 19, 1977 Eugene, OR Oregon 28-16
82 November 25, 1978 Corvallis, OR Oregon 24-3
83 November 29, 1979 Eugene, OR Oregon 24-3
84 November 15, 1980 Corvallis, OR Oregon 40-21
85 November 21, 1981 Eugene, OR Oregon 47-17
86 November 27, 1982 Corvallis, OR Oregon 7-6
87 November 19, 1983 Eugene, OR Tie0-0
88 November 17, 1984 Corvallis, OR Oregon 31-6
89 November 23, 1985 Eugene, OR Oregon 34-13
90 November 22, 1986 Corvallis, OR Oregon 49-28
91 November 21, 1987 Eugene, OR Oregon 44-0
92 November 19, 1988 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 21-10
93 November 18, 1989 Eugene, OR Oregon 30-21
94 November 17, 1990 Corvallis, OR Oregon 6-3
95 November 23, 1991 Eugene, OR Oregon State 14-3
96 November 21, 1992 Corvallis, OR Oregon 7-0
97 November 20, 1993 Eugene, OR Oregon State 15-12
98 November 19, 1994 Corvallis, OR #12 Oregon 17-13
99 November 18, 1995 Eugene, OR #16 Oregon 12-10
100 November 23, 1996 Corvallis, OR Oregon 49-13
101 November 22, 1997 Eugene, OR Oregon 48-30
102 November 21, 1998 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 44-412OT
103 November 20, 1999 Eugene, OR Oregon 25-14
104 November 18, 2000 Corvallis, OR #8 Oregon State 23-13
105 December 1, 2001 Eugene, OR #4 Oregon 17-14
106 November 23, 2002 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 45-24
107 November 22, 2003 Eugene, OR Oregon 34-20
108 November 20, 2004 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 50-21
109 November 19, 2005 Eugene, OR #10 Oregon 56-14
110 November 24, 2006 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 30-28
111 December 1, 2007 Eugene, OR Oregon State 38-312OT
112 November 29, 2008 Corvallis, OR #19 Oregon 65-38
113 December 3, 2009 Eugene, OR #7 Oregon 37-33
114 December 4, 2010 Corvallis, OR #1 Oregon 37-20
115 November 26, 2011 Eugene, OR #9 Oregon 49-21
116 November 24, 2012 Corvallis, OR #5 Oregon 48-24
117 November 29, 2013 Eugene, OR #12 Oregon 36-35
118 November 29, 2014 Corvallis, OR #3 Oregon 47-19
119 November 27, 2015 Eugene, OR #18 Oregon 52-42
120 November 26, 2016 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 34-24
121 November 25, 2017 Eugene, OR Oregon 69-10
122 November 23, 2018 Corvallis, OR Oregon 55-15
123 November 30, 2019 Eugene, OR #14 Oregon 24-10
124 November 27, 2020 Corvallis, OR Oregon State 41-38
Series: Oregon leads 66-48-10[1]

Coaching records

Since 1945

Oregon

Head Coach Team Games Seasons Wins Losses Ties Pct.
Tex Oliver Oregon 3 1945-46 0 3 0 .000
Jim Aiken Oregon 4 1947-50 2 2 0 .500
Len Casanova Oregon 16 1951-66 4 10 2 .313
Jerry Frei Oregon 5 1967-71 0 5 0 .000
Dick Enright Oregon 2 1972-73 1 1 0 .500
Don Read Oregon 3 1974-76 2 1 0 .667
Rich Brooks Oregon 18 1977-94 14 3 1 .806
Mike Bellotti Oregon 14 1995-2008 8 6 0 .571
Chip Kelly Oregon 4 2009-12 4 0   1.000 
Mark Helfrich Oregon 4 2013-16 3 1   .750
Willie Taggart Oregon 1 2017 1 0   1.000 
Mario Cristobal Oregon 3 2018-20 2 1   .667

Oregon State

Head Coach Team Games Seasons Wins Losses Ties Pct.
Lon Stiner Oregon State 5 1945-48 3 2 0 .600
Kip Taylor Oregon State 6 1949-54 5 1 0 .833
Tommy Prothro Oregon State 10 1955-64 5 3 2 .600
Dee Andros Oregon State 11 1965-75 9 2 0 .818
Craig Fertig Oregon State 4 1976-79 0 4 0 .000
Joe Avezzano Oregon State 5 1980-84 0 4 1 .100
Dave Kragthorpe Oregon State 6 1985-90 1 5 0 .167
Jerry Pettibone Oregon State 6 1991-96 2 4 0 .333
Mike Riley (a) Oregon State 2 1997-98 1 1   .500
Dennis Erickson Oregon State 4 1999-2002 2 2   .500
Mike Riley (b) Oregon State 12 2003-14 3 9   .250
Gary Andersen Oregon State 2 2015-16 1 1   .500
Jonathan Smith Oregon State 3 2018-20 1 2   .333
Cory Hall Oregon State 1 2017 0 1   .000
  • Last tie was in 1983, overtime began in 1996 in Division I-A (two: 1998, 2007; both won by OSU in double overtime)
  • Two games were played in 1896 and 1945.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Winsipedia - Oregon Ducks vs. Oregon State Beavers football series history". Winsipedia.
  2. ^ https://www.oregonlive.com/sports/civilwar/index.ssf/2017/11/civil_war_football_history_a_g.html
  3. ^ f. "OSU, UO to No Longer Use Civil War in Promoting Athletic Events".
  4. ^ a b Edmonston Jr., George. "Up Close and Personal: Greatest Civil War Games". Oregon State Alumni Association. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Edmonston Jr., George. "Happy Birthday Parker (Reser) Stadium". Oregon State Alumni Association. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "The Passing of the Platypus Trophy". University of Oregon Alumni Association. April 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Binder, Doug (November 22, 2008). "Civil War: The complete game-by-game history". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2009.
  8. ^ Hunt, John (November 26, 2009). "Civil War: Rewind 52 years to the biggest game ever in Oregon". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2009.
  9. ^ "Oregon State wins from Oregon, 15-7" (PDF). The New York Times. November 22, 1959. Retrieved 2010.
  10. ^ a b "In anticipation of the Civil War, a look back at the rivalry between Oregon and Oregon State". The Washington Post. November 22, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  11. ^ McCann, Michael C. (1995). Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. Eugene, OR: McCann Communications Corp. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.
  12. ^ "Royce Freeman sets Pac-12 rushing TD record". foxsports.com. 25 November 2017.
  13. ^ "Rushing Yards Career Leaders and Records - College Football at Sports-Reference.com". College Football at Sports-Reference.com.
  14. ^ oregonlive.com. 27 November 2020 https://www.oregonlive.com/sports/2020/11/oregon-state-beavers-vs-no-15-oregon-ducks-live-updates.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ a b c d Prince, Seth (November 22, 2008). "Civil War: 5 moments that fanned the flames of the rivalry". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2008.
  16. ^ a b "Intruders Set Bonfire to Blazing, Pay With Shaved, Daubed Heads". The Oregonian. Associated Press. November 20, 1954. p. 1.
  17. ^ Wihtol, Christian (December 9, 2010). "Student arrested in burning of shirt on OSU football field". The Register-Guard. Retrieved 2014.

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