Civil Services of India
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Civil Services of India

The Civil Services refer to the career bureaucrats who are the permanent executive branch of the Republic of India. The civil service system is the backbone of the administrative machinery of the country.[1][2]

In India's parliamentary democracy, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the people's elected representatives--cabinet ministers. But a handful of ministers cannot be expected to deal personally with the manifold problems of modern administration. Thus, the ministers lay down the policy and it is for the civil servants, who serve at the pleasure of the President of India, to carry it out. However, Article 311 of the constitution protects them from politically motivated or vindictive action.

Civil servants are employees of the Government of India or of the states, but not all employees of the Government are civil servants. As of 2010, there were 6.4 million government employees in India but fewer than 50,000 civil servants to administer them.[3]

Civil servants in a personal capacity are paid from the Civil List. Senior civil servants may be called to account by the Parliament. The civil service system in India is rank-based and does not follow the tenets of the position-based civil services.[2]

The Government of India has also approved the formation of two new cadres of civil servants: the Indian Skill Development Service (2015)[4][5] and the Indian Enterprise Development Service (2016).[6]

History

British Colonial era

If a responsible government is to be established in India, there will be a far greater need than is even dreamt of at present for persons to take part in public affairs in the legislative assemblies and elsewhere and for this reason the more Indians we can employ in the public service the better. Moreover, it would lessen the burden of Imperial responsibilities if a body of capable Indian administrators could be produced.

-- Regarding the importance of Indianising Civil Services, Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms[7]

The present civil services of India are mainly based on the pattern of the former Indian Civil Service of British India.

During the British raj, Warren Hastings laid the foundation of civil service and Charles Cornwallis reformed, modernised, and rationalised it. Hence, Charles Cornwallis is known as 'the Father of civil service in India'.

Cornwallis introduced two divisions of the Indian Civil service--covenanted and uncovenanted. The covenanted civil service consisted of only Europeans (i.e., British personnel) occupying the higher posts in the government. The uncovenanted civil service was solely introduced to facilitate the entry of Indians at the lower rung of the administration.[8][9]

With the passing of the Government of India Act 1919, the Imperial Services headed by the Secretary of State for India were split into two--the All India Services and the Central Services.[10]

The All India and Central Services (Group A) were designated as Central Superior Services as early as 1924.[11] From 1924 to 1934, the administration of India consisted of 10 All India Services and 5 central departments, all under the control of the Secretary of State for India, and 3 central departments under joint Provincial and Imperial Control.[11]

Modern era

The present modern civil service was formed after the partition of India in 1947. It was Sardar Patel's vision that the civil service should strengthen cohesion and national unity. The values of integrity, impartiality, and merit remain the guiding principles of the Indian civil services.[]

By the early 21st century, especially in Indian media, Indian civil servants were regularly colloquially called 'babus' (as in 'the rule of babus'),[12] while Indian bureaucracy is called 'babudom'.[13][14][15]

The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, located in New Delhi, is unofficially the 'Ministry of Civil Services'. The Ministry is responsible for training, reforms and pensions for the civil service system in India.

Present framework

Constitutional provision

The Constitution, under Article 312[16] gives authority to the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) to set up new branches of the All India Services with a two-thirds majority vote. The Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and Indian Forest Service have been established under this constitutional provision.[17]

Guiding principals

Values

A member of the civil service in discharge of his/her functions is to be guided by maintaining absolute integrity, allegiance to the constitution and the law of the nation, patriotism, national pride, devotion to duty, honesty, impartiality and transparency.[18]

Code of ethics

The Government of India promotes values and a certain standard of ethics of requiring and facilitating every civil servant:[18]

  • To discharge official duty with responsibility, honesty, accountability and without discrimination.
  • To ensure effective management, leadership development and personal growth.
  • To avoid misuse of official position or information.
  • To serve as instruments of good governance and foster social and economic development.

Responsibilities

An Indian diplomatic passport (left) and an official passport generally issued to civil servants. As opposed to the deep blue passport issued to ordinary Indian citizens, the diplomatic passport is maroon with the gold text 'Diplomatic Passport' printed on it in English and Hindi.

The responsibility of the civil services is to run the administration of India. The country is managed through a number of central government agencies in accordance with policy directions from the ministries. Civil servants are the actual makers of Indian law and policy. They work on behalf of the elected government and cannot publicly show their disinterest or disapproval for it. It is mandatory for them to form certain rules and policies according to the government's views and interests. However, they cannot be removed by any state or central government, but can only be retired.

Among the members of the civil services are administrators in the central government and state government; emissaries in the foreign missions/embassies; tax collectors and revenue commissioners; civil service commissioned police officers; permanent representative(s) and employees in the United Nations and its agencies; and chairmen, managing directors, and full-time functional directors and members of the board of various public-sector undertakings, enterprises, corporations, banks, and financial institutions. Civil servants are employed to various agencies of India and can also be appointed as advisors, special duty officers, or private secretaries to ministers of the Union and the State Government.[19][20]

Staffing

Head of the Civil Services

The highest ranking civil servant is the Cabinet Secretary. He is ex-officio Chairman of the Civil Services Board; the chief of the Indian Administrative Service and head of all civil services under the rules of business of the Government of India. He also holds the 11th position in the Order of Precedence of India.

The position holder is accountable for ensuring that the Civil Service is equipped with the skills and capability to meet the everyday challenges it faces and that civil servants work in a fair and decent environment.

Entry level recruitment

Civil Services Board is responsible for the entry level recruitment and subsequent job promotions below the rank of Joint Secretary to Government of India. The recruits are university graduates or above selected through the following rigorous system of specialisation-based examinations for recruitment into respective specialised departments:

Promotions and appointments to higher ranks

All appointments in the rank of Joint Secretary to Government of India and above, other major appointments, empanelment, and extension of tenure are done by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet. Lower appointments are handled by the Civil Services Board.

Central Administrative Tribunal

For settling various administrative disputes the Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) can be approached. For instance, citizens can approach CAT to obtain the permission to sue corrupt or inept civil servants, and civil servants can approach CAT for unfair dismissal.[21]

Civil Services Day

The Civil Service Day is celebrated on 21 April every year.[22] The purpose for this day is to rededicate and recommit themselves to the cause of the people. It is observed by all Civil Services. This day gives civil servants the opportunity for introspection and thinking about future strategies to deal with the challenges being posed by the changing times.[23]

On this occasion, all officers of Central and State Governments are honoured for excellence in public administration by the Prime Minister of India. The 'Prime Minister Award for Excellence in Public Administration' is presented in three categories. Under this scheme of awards instituted in 2006, all the officers individually or as group or as organisation are eligible.[23] The award includes a medal, scroll and a cash amount of (US$1,400). In case of a group, the total award money is (US$7,000) subject to a maximum of (US$1,400) per person. For an organisation the cash amount is limited to (US$7,000).[23]

Types of Higher Civil Services

The Higher Civil Services of India can be classified into two types - the All India Services and the Central Civil Services (Group A). Additionally, the officers from the State Civil Services cadre can seek deployment with the Central Services cadre for the Higher Civil Services jobs.

All India Services

All appointments to All India Civil Services are made by the President of India.

Central Services

Group A

The Central Civil Services (Group A) are concerned with the administration of the Union Government.[24] All appointments to Central Civil Services (Group A) are made by the President of India.

  • Indian Revenue Service -
    • (a) Customs Branch (Indian Customs Service, Group 'A')
    • (b) Central Excise Branch (Central Excise Service, Group 'A')
    • (c) Income Tax Branch (Income Tax Service, Group 'A')

(a) Railways, Group 'A'

  • Railway Protection Force
    • (a) Grade I
    • (b) Grade II
  • Central Information Service -
    • (a) Selection Grade
    • (b) Senior Administrative Grade
    • (c) Junior Administrative Grade
    • (d) Grade I
    • (e) Grade II

Group B

For Group B posts, the Combined Graduate Level Examination (CGLE) is conducted by the Staff Selection Commission (SSC).[a][25]All appointments to Group B are made by the authorities specified by a general or special order of the President.

  • Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Services
  • Botanical Survey of India, Group 'B'
  • Central Electrical Engineering Service, Group 'B'
  • Central Engineering Service, Group 'B'
  • Central Excise Service, Group 'B'
  • Central Health Service, Group 'B'
  • Central Power Engineering Service, Group 'B'
  • Central Secretariat Official Language Service, Group 'B'
  • Central Secretariat Service, Group 'B' (Section and Assistant Section Grade officers only)
  • Central Secretariat Stenographers' Service, (Grade I, Grade II and Selection Grade officers only)
  • Customs Appraisers Service, Group 'B'- (Principal Appraisers and Head Appraisers)
  • Customs Preventive Service, Group 'B' - (Chief Inspectors)
  • Defence Secretariat Service
  • DANICS, Grade II
  • DANIPS, Grade II
  • Geological Survey of India, Group 'B'
  • Indian Foreign Service, Group 'B' - (General Cadre, Grade I and General Cadre, Grade II only)
  • Indian Posts and Telegraphs Accounts and Finance Service, Group 'B' Telecommunication Wing.
  • Indian Posts & Telegraphs Accounts & Finance Service, Postal Wing, Group 'B'
  • Income Tax Service, Group 'B'
  • Indian Salt Service, Group 'B'
  • India Meteorological Service, Group 'B'
  • Survey of India, Group 'B'
  • Postal Superintendents' Service, Group 'B'
  • Postmasters' Service, Group 'B'
  • Railway Board Secretariat Service, Group 'B'
  • Telecommunication Engineering Service, Group 'B'
  • Telegraphs Traffic Service, Group 'B
  • Zoological Survey of India, Group 'B'

State Services

The State Civil Services examinations and recruitment are conducted by the individual states' public service commissions in India. These services are feeder services of All India Services. All appointments to State Services (Group A) are made by the Governors of States.

Group A

Civil administrative

All State Civil and Administrative Services in India above the rank of Deputy Collector are group A service. The officers of following services are later promoted to IAS.

  • Andhra Pradesh State Civil Service (Executive Branch)
  • Arunachal Pradesh Civil Service-Executive Branch (APCS)
  • Assam Civil Service (ACS)
  • Bihar Administrative Service (BAS)
  • Goa Civil Service (GCS)
  • State Administrative Service (SAS)
  • State Civil Service (SCS)
  • Gujarat Administrative Service (GAS)
  • Haryana Civil Service (HCS)
  • Himachal Pradesh Administrative Service (HPAS)
  • Jharkhand Administrative Service (JAS)
  • Kashmir Administrative Service (KAS)
  • Karnataka Administrative Service (KAS)
State judiciary

All State Judicial Services are completely group A service & as par with All India Services i.e., IAS. Their appointment made by Governor of respective states after the consultation / approval of the respective states High Courts.

  • Higher Judicial Service (HJS)
  • Provincial Civil Service-Judicial Branch (PCS-J)
State Forest Service

All ' State Forest Services' above the rank of Assistant Conservator of Forest(ACF) are group A service. The officers of the service are later promoted to the Forest Service.

State police

All State Police Services above the rank of Deputy SP are group A service. The officers of following services are later promoted to IPS.

  • Andhra Pradesh State Police Service (APPS)
  • Arunachal Pradesh Police Service (APPS)
  • Assam Police Service (APS)
  • Bihar Police Service (BPS)
  • Goa Police Service (GPS)
  • State Police Service (SPS)
  • State Police Service (SPS)
  • Gujarat Police Service (GPS)
  • Haryana Police Service (HPS)
  • Himachal Pradesh Police Service (HPPS)
  • Jharkhand Police Service (JPS)
  • Kashmir Police Service (KPS)
  • Karnataka State Police Service (KSPS)

Group B

The state civil services (Group B) deal with subjects such as land revenue, agriculture, forests, education etc. The officers are recruited by different States through the respective State Public Service Commissions, and appointed by the Governor of that state.

Critique

Criticism

Poor performance on international ratings

"We estimate that if India were to pursue civil service reforms and reach the Asian average on government effectiveness, it could add 0.9 percentage points annually to per capita GDP... Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance."

--  Goldman Sachs report[26]

Professor Bibek Debroy and Laveesh Bhandari asserted in their book "Corruption in India: The DNA and RNA" that public officials in India are misappropriating as much as 5 per cent of the GDP or (US$13 billion) through corruption.[27]

A 2009 survey of the leading economies of Asia, revealed Indian bureaucracy to be not only the least efficient among Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, China, Philippines and Indonesia, but also that working with India's civil servants was a "slow and painful" process.[28]

A 2012 study by the Hong Kong-based Political and Economic Risk Consultancy ranked and rated Indian bureaucracy as the worst in Asia with a 9.21 rating out of 10. According to the study, India's inefficient and corrupt bureaucracy was responsible for most of the complaints that business executive have about the country.[29][30][31]

A 2013 EY (Ernst & Young) Study[32] reports the industries most vulnerable to corruption are: Infrastructure & Real Estate, Metals & Mining, Aerospace & Defence, and Power & Utilities.

Inefficiency and misalignment with strategic national goals

"The IAS is hamstrung by political interference, outdated personnel procedures, and a mixed record on policy implementation, and it is in need of urgent reform. The Indian government should reshape recruitment and promotion processes, improve performance-based assessment of individual officers, and adopt safeguards that promote accountability while protecting bureaucrats from political meddling."

-- The Indian Administrative Service Meets Big Data, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace[33][34]

The Indian bureaucracy is a self-serving elite clique of babus (public servants) which works in silos and does not serve the national interest. It focuses more on the process rather than the positive outcome. It resists change and reforms. Due to babu's attitude of impunity "elected politicians will be replaced after 5 years but we will continue to hold power for next 35 years", the bureaucracy has become corrupt and inefficient. There is some deterrence against the deliberate acts of corruption, but there is no mechanism to punish the omission or deliberate inaptness.[35]

Institutionalised corruption

A paper prepared in 2012 by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions states that corruption is prevalent at all levels in civil services and it is institutionalised.[36][37]

Bribery

A 2005 study done by the Transparency International in India found that more than 92% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribes or peddling influence to get services performed in a public office.[38] Taxes and bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International estimates that truckers annually pay (US$31 million) in bribes.[39][40] There have been several cases of collusion involving officials of the Income Tax Department of India for preferential tax treatment and relaxed prosecutions in exchange for bribes.[41][42]

Criminalisation

In 2011, over a period of preceding three years more than 450 chargesheets for criminal cases of corruption were filed and a total of 943 corruption cases were at different stages of investigation by CBI against civil servants.[43][44]

Misappropriation of funds

(US$14 billion) losses through corruption, waste and fraud occurred from the government's National Rural Health Mission healthcare programme, several of arrested high-level public servants died under mysterious circumstances including one in prison.[45][46][47][48]

Tendering processes and awarding contracts

World Bank report stated that the aid programmes are beset by corruption, bad administration and under-payments. As an example, the report cites that only 40% of grain handed out for the poor reaches its intended target. The World Bank study finds that the public distribution programmes and social spending contracts have proven to be a waste due to corruption.[49]

A 2006 report stated that the state-funded construction activities, such as road building were dominated by construction mafias, consisting of cabals of corrupt public works officials, materials suppliers, politicians and construction contractors.[50]

Theft of state property

Corrupt officials steal the state property. In cities and villages throughout India, groups of municipal and other government officials, elected politicians, judicial officers, real estate developers and law enforcement officials, acquire, develop and sell land in illegal ways.[51]

Political interference

"Much of the deterioration in the functioning of bureaucracy is due to political interference."

Interference by politicians and politicians-babus nexus in corruption is an ongoing concern.[52] In October 2013, the Supreme Court of India, in the case of TSR Subramanian & Ors vs Union of India & Ors [53] ordered both Government of India and State governments to ensure fixed tenure to civil servants. The court asked senior bureaucrats to write down the oral instructions from politicians so that a record would be kept of all the decisions. This judgement was seen on the similar lines of the Supreme Court's 2006 judgement in Prakash Singh case on police reforms.[54][55] The judgement was welcomed by various bureaucrats and the media who hoped that it will help in giving freedom and independence to the functioning of bureaucracy.[52][56]

Reforms

Alignment with strategic national goals

Under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's principle of "minimum government and maximum governance", government undertook several reforms to align country's civil service with the strategic national goals, including lateral entry, forcibly retiring inept and corrupt officers, etc.[57] Previously, newly hired IAS officers were deployed directly in the state cadres.[57] From 2014, to align civil servants to the government's agenda, they are first deployed within the central government ministries as assistant secretaries for a few years.[57] From 2020-21, government will conduct common foundation course for all Group A services to counter the attitude of elite clique operating in silos.[35] Doing away with the earlier discriminatory practice of appointing only IAS officers in the central government, officers from other services with domain experience also are empanelled and appointed; this is said to have widened the pool for selection of competent domain experts.[57]

360 degree appraisal

In 2014, to align the country's civil service systems with the strategic national goals, government implemented a new 360 degree appraisal system which entails "Annual Confidential Report" (ACR), review of work-related attitude and behavior based on confidential feedback from peers, subordinates, and outsiders stakeholders who have dealt with the officer. This new system replaced the earlier archaic annual performance appraisal based solely on the ACR written by an officer's boss.[57]

Lateral entry of domain experts

From 2018, to attract the best domain expert candidates from across the world for the senior civil servants job, vacancies which were earlier available only through promotion of officers were opened for direct hire or lateral entry as well. This was said to "boost the ministry or department's capabilities and proficiency... [and] provide synergies to policy and implementation". Initially, domain experts lateral entry candidates were appointed to 10 posts out of total 450 posts of joint secretary in the central government, and a further 40 lateral entrants at the director and deputy secretary level were also inducted.[57]

Removal and punishment of corrupt officers

Empowerment of citizens to sue corrupt officers

In 2016, the government decided to empower citizens to seek prosecution of corrupt IAS officers.[58] The Department Personnel and Training (DoPT), Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, has accepted to receive requests from private persons seeking sanction for prosecution in respect of IAS officers without any proper proposal and supporting documents.[58] In 2019, Government of India dismissed 12 (IRS IT) and 15 (IRS Customs and Central Excise) officers for corruption and bribery charges.[59][60]

Forced retirement of corrupt and inept officers

In 2011, the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT), Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, created a proposal to retire and remove incompetent, inefficient and unproductive All India Service officers after 15 years of service,[61][62][63] which was accepted and rule 16(3) of the All India Services (death-cum-retirement benefits) Rules of 1958 was amended on 31 January 2012.[61][63][64]

In 2016, the Ministry of Finance dismissed 72 and prematurely retired another 33 Indian Revenue Service officers for the first time for non-performance and on disciplinary grounds.[65][66][67][68][69]

In 2019, to send a message that the job posting with government bureaucracy is no longer "permanent for the dishonest, corrupt and inefficient" officers, the government fired 22 corrupt officers from the Indian Revenue Service (IRS) and another 284 Central Secretariat Service officers were under performance audit by a review panel headed by the Cabinet Secretary.[57][70]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Schedule of Central Civil Services for Group 'B'. The complete list as per Department of Personnel & Training, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Govt. of India

References

  1. ^ Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (8 June 2011). "The civil service system". New Delhi: Government of India. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  2. ^ a b United Nations Public Administration Network. "National Civil Service System in India : A Critical View" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ "2010 Civil Services Report: A Survey" (PDF). New Delhi: Government of India. 8 June 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ "Government nod to raise new Group-A civil service cadre". Retrieved 2011.
  5. ^ "Govt approves formation of Indian Skill Development Service". Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ "Cabinet approves enterprise development cadre". Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ Chopra, P. N. (2003). A Comprehensive History of India, Volume 3. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9788120725065.
  8. ^ Meghna Sabharwal and Evan M. Berman. "Public Administration in South Asia: India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan (Public Administration and Public Policy)" (2013), ISBN 1439869111 (Online)
  9. ^ "Civil Service". The British Library. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 2015.
  10. ^ Goel, S.L. (2008). Public Personnel Administration: Theory and Practice. Deep and Deep Publications, 2008. ISBN 9788176293952.
  11. ^ a b Maheshwari, Shriram (1992). Problems and Issues in Administrative Federalism. Allied Publishers. ISBN 9788170233428.
  12. ^ "Yet to start work, Natgrid CEO highest paid babu". The Times of India. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 2014.
  13. ^ Anand Parthasarathy (1-14 September 2001). "A barbed look at babudom". Frontline. Vol. 18 no. 18. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Bureaucracy knows no bounds...
  14. ^ "PM Modi tightens screws, gives babudom a new rush hour". The Times of India. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ "Babu". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 2014.
  16. ^ "Constitution of India, Article 312".
  17. ^ "Official Government website".
  18. ^ a b Misra, P.K. (4 August 2010). "The Role of civil services in India (Standard Note: DOPT/Government of India)" (PDF). Department of Personnel and Training, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  19. ^ "Consolidated Instructions to the appointment of personal staff to Union Ministers" (PDF). Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  20. ^ "Why babus want to be private secys to ministers now". GovernanceNow.com. Retrieved 2015.
  21. ^ "Government to restructure tribunals, autonomous organisations", The Economic Times, 21 February 2016
  22. ^ "Civil Services Day". New Delhi: Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. 8 June 2011. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  23. ^ a b c "The Prime Minister's Awards for Excellence in Public Administration Award Scheme" (PDF). New Delhi: Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. 8 June 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 2012.
  24. ^ http://dopt.gov.in/sites/default/files/SCHEDULE-1.pdf
  25. ^ http://dopt.gov.in/sites/default/files/SCHEDULE-2.pdf" Central Civil Service Group B - Government of India, 20 April 2020.
  26. ^ "Merit-based civil service will boost growth". The Hindu. Retrieved 2014.
  27. ^ "How much do the corrupt earn?". The Economic Times. 11 September 2011. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 2011.
  28. ^ Indian bureaucracy ranked worst in Asia: Survey Archived 15 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine The Times of India, 3 June 2009.
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  30. ^ "Indian bureaucracy rated worst in Asia". New Delhi: CNN-IBN. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  31. ^ "Indian bureaucracy rates worst in Asia: 2012". Deccan Herald. New Delhi. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  32. ^ "Bribery and corruption: ground reality in India". Archived from the original on 23 August 2013.
  33. ^ "The Indian Administrative Service Meets Big Data". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 2016.
  34. ^ "IAS Reforms: Cleaning Rust From the Frame". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 2016.
  35. ^ a b PM Modi attempts long-awaited overhaul in bureaucracy, Hindustan Times, 5 November 2019/.
  36. ^ Sharma, Aman (14 April 2012). "Federal Government paper admits corruption at all levels in civil services". India Today. New Delhi. Retrieved 2012.
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  39. ^ "Cops turn robbers on India's roads". Asia Online. 27 August 2009.
  40. ^ MDRA (February 2007). "Corruption in Trucking Operations in India" (PDF). The World Bank. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2012.
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  42. ^ "Two Income Tax officials booked for corruption". The Indian Express. India. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016.
  43. ^ "453 IAS,and other civil servants chargesheeted in last 3 yrs". Indian Express. New Delhi. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  44. ^ "Over 400 central officers booked in last 3 yrs". New Delhi: Zee News. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  45. ^ "Health scam: Former CMO, Sachan booked". Hindustan Times. 4 August 2011. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  46. ^ "The New Indian Express". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  47. ^ "NRHM scam: 6 officials booked in accountant's murder - India - DNA". Dnaindia.com. 17 February 2012. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  48. ^ "India to give free medicine to millions". The Financial Times. 5 July 2012.
  49. ^ "India aid programme 'beset by corruption' - World Bank". BBC News. 18 May 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012.
  50. ^ "Mulayam Hits Mafia Hard". India Today. 16 October 2006. Archived from the original on 5 July 2011. Retrieved 2008. Snippet: ... The road sector has always been the main source of income for the mafia. They either ask their men directly to grab the contracts or allow an outsider to take the contract after accepting a hefty commission
  51. ^ K.R. Gupta and J.R. Gupta, Indian Economy, Vol #2, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2008, ISBN 81-269-0926-9. Snippet: ... the land market already stands subverted and an active land mafia has already been created ...
  52. ^ a b c "Supreme Court favours law to regulate transfer, posting of IAS officers". 31 October 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  53. ^ "WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO(s). 82 OF 2011". Retrieved 2013.
  54. ^ "Prakash Singh Case". Retrieved 2013.
  55. ^ "SC asks states to file affidavit on police reforms". Hindustan Times. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  56. ^ "SC to bureaucrats: Don't take oral instructions from netas". The Times Of India. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g "Modi govt is shaking the foundation of India's IAS-led civil service -- one reform at a time". The Print. Retrieved 2020.
  58. ^ a b "Centre to empower common man to punish corrupt babus". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2016.
  59. ^ "Govt sacks 12 senior I-T officers including a senior officer for corruption". Business Standard. Retrieved 2019.
  60. ^ "Govt Sacks 15 Senior Customs, Central Excise Officers Over Corruption, Bribery Charges". Outlook. Retrieved 2019.
  61. ^ a b "Lazy and incompetent babus of the All India Services to retire early". India Today. New Delhi. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  62. ^ "Corruption taint may lead to compulsory retirement for babus". India Today. New Delhi. 21 April 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  63. ^ a b "Proposal to retire incompetent officers after 15-year service". New Delhi: Rediff News. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  64. ^ "ssc institutes in gwalior". shiksha coach.
  65. ^ "For good governance, Finance Ministry fires 72 tax officers, retires 33 more". Business Standard. Retrieved 2016.
  66. ^ "Government takes strict action against defaulting/non performing tax officials/officers". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 2016.
  67. ^ "Absent for years, government sacks 11 IRS officers". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2016.
  68. ^ "108 IRS officers under CBI probe for alleged corruption: Government". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2016.
  69. ^ "CBI seizes 2 crore in old currency from city residence of IRS officer". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016.
  70. ^ "Modi govt to retire Central Secretariat Service officers now, 284 of them under scanner". The Print. Retrieved 2019.

External links

Official

All India Civil Services

Central Civil Services

Others


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