Chief Rabbi
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Chief Rabbi

Chief Rabbi (Hebrew: ?Rav Rashi) is a title given in several countries to the recognized religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities. Since 1911, through a capitulation by Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel, Israel has had two chief rabbis, one Ashkenazi and one Sephardi.[1]

Cities with large Jewish communities may also have their own chief rabbis; this is especially the case in Israel but has also been past practice in major Jewish centers in Europe prior to the Holocaust. North American cities rarely have chief rabbis. One exception however is Montreal, with two--one for the Ashkenazi community, the other for the Sephardi.

Jewish law provides no scriptural or Talmudic support for the post of a "chief rabbi." The office, however, is said by many to find its precedent in the religio-political authority figures of Jewish antiquity (e.g., kings, high priests, patriarches, exilarchs and gaonim).[2] The position arose in Europe in the Middle Ages from governing authorities largely for secular administrative reasons such as collecting taxes and registering vital statistics, and for providing an intermediary between the government and the Jewish community, for example in the establishment of the Crown rabbi in several kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, the rab de la corte in Kingdom of Castile or the arrabi mor in Kingdom of Portugal, likely influenced by the expectations of their Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican governments and neighbors.[3] Similarly, in the 19th century there was a Crown rabbi of the Russian Empire.[4]

By country / region

Albania

  • Joel Kaplan (2010-present)[5] disputed[6]

Argentina

Sephardi

Ashkenazi

Austria

Belgium

Bulgaria

Chile

Ashkenazi

  • Rab Javier Waissbluth

Sephardi

  • Rab Eliahu Tamim

Colombia

Ashkenazi

Sephardi

Cuba

Croatia

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

[14]

Egypt

Estonia

The Far East

Finland

  • Simon Livson (2013)

France

Galicia*

Galicia in Central/Eastern Europe, as a political entity, ceased to exist in 1921; the title of its Chief Rabbi had already been abolished 1 November 1786 as part of the Josephinism Reforms.[15][16]

Due to its being a center for Jewish scholarship, the Rabbi of Lemberg was traditionally seen as the Rabbi of Galicia in the era prior to World War II.[17]

Guatemala

Honduras

Hong Kong

Hungary

Note that this list is out of order.
  • Meir Eisenstadt known as the Panim Me'iros (1708-), rabbi of Eisenstadt and author of "Panim Me'irot"
  • Alexander ben Menahem
  • Phinehas Auerbach
  • Jacob Eliezer Braunschweig
  • Hirsch Semnitz
  • Simon Jolles (1717-?)
  • Samson Wertheimer (1693?-1724) (also Eisenstadt and Moravia)
  • Issachar Berush Eskeles (1725-1753)[18]
  • Joseph Hirsch Weiss--grandfather of Stephen Samuel Wise[19][20]
  • Samuel Kohn
  • Simon Hevesi (father of Ferenc Hevesi)
  • Ferenc Hevesi
  • Moshe Kunitzer a pioneer of the Haskalah movement in Hungary (1828-1837)
  • Koppel Reich
  • Chaim Yehuda Deutsch
  • József Schweitzer
  • Robert (Avrohom Yehudoh) Deutsch

Iran

Ireland

The appointment of a new Chief Rabbi of Ireland has been put on hold since 2008.[21]

Israel

The position of chief rabbi (Hebrew: ?‎) of the Land of Israel has existed for hundreds of years. During the Mandatory Period, the British recognized the chief rabbis of the Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities, just as they recognized the Mufti of Jerusalem. The offices continued after statehood was achieved. Haredi Jewish groups (such as Edah HaChareidis) do not recognize the authority of the Chief Rabbinate. They usually have their own rabbis who do not have any connection to the state rabbinate.

Under current Israeli law, the post of Chief Rabbi exists in only four cities (Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Beersheba). In other cities there may be one main rabbi to whom the other rabbis of that city defer, but that post is not officially the "Chief Rabbi".

Many of Israel's chief rabbis were previously chief rabbis of Israeli cities.

Military Rabbinate

Japan

Lebanon

Mexico

  • Shlomo Tawil (1998-Present)

Macedonia

  • Avi Kozma

Morocco

Nepal

Norway

Panama

Poland

Poland: Armed Forces

Romania

Russia

Military Rabbinate

Serbia

Singapore

  • Rabbi Mordechai Abergel/Rabbi Jean Pierre Fettmann

Slovakia

South Africa

Spain

  • Baruj Garzon (1968-1978), the first Chief Rabbi in Spain since the expulsion in 1492
  • Yehuda Benasuli (1978-1997)
  • Moshe Bendahan (1997-present)

Sudan

  • Solomon Malka (1906-1949)
  • Haim Simoni (1950-1952)
  • Massoud El-Baz (1953-early 1970s and the end of the Jewish community in Sudan.

Syria

  • Yom Tov Yedid (1960-1982), moved to the United States in 1982 and died 27 July 2016 in the United States

Thailand

Transylvania (before 1918)

Note: The chief rabbi of Transylvania was generally the rabbi of the city of Alba Iulia.

  • Joseph Reis Auerbach (d. 1750)
  • Shalom Selig ben Saul Cohen (1754-1757)
  • Johanan ben Isaac (1758-1760)
  • Benjamin Ze'eb Wolf of Cracow (1764-1777)
  • Moses ben Samuel Levi Margaliot (1778-1817)
  • Menahem ben Joshua Mendel (1818-23)
  • Ezekiel Paneth (1823-1843)
  • Abraham Friedmann (d. 1879), last chief rabbi of Transylvania

Tunisia

Turkey

Uganda

Ukraine

United Kingdom and Commonwealth

Ashkenazi chief rabbis

Spanish and Portuguese community Hahamim/senior rabbis

The Sephardi Jews in the United Kingdom are mainly members of independent synagogues. There is no single rabbi recognised by them as a chief rabbi. The Spanish and Portuguese community, however, consists of several synagogues, charities, a beth din and a kashruth authority. These are under the leadership of an ecclesiastical head. Historically, the individual who fills this role is recognised as a senior rabbi of Anglo Jewry, being the leader of the oldest Jewish community in the country. The Senior Rabbi was traditionally given the title, Haham, meaning "wise one". Since 1918, however, only Solomon Gaon was given this title. The official title of the holder of this office is now The Senior Rabbi of the S&P Sephardi Community of the United Kingdom.

United States

A chief rabbinate never truly developed within the United States for a number of different reasons. While Jews first settled in the United States in 1654 in New York City, rabbis did not appear in the United States until the mid-nineteenth century. This lack of rabbis, coupled with the lack of official colonial or state recognition of a particular sect of Judaism as official effectively led to a form of congregationalism amongst American Jews. This did not stop others from trying to create a unified American Judaism, and in fact, some chief rabbis developed in some American cities despite lacking universal recognition amongst the Jewish communities within the cities (for examples see below). However, Jonathan Sarna argues that those two precedents, as well as the desire of many Jewish immigrants to the US to break from an Orthodox past, effectively prevented any effective Chief Rabbi in America.[32]

Uruguay

  • Jaime Spector (1931-1937)
  • Aaron Milevsky (1937-1943)
  • Aaron Laschover (1943-1967)
  • Nechemia Berman (1970-1993)
  • Eliahu Birenbaum (1994-1999)
  • Yosef Bittón (1999-2002)
  • Mordejai Maarabi (2002-2009)
  • Shai Froindlich (2009-2010)
  • Isaac Fadda (2011-2012)
  • Ben-Tzion Spitz (2013-2016)
  • Max Yojanan Godet (2017-present)

Uzbekistan

Venezuela


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