Cirth
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Cirth
Cirth
Cirth word.png
The word "Cirth" written using the Cirth in the Angerthas Daeron mode
Type
LanguagesKhuzdul, Sindarin, Quenya, Westron, English
CreatorJ. R. R. Tolkien
DirectionVaries
ISO 15924Cirt, 291
Rock carving in Cirth in the Sydney Harbour National Park, dating back to the 1980s at least

The Cirth (Sindarin pronunciation: ​['kir?], meaning "runes"; sing. certh ['k?r?]) is a semi-artificial script, based on real-life runic alphabets, invented by J. R. R. Tolkien for the constructed languages he devised and used in his works. Cirth is written with a capital letter when referring to the writing system; the runes themselves can be called cirth.

In the fictional history of Middle-earth, the original Certhas was created by the Sindar (or Grey Elves) for their language, Sindarin. Its extension and elaboration was known as the Angerthas Daeron, as it was attributed to the Sinda Daeron, although it was most probably expanded by the Noldor in order to represent the sounds of other languages like Quenya and Telerin.

Although, in the fiction, the Cirth was later largely replaced by the Tengwar, it was adopted by Dwarves to write down both their Khuzdul language (Angerthas Moria) and the languages of Men (Angerthas Erebor). The Cirth was also adapted, in its oldest and simplest form, by various races including Men and even Orcs.

External history

Concept and creation

Many letters have shapes also found in the historical runic alphabets, but their sound values are only similar in a few of the vowels. Rather, the system of assignment of sound values is much more systematic in the Cirth than in the historical runes (e.g., voiced variants of a voiceless sound are expressed by an additional stroke). A similar system has been proposed for a few historical runes but is in any case much more obscure.

The division between the older Cirth of Daeron and their adaptation by Dwarves and Men has been interpreted as a parallel drawn by Tolkien to the development of the Fuþorc to the Younger Fuþark.[1] The original Elvish Cirth "as supposed products of a superior culture" are focused on logical arrangement and a close connection between form and value whereas the adaptations by mortal races introduced irregularities. Similar to the Germanic tribes who had no written literature and used only simple runes before their conversion to Christianity, the Sindarin Elves of Beleriand with their Cirth were introduced to the more elaborate Tengwar of Fëanor when the Noldorin Elves returned to Middle-earth from the lands of the divine Valar.[2]

Internal history and Description

First Certhas

In the Appendix E of The Return of the King, Tolkien writes that the Sindar of Beleriand first developed an alphabet for their language some time between the invention of the Tengwar by Fëanor and their introduction to Middle-earth by the exiled Noldor.

This alphabet was devised to represent only the sounds of their Sindarin language and its letters were entirely used for inscribing names or brief memorials on wood, stone or metal, hence their angular forms and straight lines.[3] In Sindarin these letters were named cirth (sing. certh), from the Elvish root *kir- meaning "to cleave, to cut".[4] An abecedarium of cirth, consisting of the runes listed in due order, was commonly known as Certhas (['k?rs], meaning "rune-rows" in Sindarin and loosely translated as "runic alphabet"[5]).

The cirth used for voiceless stop consonants were constructed systematically by the combination of a "stem" and a "branch". The attachment of the branch was usually made on the right side. The reverse was not infrequent, but had no phonetic significance[3] (this means that Certh 10.svg would just be an alternative form of Certh 8.svg).
Other consonants were formed following two basic principles:

  1. adding a stroke to a branch added voice (e.g., Certh 1.svg /p/ -> Certh 2.svg /b/);
  2. placing the branch on both sides of the stem added voice and nasality (e.g., Certh 18.svg /k/ -> Certh 22.svg /?/).

The cirth constructed in this way can therefore be grouped into series. Each series corresponds to a place of articulation. This earliest system had three series:

There are also additional cirth that do not have regular shapes. These include liquid consonants ⟨r⟩ and ⟨l⟩, the voiceless glottal transition ⟨h⟩, the voiceless alveolar fricative ⟨s⟩, and vowels.

The original display of Cirth should have been this:[3]

Certh Sindarin
grapheme
IPA Certh Sindarin
grapheme
IPA Certh Sindarin
grapheme
IPA
Certh 1.svg ⟨p⟩ /p/ Certh 8.svg ⟨t⟩ /t/ Certh 18.svg ⟨c⟩ /k/
Certh 2.svg ⟨b⟩ /b/ Certh 9.svg ⟨d⟩ /d/ Certh 19.svg ⟨g⟩ /?/
Certh 5.svg ⟨m⟩[i] /m/ Certh 12.svg ⟨n⟩ /n/ Certh 22.svg ⟨n⟩, ⟨-ng⟩[iii] /?/
Certh 6.svg [ii] /(B)/?
Certh Sindarin
grapheme
IPA Certh Sindarin
grapheme
IPA Certh Sindarin
grapheme
IPA
Certh 29.svg ⟨r⟩ /r/ Certh 13.svg ⟨h⟩ or ⟨s⟩[iv] /h/ or /s/ Certh 39.svg ⟨i⟩[vi] /i/, /j/
Certh 31.svg ⟨l⟩ /l/ Certh 35.svg ⟨s⟩ or ⟨h⟩[iv] /s/ or /h/ Certh 42.svg ⟨u⟩[vii] /u/, /w/?
Certh 36.svg [v] /(C)/? Certh 46.svg ⟨e⟩ /?/
? ⟨a⟩[viii] /?/
Certh 50.svg ⟨o⟩ /?/

The known ancient cirth do not cover all the sounds of Sindarin: there is no certh for ⟨rh⟩, ⟨lh⟩, ⟨mh⟩, ⟨y⟩ or ⟨oe⟩. Perhaps this system had been devised for Old Sindarin, since the above-mentioned sounds do not exist in that language.
However, still frequent ⟨w⟩ and a are missing, too. This indicates that some ancient, unknown cirth could have existed, but did not make it to the later systems. Therefore, a fuller table cannot be reconstructed.
Long vowels were evidently indicated by doubling.

i. ^ The original value of the certh Certh 5.svg was not given by Tolkien, but he mentions that it took the value ⟨hw⟩ after the certh Certh 6.svg was adopted for ⟨m⟩. While he did not indicate what the former certh for ⟨m⟩ was, we can infer that it was this one, judging by both its labial shape and the typical symmetry of nasals.
ii. ^ The original value of the certh Certh 6.svg cannot be guessed but, judging from its shape, it was probably a labial consonant.
iii. ^ The certh Certh 22.svg was used to represent ⟨n⟩ followed by ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩. In these positions, ⟨n⟩ is not pronounced /n/ but instead assimilates to /?/. Thus, ⟨nc⟩ is written and ⟨ng⟩ is written .
However, when the grapheme ⟨ng⟩ occurs at the end of a word, it represents a simple velar nasal /?/ in Sindarin (the ⟨g⟩ is "silent", just like in the English word ⟨sing⟩ ). In this case, the grapheme ⟨-ng⟩ would be written using the certh Certh 22.svg alone.
iv. ^ The sound given to the cirth Certh 13.svg and Certh 35.svg was interchangeable.[3]
v. ^ The certh Certh 36.svg will later have the value ⟨ss⟩ in Elvish languages. It could have had another unknown value before.
vi. ^ In Sindarin, ⟨i⟩ represents /j/ when initial before vowels, /i/ everywhere else.
vii. ^ Perhaps the certh Certh 42.svg was used for both /u/ and /w/, just like the v⟩ in Latin (e.g., the Classical pronunciation of ⟨vvlnvs⟩ is ['wu:?n?s]).
viii. ^ The earliest certh for ⟨a⟩ cannot be guessed: it was likely one of some other cirth that did not survive in later systems.

Angerthas Daeron

Before the end of the First Age the Certhas was rearranged and further developed, partly under the influence of the Tengwar. This reorganisation of the Cirth was commonly attributed to the Elf Daeron, minstrel and loremaster of king Thingol of Doriath. Thus, the new system became known as the Angerthas Daeron[3] (where "angerthas" ['rs] is a compound of the Sindarin words "an(d)" [?n(d)] and "certhas" ['k?rs], meaning "long rune-rows"[6]).

Unlike the previous system, the flipped form of a certh had now a phonemic significance: it signalled the lenition of the original rune. These new cirth were needed in order to represent fricatives that were developed at one point in Sindarin (e.g., Certh 8.svg /t/ -> Certh 10.svg /?/).

Some new runes were introduced in the Angerthas with the purpose of writing:

  1. the frequent sounds /?/ and /w/ (Certh 48.svg and respectively);
  2. long vowels, that evidently originated by doubling and joining the certh of the corresponding short vowel (e.g., -> );
  3. two front vowels, probably originated as ligatures of the corresponding back vowel with the /i/-certh (e.g., -> , and -> );
  4. two common consonant clusters (Certh 33.svg // and Certh 38.svg /nd/).

However, the principal additions to the former Certhas were two entirely new series of regularly-formed cirth:

Since these new series represent sounds which do not occur in Sindarin but are present in Quenya, they were most probably invented by the Exiled Noldor[3] that spoke Quenya as a language of knowledge. By loan-translation, the Cirth became known in Quenya as Certar ['k?rtar], while a single certh was called certa ['k?rta].

Back to the fictional history, after the introduction of the Tengwar in Middle-earth, the Angerthas Daeron was relegated primarily to carved inscriptions. The Elves abandoned the Cirth altogether, with the exception of the Noldor dwelling in Eregion, who maintained it and made it known as Angerthas Eregion.

Please note that, in this article, the primitive Certhas is transliterated using the regular Sindarin spelling, whereas the Angerthas is rendered using its own peculiar transliteration, introduced by Tolkien in the Appendix E, given that this script was meant to cover a much larger set of sounds than its primitive form. For example, the Sindarin spelling for /y/ is ⟨y⟩; in the transliteration of the Angerthas instead, the sound /y/ is spelled ⟨ü⟩, while ⟨y⟩ represents the sound /j/.

In this article, each certh of the Certh 13.svg-series presents two IPA transcriptions. The reason is that the palatal consonants of Noldorin Quenya are realised as palato-alveolar consonants in Vanyarin Quenya.
For example, the Quenya word ⟨tyelpë⟩ is pronounced [7] in the Noldorin variety, but ['tlp?][8] in Vanyarin. The very name of the language, whose archaic form is ⟨Quendya⟩ ['k?a], is spelled ⟨Quenya⟩ in Noldorin (reflecting its pronunciation as ['ka]), but retains the spelling ⟨Quendya⟩ in Vanyarin (where it is realised as ['knda] due to assibilation).[9]
Although in the fictional history of Middle-earth this series of consonants was introduced by the Noldor, it is deemed necessary to show the Vanyarin pronunciation as well, given that the very transliteration used by Tolkien is more similar to the Vanyarin phonotactics than the Noldorin.

Certh Translit. IPA Certh Translit. IPA Certh Translit. IPA Certh Translit. IPA
Certh 1.svg p /p/ Certh 16.svg zh /?/ or [?] Certh 31.svg l /l/ Certh 46.svg e /?/
Certh 2.svg b /b/ Certh 17.svg nj /?/ or [nd] Certh 32.svg lh /?/ Certh 47.svg ê /e:/
Certh 3.svg f /f/ Certh 18.svg k /k/ Certh 33.svg ng // Certh 48.svg a /a/
Certh 4.svg v /v/ Certh 19.svg g /?/ Certh 34.svg s /s/ Certh 49.svg â /a:/
Certh 5.svg hw /?/ Certh 20.svg kh /x/ Certh 35.svg Certh 50.svg o /?/
Certh 6.svg m /m/ Certh 21.svg gh /?/ Certh 36.svg ss--z[B] /ss/--/z/ Certh 51.svg or Certh 51a.svg ô /o:/
Certh 7.svg mh[D] /?/ Certh 22.svg ? /?/ Certh 52.svg or Certh 52a.svg ö /oe/
Certh 8.svg t /t/ Certh 23.svg kw /k?/ Certh 38.svg or Certh 38a.svg nd /nd/
Certh 9.svg d /d/ Certh 24.svg gw // Certh 39.svg i, y /i//j/ Certh 54.svg h[C] /h/
Certh 10.svg th /?/ Certh 25.svg khw /x?/
Certh 11.svg dh /ð/ Certh 26.svg ghw //
Certh 12.svg n /n/ Certh 27.svg ngw // Certh 42.svg u /u/
Certh 13.svg ch[A] /c/ or [t] Certh 28.svg nw //->/n?/ Certh 43.svg û /u:/
Certh 14.svg j /?/ or [d] Certh 29.svg r /r/ Certh 44.svg w /w/
Certh 15.svg sh /ç/ or [?] Certh 30.svg rh /r?/ Certh 45.svg or Certh 45a.svg ü /y/
A. ^ The certh Certh 13.svg (that had been used for /h/ in the original Certhas) was chosen as the basis for the new series of palatal consonants. This means that it was given the value ⟨ch⟩, i.e. the voiceless palatal stop /c/ (or the voiceless palato-alveolar affricate [t], in the Vanyarin dialect).
Please note that while this certh is transliterated ⟨ch⟩, it is completely unrelated to Sindarin ⟨ch⟩, which is pronounced /x/, and is rendered as ⟨kh⟩ in the Angerthas.
B. ^ Tolkien gives the sound /z/ to this certh (probably in non-Elvish languages), but points out that it was used as /ss/ in Quenya and in Sindarin.[3]
C. ^ This certh was made anew for the sound /h/. It is similar in shape both to the former /h/-certh Certh 13.svg, now used for /c/, and to the tengwa hyarmen Tengwa hyarmen.svg.
D. ^ In archaic Sindarin a certh for ⟨mh⟩ (representing the sound /?/) was needed, and the most appropriate solution was to flip the certh for ⟨m⟩ to indicate its lenition.[3] But, being the certh Certh 5.svg horizontally symmetric, it could not be flipped. Therefore, the value ⟨m⟩ was given to Certh 6.svg (which until then had a different, unknown value), ⟨mh⟩ was given to Certh 7.svg, and the certh Certh 5.svg assumed the value ⟨hw⟩.[3] The sound /?/ merged with /v/ in later Sindarin.

Angerthas Moria

According to Tolkien's legendarium, the Dwarves first came to know the runes of the Noldor at the beginning of the Second Age. The Dwarves "introduced a number of unsystematic changes in value, as well as certain new cirth".[3] They modified the previous system to suit the specific needs of their language, Khuzdul. The Dwarves spread their revised alphabet to Moria, where it came to be known as Angerthas Moria, and developed both carved and pen-written forms of these runes.

Many cirth here represent sounds not occurring in Khuzdul (at least in published words of Khuzdul: of course, our corpus is very limited to judge the necessity or not, of these sounds). Here they are marked with a black star (?).

Certh Translit. IPA Certh Translit. IPA Certh Translit. IPA Certh Translit. IPA
Certh 1.svg p /p/? Certh 31.svg l /l/ Certh 46.svg e /e/
Certh 2.svg b /b/ Certh 17.svg z /z/ Certh 32.svg lh /?/? Certh 47.svg ê /e:/
Certh 3.svg f /f/ Certh 18.svg k /k/ Certh 33.svg nd /nd/ Certh 48.svg a /a/
Certh 4.svg v /v/? Certh 19.svg g /?/ Certh 34.svg h[A] /h/ Certh 49.svg â /a:/
Certh 5.svg hw /?/? Certh 20.svg kh /x/? Certh 35.svg ʻ /?/ Certh 50.svg o /o/
Certh 6.svg m /m/ Certh 21.svg gh /?/? Certh 36.svg ? /?/? Certh 51.svg or Certh 51a.svg ô /o:/
Certh 7.svg mb /mb/ Certh 22.svg n /n/ Certh 37.svg ng // Certh 52.svg or Certh 52a.svg ö /oe/?
Certh 8.svg t /t/ Certh 23.svg kw /k?/? Certh 38.svg or Certh 38a.svg nj /nd?/? Certh 53.svg n /n/
Certh 9.svg d /d/ Certh 24.svg gw //? Certh 39.svg i /i/ Certh 54.svg s /s/
Certh 10.svg th /?/? Certh 25.svg khw /x?/? Certh 40.svg y /j/ Certh 55.svg or Certh 55a.svg [B] /?/
Certh 11.svg dh /ð/? Certh 26.svg ghw //? Certh 41.svg hy /j?/ or /ç/? Certh 56.svg or Certh 56a.svg [B] /?/
Certh 12.svg r /?/ or /?/ Certh 27.svg ngw //? Certh 42.svg u /u/
Certh 13.svg ch /t?/? Certh 28.svg nw /n?/? Certh 43.svg û /u:/
Certh 29.svg j /d?/? Certh 44.svg w /w/? Certh 59.svg +h[C] //
Certh 15.svg sh /?/ Certh 30.svg zh /?/? Certh 45.svg or Certh 45a.svg ü /y/? Certh 60.svg &[D]

Notes on Angerthas Moria

A. ^ The Khuzdul language has two glottal consonants: /h/ and /?/, the latter being "the glottal beginning of a word with an initial vowel".[3] Thus, in need of a reversible certh to represent these sounds, Certh 54.svg and Certh 34.svg were switched, giving the former the value /s/ and using the latter for /h/, and its reversed counterpart Certh 35.svg for /?/.
B. ^ These cirth were a halved form of Certh 46.svg, used for vowels like those in the word ⟨butter⟩ . Thus, Certh 55.svg represented a /?/ sound in unstressed syllables, while Certh 56.svg represented /?/, a somehow similar sound, in stressed syllables. When weak they were reduced to a stroke without a stem (Certh 55a.svg, Certh 56a.svg).[3]
C. ^ This sign denotes aspiration in voiceless stops, occurring frequently in Khuzdul.[3]
D. ^ This certh is a scribal abbreviation used to represent a conjunction, and is basically identical to the ampersand ⟨&⟩ used in Latin script.
Runes in the upper inscription of Balin's tomb use Angerthas Moria, reading left-to-right:
Balin
Fu[nd]inul
UzbadK?azaddûmu

In Angerthas Moria the cirth Certh 14.svg /d?/ and Certh 16.svg /?/ were dropped. Thus Certh 29.svg and Certh 30.svg were adopted for /d?/ and /?/, although they were used for /r/ and /r?/ in Elvish languages. Subsequently, this script used the certh Certh 12.svg for /?/ (or /?/), which had the sound /n/ in the Elvish systems. Therefore, the certh Certh 22.svg (which was previously used for the sound /?/, useless in Khuzdul) was adopted for the sound /n/. A totally new introduction was the certh Certh 53.svg, used as an alternative, simplified and, maybe, weaker form of Certh 22.svg. Because of the visual relation of these two cirth, the certh Certh 17.svg was given the sound /z/ to relate better with Certh 54.svg that, in this script, had the sound /s/.[3]

Angerthas Erebor

At the beginning of the Third Age the Dwarves were driven out of Moria, and some migrated to Erebor. As the Dwarves of Erebor would trade with the Men of the nearby towns of Dale and Lake-town, they needed a script to write in Westron (the lingua franca of Middle-earth, usually rendered in English by Tolkien in his works). The Angerthas Moria was adapted accordingly: some new cirth were added, while some were restored to their Elvish usage, thus creating the Angerthas Erebor.[3]

While the Angerthas Moria was still used to write down Khuzdul, this new script was primarily used for Mannish languages. It is also the script used in the Book of Mazarbul.

Certh Translit. IPA Certh Translit. IPA Certh Translit. IPA Certh Translit. IPA
Certh 1.svg p /p/ Certh 16.svg zh /?/ Certh 31.svg l /l/ Certh 46.svg e /e/
Certh 2.svg b /b/ Certh 17.svg ks /ks/
Certh 3.svg f /f/ Certh 18.svg k /k/ Certh 33.svg nd /nd/ Certh 48.svg a /a/
Certh 4.svg v /v/ Certh 19.svg g /?/ Certh 34.svg s /s/
Certh 5.svg hw /?/ Certh 20.svg kh /x/ Certh 35.svg Certh 50.svg o /o/
Certh 6.svg m /m/ Certh 21.svg gh /?/ Certh 36.svg ? /?/
Certh 7.svg mb /mb/ Certh 22.svg n /n/ Certh 37.svg ng // Certh 52.svg or Certh 52a.svg ö /oe/
Certh 8.svg t /t/ Certh 23.svg kw /k?/ Certh 53.svg n /n/
Certh 9.svg d /d/ Certh 24.svg gw // Certh 39.svg i /i/ Certh 54.svg h /h/
Certh 10.svg th /?/ Certh 25.svg khw /x?/ Certh 40.svg y /j/ Certh 55.svg or Certh 55a.svg /?/
Certh 11.svg dh /ð/ Certh 26.svg ghw // Certh 41.svg hy /j?/ or /ç/ Certh 56.svg or Certh 56a.svg /?/
Certh 12.svg r /r/ Certh 27.svg ngw // Certh 42.svg u /u/ Certh 57.svg ps /ps/
Certh 13.svg ch /t?/ Certh 28.svg nw /n?/ Certh 43.svg z /z/ Certh 58.svg ts /ts/
Certh 14.svg j /d?/ Certh 29.svg g /?/ Certh 44.svg w /w/ Certh 59.svg +h //
Certh 15.svg sh /?/ Certh 30.svg gh /?/ Certh 45.svg or Certh 45a.svg ü /y/ Certh 60.svg &

Angerthas Erebor also features combining diacritics:

The bottom inscription of Balin's tomb is written in English using the Angerthas Erebor. It reads left-to-right: "Balin s?n ov Fu[nd]in lord ov Moria"

The Angerthas Erebor is used twice in The Lord of the Rings to write in English:

  1. in the upper inscription of the title page, where it reads "[dh]?·lord·ov·[dh]?·ri?s·translat?d·from·[dh]?·red·b[oo]k..." (the sentence follows in the bottom inscription, written in Tengwar: "...of Westmarch by John Ronald Reuel Tolkien. Herein is set forth/ the history of the War of the Ring and the Return of the King as seen by the Hobbits.");
  2. in the bottom inscription of Balin's tomb--being the translation of the upper inscription, which is written in Khuzdul using Angerthas Moria.

The Book of Mazarbul shows some additional cirth used in Angerthas Erebor: one for a double ⟨l⟩ ligature, one for the definite article, and six for the representation of the same number of English diphthongs:

Certh English spelling
Certh LL.svg* ⟨ll⟩
Certh Article.svg* ⟨the⟩[A]
Certh AI.svg* ⟨ai⟩, ⟨ay⟩
Certh AU.svg* ⟨au⟩, ⟨aw⟩
Certh EA.svg* ⟨ea⟩
Certh 47.svg ⟨ee⟩
Certh 38a.svg ⟨eu⟩, ⟨ew⟩
Certh OA.svg* ⟨oa⟩
Certh 51.svg ⟨oo⟩
Certh 38.svg ⟨ou⟩, ⟨ow⟩

Notes on Angerthas Erebor

A. ^ This certh is a scribal abbreviation used to represent the definite article. Although in English it stands for ⟨the⟩, it can assume different values according to the used language.
*. ^ The cirth marked with an asterisk are unique of Angerthas Erebor.

Other runic systems of Middle-earth

The Cirth is not the only runic writing system devised by Tolkien for Middle-earth. In fact, he invented a great number of runic alphabets, of which only a few others have been published. Many of these runic scripts have been included in the "Appendix on Runes" of The Treason of Isengard (The History of Middle-earth, vol. VII), edited by Christopher Tolkien.

Runes from The Hobbit

According to Tolkien, those used in The Hobbit are a form of "our ancient runes" deployed in the book to transliterate the actual Dwarvish runes.[10] They can be interpreted as an attempt made by Tolkien to adapt the Fuþorc (i.e., the Old English runic alphabet) to the Modern English language.

These runes are basically the same found in Fuþorc, but their sound may change according to their position, just as the Latin script letters do: the writing mode adopted by Tolkien for these runes is mainly orthographic.

This system has one rune for each letter, regardless of pronunciation. For example, the rune Certh 13.svg ⟨c⟩ can sound either (in the word ⟨cat⟩) or (in the word ⟨cellar⟩) or even (in the word ⟨ocean⟩) and (in the digraph ⟨ch⟩).

A few sounds are instead written with the same rune, regardless of the way it is spelled with the Latin script. For example, the sound is always written with the rune Certh 24.svg either if in English it is written ⟨o⟩ as in ⟨north⟩, ⟨a⟩ as in ⟨fall⟩, or ⟨oo⟩ as in ⟨door⟩. The only letters that are subject to this phonemic spelling are ⟨a⟩ and ⟨o⟩.

In addition, there are also some runes which stand for particular English digraphs and diphthongs.

Here the runes used in The Hobbit are displayed along with their corresponding English grapheme and Fuþorc counterpart:

Rune Fuþorc English grapheme Rune Fuþorc English grapheme
Tolkien's Futhorc A.svg ? phonemic[table below] Certh 28.svg ? ⟨p⟩
Certh 9.svg ? Certh 2.svg ? ⟨r⟩
Certh 6.svg ? ⟨b⟩ Certh 40.svg ? ⟨s⟩
Certh 13.svg ? ⟨c⟩ Certh 12.svg ? ⟨t⟩
Certh 38.svg ? ⟨d⟩ Certh 48.svg ? ⟨u⟩, ⟨v⟩
Tolkien's Futhorc E.svg ? ⟨e⟩ Certh 1.svg ? ⟨w⟩
Tolkien's Futhorc F.svg ? ⟨f⟩ Certh 22.svg ? ⟨x⟩
Certh 36.svg ? ⟨g⟩ Certh AU.svg ? ⟨y⟩
Certh 47.svg ? ⟨h⟩ Certh 17.svg ? ⟨z⟩
Certh 39.svg ? ⟨i⟩, ⟨j⟩ Certh 57.svg ? ⟨th⟩
Tolkien's Futhorc K.svg* ⟨k⟩ Certh 27.svg ? ⟨ea⟩
Certh 8.svg ? ⟨l⟩ Tolkien's Futhorc ST.svg ? ⟨st⟩
Tolkien's Futhorc M.svg ? ⟨m⟩ Certh 42.svg ? ⟨ee⟩
Certh 32.svg ? ⟨n⟩ Certh 43.svg ? ⟨ng⟩
Certh 24.svg ? phonemic[table below] Tolkien's Futhorc EO.svg ? ⟨eo⟩

Two other runes, not attested in The Hobbit, were added by Tolkien in order to represent additional English graphemes:

Rune
Certh 5.svg*
Certh 41.svg*
English grapheme
⟨oo⟩
⟨sh⟩

Notes

  • ^ This table summarises the transcription of ⟨a⟩ and ⟨o⟩ in runes:[11]
English grapheme Sound in IPA Rune
⟨a⟩ Certh 9.svg
every other sound Tolkien's Futhorc A.svg
Certh 24.svg
⟨o⟩ every sound
⟨oo⟩
every other sound Certh 5.svg
  • Tolkien always wrote the English digraph ⟨wh⟩ (representing the sound [?], or , like in ⟨whine⟩) as ⟨hw⟩.
  • There is no rune to transliterate ⟨q⟩: the digraph ⟨qu⟩ (representing the sound [k?w], like in ⟨queen⟩) is always written in runes as ⟨cw⟩.
  • * ^ The three runes marked with an asterisk were invented by Tolkien and are not attested in real-life fuþorc.

Gondolinic Runes

Not all the runes mentioned in The Hobbit are Dwarf-runes. The swords found in the Trolls' cave (which were from the ancient kingdom of Gondolin) bore runes that Gandalf allegedly could not read. In fact, the swords Glamdring and Orcrist, forged in Gondolin, bore a type of letters known as Gondolinic runes. They seem to have been obsoleted and forgotten by the Third Age, and this is supported by the fact that Tolkien writes that only Elrond could still read the inscriptions of the swords.
Tolkien devised this runic alphabet in a very early stage of his shaping of Middle-earth. Nevertheless, they are known to us from a slip of paper written by J.R.R. Tolkien, a photocopy of which Christopher Tolkien sent to Paul Nolan Hyde in February 1992. Hyde then published it, together with an extensive analysis, in the 1992 Summer issue of Mythlore, no. 69.[12]
The system provides sounds not found in any of the known Elven languages of the First Age, but perhaps it was designed for a variety of languages. However, the consonants seem to be, more or less, the same found in Welsh phonology, a theory supported by the fact that Tolkien was heavily influenced by Welsh when creating Elven languages.[13]

Consonants
Labial Dentals Palatal Dorsal Glottal
Rune IPA Rune IPA Rune IPA Rune IPA Rune IPA Rune IPA Rune IPA
Plosive Gondolin rune p.svg p /p/ Certh 8.svg t /t/ Certh 57.svg k (c) /k/
b /b/ Certh 12.svg d /d/ Certh 6.svg g /?/
Fricative Gondolin rune f.svg f /f/ Certh 9.svg þ /?/ Certh 35.svg s /s/ Gondolin rune sh.svg ? /?/ Certh 40.svg ? /x/ Certh 59.svg h /h/
v /v/ Certh 19.svg ð /ð/ Gondolin rune z.svg z /z/ Gondolin rune zh.svg ? /?/
Affricate Certh 60.svg t? (ch) /t/
Gondolin rune j.svg d? (j) /d/
Nasal Certh 43.svg m /m/ Certh 54.svg n /n/ Certh 2.svg ? /?/
Gondolin rune mh.svg (mh) /m?/ Certh 28.svg /n?/? (?h) //
Trill Certh 29.svg r /r/
Certh 33.svg rh /r?/
Lateral Certh 36.svg l /l/

Gondolin rune lh3.svg
lh /?/
Approximant
Gondolin rune y3 (consonant).svg
j (i?) /j/ Certh 42.svg w (u?) /w/
Certh 37.svg ? /?/
Vowels
Rune Translit. IPA Rune Translit. IPA Rune Translit. IPA Rune Translit. IPA Rune Translit. IPA
Gondolin rune a.svg a /a/ Gondolin rune e.svg e /?/ Certh 39.svg i /i/ Certh 48.svg o /?/ Gondolin rune u.svg u /u/
Certh 38.svg ? /a:/ ? /e:/ Certh 31.svg ? /i:/ ? /o:/ ? /u:/
æ /æ/ Certh AU.svg oe /oe/ y /y/
? /æ:/ Gondolin rune oe-.svg oe? /oe:/
? /y:/

Encoding schemes

Unicode

Equivalents for some (but not all) cirth can be found in the Runic block of Unicode.

Tolkien's mode of writing Modern English in Anglo-Saxon runes received explicit recognition with the introduction of his three additional runes to the Runic block with the release of Unicode 7.0, in June 2014. The three characters represent the English ⟨k⟩, ⟨oo⟩ and ⟨sh⟩ graphemes, as follows:

  • RUNIC LETTER K
  • RUNIC LETTER SH
  • RUNIC LETTER OO

A formal Unicode proposal to encode Cirth as a separate script was made in September 1997 by Michael Everson.[14] No action was taken by the Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) but Cirth appears in the Roadmap to the SMP.[15]

ConScript Unicode Registry

Cirth
RangeU+E080..U+E0FF
(128 code points)
PlaneBMP
ScriptsArtificial Scripts
Major alphabetsCirth
Assigned109 code points
Unused19 reserved code points
Source standardsCSUR
Note: Part of the Private-Use Area, font conflicts possible

Unicode Private Use Area layouts for Cirth are defined at the ConScript Unicode Registry (CSUR)[16] and the Under-ConScript Unicode Registry (UCSUR).[17]

Two different layouts are defined by the CSUR/UCSUR:

  • 1997-11-03 proposal[18] implemented by fonts like GNU Unifont[19] and Code2000.
  • 2000-04-22 discussion paper[20][21] implemented by fonts like Constructium and Fairfax.

Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols below instead of Cirth.

Cirth (1997)[1][2]
ConScript Unicode Registry 1997 code chart
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+E08x
U+E09x
U+E0Ax
U+E0Bx
U+E0Cx
U+E0Dx
U+E0Ex      
U+E0Fx
Notes
1.^ As of 1997-11-03 version (differs from 2000-04-22 proposal)
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
Cirth (2000)[1][2]
ConScript Unicode Registry 2000 proposal
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+E08x
U+E09x
U+E0Ax
U+E0Bx
U+E0Cx
U+E0Dx
U+E0Ex
U+E0Fx
Notes
1.^ As of 2000-04-22 proposal (differs from 1997-11-03 version)
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References

  1. ^ Simek, Rudolf (2005). Mittelerde: Tolkien und die germanische Mythologie [Middle-earth: Tolkien and Germanic Mythology] (in German). C. H. Beck. pp. 155-156. ISBN 3-406-52837-6.
  2. ^ Smith, Arden R. (1997). "The semiotics of the writing systems of Tolkien's Middle-earth". In Rauch, Irmengard; Carr, Gerald F. (eds.). Semiotics Around the World: Synthesis in Diversity. Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies, Berkeley, 1994. 1. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1239-1242. ISBN 3-11-012223-5.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tolkien, J.R.R. (1955). The Return of the King - Being the Third Part of The Lord of the Rings; Appendix E. London: George Allen & Unwin.
  4. ^ "Sindarin Words: certh". eldamo.org. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "Sindarin Words: certhas". eldamo.org. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "Sindarin Words: angerthas". eldamo.org. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (2015-06-12). "Quenya consonants". Parma Eldalamberon (22): 66. ⟨ty⟩ is pronounced as a 'front explosive' [c], as e.g. Hungarian ty, but it is followed by an appreciable partly unvoiced y-offglide [??].
  8. ^ "Quenya pronunciation". RealElvish.net. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (1994). Tolkien, Christopher (ed.). The War of the Jewels (The Later Silmarillion, Part 2). The History of Middle-earth. 11. London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-395-71041-3.
  10. ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (1937). The Hobbit. London: George Allen & Unwin.
  11. ^ Lindberg, Per (2016-11-27). "Tolkien English Runes" (PDF). forodrim.org. Retrieved .
  12. ^ Hyde, Paul Nolan (July 1992). "Gondolinic Runes". Mythlore. 18 (iss. 3, no. 69).
  13. ^ "Study explores JRR Tolkien's Welsh influences". BBC. 2011-05-21. Retrieved .
  14. ^ Everson, Michael (1997-09-18). "N1642: Proposal to encode Cirth in Plane 1 of ISO/IEC 10646-2". Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 and UTC. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Roadmap to the SMP". Unicode.org. 2015-06-03. Retrieved .
  16. ^ "ConScript Unicode Registry". Evertype.com. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "Under-ConScript Unicode Registry". Retrieved .
  18. ^ "Cirth: U+E080–U+E0FF". ConScript Unicode Registry. 1997-11-03. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "GNU Unifont". Unifoundry.com. Retrieved .
  20. ^ Everson, Michael (2000-04-22). "X.X Cirth 1xx00-1xx7F" (PDF). Retrieved .
  21. ^ "Cirth, Range: E080-E0FF" (PDF). Under-ConScript Unicode Registry. 2008-04-14. Retrieved .

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