Borough of Chesterfield
View of Chesterfield from Old Brampton
Shown within Derbyshire
|o Type||Non-metropolitan district|
|o Local Authority||Chesterfield Borough Council|
|o MPs||Toby Perkins|
|o Total||104,628 (ranked 225th)|
|o Ethnicity||94.9% White British|
|Time zone||UTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)|
|ONS code||17UD (ONS)|
|OS grid reference|
Chesterfield is a large market town and borough in Derbyshire, England, 24 miles (39 km) north of Derby and 11 miles (18 km) south of Sheffield at the confluence of the rivers Rother and Hipper. With Whittington, Brimington and Staveley it had a population of about 103,801 in 2012, making it Derbyshire's second largest town. It has been traced to a soon-abandoned Roman fort of the 1st century AD. The name of the later Anglo-Saxon village comes from the Old English ceaster (a Roman fort) and feld (grazing land). Its sizeable street market is held three days a week. The town sits on a coalfield, but little visual evidence of mining remains. Its biggest landmark is the Church of St Mary and All Saints with its crooked spire.
Chesterfield was in the Hundred of Scarsdale. The town received its market charter in 1204 from King John. The charter constituted the town as a free borough, granting the burgesses of Chesterfield the same privileges as those of Nottingham and Derby. In 1266, it was the site of the Battle of Chesterfield, in which a band of rebel barons were defeated by a royalist army.
Elizabeth I granted a charter of incorporation in 1594 or 1598, creating a corporation of a mayor, six aldermen, six brethren, and twelve capital burgesses. This remained the governing charter until the borough was reformed under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. It originally consisted only of the township of Chesterfield, but was extended in 1892 to some surrounding townships. There was a major extension when the borough absorbed New Whittington and Newbold urban district in 1920. Chesterfield's current boundaries date from 1 April 1974, when the Borough of Chesterfield was formed under the Local Government Act 1972 by amalgamating the municipal borough, the urban district of Staveley and the parish of Brimington from Chesterfield Rural District.
Chesterfield benefited greatly from the building of the Chesterfield Line - part of the Derby to Leeds railway (North Midland Line), which was begun in 1837 by George Stephenson. During the work, a sizeable seam of coal was discovered during the construction of the Clay Cross Tunnel. This and the local ironstone were promptly exploited by Stephenson, who set up a company in Clay Cross to trade in the minerals.
During his time in Chesterfield, Stephenson lived at Tapton House, and remained there until his death in 1848. He is interred in Trinity Church. A statue of him was erected outside Chesterfield railway station in 2006.
Chesterfield lies at the confluence of the River Rother and River Hipper at the Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Yorkshire Coalfield, in the eastern foothills of the Pennines. It is sometimes known as the "Gateway to the Peak", i. e. the Peak District National Park to the west of it.
Surrounding areas of the South and West Yorkshire Green Belt serve in places to block urban sprawl. Other local greenfield frameworks include "strategic gaps" to maintain the openness and landscape qualities of large open areas, and "green wedges" penetrating urban areas with recreational facilities.
Local government in Chesterfield is organised in a two-tier structure. At the upper tier, services such as consumer protection, education, main roads and social services are provided by Derbyshire County Council. At the lower tier, services such as housing, planning, refuse collection and burial grounds are provided by Chesterfield Borough Council. The borough is unparished with the exception of Brimington and Staveley: Brimington Parish Council and Staveley Town Council exercise limited functions in those areas.
Derbyshire County Council has 64 elected county councillors, each representing a single-member electoral division. The entire council is elected every four years. At the elections in June 2009, the Conservative Party took control from the Labour Party after 28 years. Derbyshire County Council returned to Labour control at the 2013 local elections, but reverted to Conservative control after the 2017 county council elections, when the number of Conservative seats rose from 18 to 37, giving them a ten-seat majority.
Chesterfield Borough Council consists of 48 councillors. Elections of the whole council take place every four years, the last having occurred in 2019. The borough is divided into 19 wards, with either two or three councillors elected for each ward. The wards are named Barrow Hill and Whittington; Brimington North; Brimington South; Brockwell; Dunston; Hasland; Hollingwood and Inkersall; Holmebrook; Linacre; Loundsley Green; Lowgates and Woodthorpe; Middlecroft and Poolsbrook; Moor; Old Whittington; Rother; St Helen's; St Leonard's; Walton; and, West. As of 2018, the Labour Party controlled the borough council with 37 councillors, while the Liberal Democrats had 9 and UKIP with 1.
The council chooses one of its members annually to be mayor of Chesterfield, with the 378th mayor elected in May 2018.
Gules a Device representing a Pomegranate Tree as depicted on the ancient Common Seal of the Borough the tree leaved and eradicated proper flowered and fructed Or and for the Crest on a Wreath of the Colours Issuant from a Mural Crown Gules Masoned Or a Mount Vert thereon a Derby Ram passant guardant proper. Supporters: On the dexter side a Cock and on the sinister side a Pynot or Magpie proper each Ducally gorged Or
The shield is based on the borough's ancient common seal, which is believed to date from the first half of the 16th century. The seal depicts a stylised pomegranate tree. When the arms were formally granted, the College of Arms expressed the opinion that the plant had been adopted by the town as a symbol of loyalty to the crown, as it was a royal badge used by Katherine of Aragon, Henry VIII and Mary Tudor.
The supporters on either side of the arms represent the Cock and Pynot Inn, Old Whittington. The now Cock and Magpie Inn (53°16'13.1"N 1°25'34.3"W) is next to Revolution House, which was the site of a meeting between conspirators against James II in 1688. Among those meeting there were the Earls of Danby and Devonshire, commemorated by the ducal crowns around the supporters' necks. The two birds stand on a compartment of rocks and moorland. The motto is "aspire", a punning reference to the crooked spire of the parish church.
The borough council began in March 2016 an attempt to join the Sheffield City Region Combined Authority, which is due to receive devolved powers. Derbyshire County Council opposed this and was seeking legal advice on whether the matter could be taken to judicial review. Chesterfield Council has since withdrawn from joining, but remains as a non-constituent member. Derbyshire County Council welcomed the news.
In the last 30 years, the economy in and around Chesterfield has experienced major change, moving the employment base away from the primary and secondary sectors, and towards the tertiary area. The area sits on a large coalfield and the area played host to many coal mines, including: Clay Cross, Arkwright Town, Bolsover, Grassmoor, North Wingfield and Holmewood.
Between 1981 and 2002, 15,000 jobs in the coal industry disappeared and not a single colliery remains open, although open cast mining took place at Arkwright Town for a few years from November 1993. Many of the sites were restored by contractor Killingleys for Derbyshire County Council. Very little evidence of the mining industry remains today. A cyclists' and walkers' route, the "Five Pits Trail", now links some former collieries; most sites are now indistinguishable from the surrounding countryside.
Within the town itself, large factories and major employers have disappeared or relocated. Markham & Co. manufactured tunnel boring machines such as the one used for the Channel Tunnel between England and France. The company was bought out by Norway's Kvaerner and later merged with Sheffield-based Davy. Its factory on Hollis Lane is now a housing estate; the former offices were converted into flats and serviced office suites. Dema Glass's factory near Lockoford Lane closed; the site is now host to a Tesco Extra and the Proact Stadium, Chesterfield F.C.'s new home ground.GKN closed its factory and the site is now being turned into a business park.
Other companies have downsized significantly. Robinson's, which manufactures paper-based packaging in the town, divested its health-care interests, which led to significant downsizing in the workforce and facilities in Chesterfield. Trebor, once based on Brimington Road near Chesterfield railway station, merged with Bassetts sweets of Sheffield, was later taken over by Cadbury, and was relocated to a modern unit at Holmewood Business park. The former factory has been demolished and the site awaits development.
Chesterfield Cylinders relocated to a much smaller site in Sheffield. Chesterfield Cylinder's Derby Road site, is now Alma Leisure Park, which includes a Nuffield Health Club, Cineworld, Frankie & Benny's, McDonald's, a Harvester Pub and a Nando's. Their former factory on Derby Road is now Spire Walk Business Park, a B&Q Mini-warehouse, a Toys-R-Us and Chesterfield's new fire station.
Manufacturing employment has fallen by a third since 1991, though the percentage of the population employed in manufacturing is still above the national average, underlining how critical it has been to Chesterfield in the past. Today, smaller-scale firms are to be found on several industrial estates, the largest of which is located at Sheepbridge. Business located on the estate include SIG plc subsidiary Warren Insulations, Franke Sisons Ltd (founded in 1784 in Sheffield, and one of the first to manufacture stainless steel kitchen sinks in the 1930s), Rhodes Group, Chesterfield Felt, and others.
Between the A61 and Brimington Road there is a 40-acre (160,000 m2) development site resulting from Arnold Laver relocating to a modern sawmill at Halfway, on the Sheffield border. The former sawmill has been demolished, with outline planning permission given for a mixed residential and commercial development to be called Chesterfield Waterside, and built around a new marina at the end of the Chesterfield Canal, which currently terminates at a weir adjacent to the site.
There is a Morrisons on the junction of Chatsworth Road (A619) and Walton Road (A632), a Sainsburys on Rother Way (A619 for Staveley), and a Tesco Extra on the junction of the A619 and A61 (known locally as Tesco Roundabout). The Institute of Business Advisers is based on Queen Street North. Chesterfield Royal Hospital is on the A632 towards Calow and Bolsover. It has the only accident and emergency department in Derbyshire outside Derby.
Peak FM broadcasts from Sheepbridge on 107.4 MHz FM and 102 MHz FM via the nearby Chesterfield Transmitter, which also hosts BBC Radio Sheffield on 94.7 MHz FM. DAB transmissions for Chesterfield come from the Chesterfield Transmitter, however only Digital One is currently broadcast. The local television stations are ITV Yorkshire, BBC Yorkshire and Sheffield Live TV, both transmitted from Leeds and Sheffield. The digital switchover date for the area was August 2011. Also in the town are the headquarters of the Derbyshire Times, the local newspaper, which does not cover all of the county.
The Chesterfield and North Derbyshire Branch of the RSPCA is located in the town, and serves the North East Derbyshire area. The centre, which is not government funded, holds money-raising events that include an annual Dog Show held in the summer.
The town's biggest employer is now the "Royal Mail/Post Office" administration department located in a newly constructed building located on the edge of the town centre. The Royal Mail's Pensions Service Centre is near the town on Boythorpe Road, in Rowland Hill House, which also houses other administrative functions. There is a Post Office Ltd building in the town on West Bars called Future Walk. Formerly this was Chetwynd House, now demolished and replaced by the new building.
The Town centre of Chesterfield has retained much of its pre-war layout. Chesterfield is home to one of the largest open air markets in Britain, the stalls sitting either side of the Market Hall. In the middle of town, a collection of narrow medieval streets make up "The Shambles", which house The Royal Oak, one of Britain's oldest pubs.
Near Holywell Cross is what was (until 2013) Chesterfield's largest department store, the Co-operative or Co-op. The main building opened in 1938, and now occupies the majority of Elder Way, including an enclosed bridge, and part of Knifesmithgate; here the façade is in the mock-Tudor style fashionable in the 1930s, which still dominates the north side of Knifesmithgate in particular. In 2001, The Chesterfield and District Co-operative Society was incorporated into a larger regional entity, the Midlands Co-operative Society Limited, now the biggest independent retail society in the UK. Owing to a decline in retail sales, the large home and fashion Co-op department store closed at the end of July 2013, although the food business continues. The area is being redeveloped, with restaurants, a hotel and a gym, and due to open in 2019.
In the late 1970s a large area between Low Pavement (in the Market Square) and New Beetwell Street was completely demolished (except the original shop fronts) to build "The Pavements" shopping centre, known by some local residents as "The Precinct", which was opened in November 1981 by the Prince and Princess of Wales. It has entrances located opposite Chesterfield Market and escalators leading down to New Beetwell Street and the Bus station. An enclosed bridge links the site to a multi-storey car park built at the same time adjacent to the town's coach station.
Chesterfield's library is located just outside The Pavements on New Beetwell Street. The library spans several floors and was planned as part of the development. The building was erected later and opened in 1985. In annual figures compiled by the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy the Library ranked fifth in the UK for the number of issues in 2008, a rise of one place on the previous year. The area to the side of the library was redeveloped retaining the old narrow passageways but creating various small shop units & offices in the style of "The Shambles".
On 27 June 2007, the Somerfield store in the Precinct was completely gutted in a fire during which the roof collapsed. Only a few shoppers suffered minor injuries. The fire was reportedly the result of an accidental ignition, after a welding torch being used to repair flood damage had been left ignited. The fire started at 13:10 on 27 June and was not extinguished until 23:30 the same day. All the shops in The Pavements were closed and evacuated. Other areas including the Market Hall were later evacuated as cordons were placed as a result of the smoke becoming worse. Following the fire, Somerfield announced their intention to cease trading in Chesterfield. The unit re-opened in September 2008 as a Tesco Metro store.
Vicar Lane was redeveloped in 2000 to become a pedestrianised, open-air shopping centre, that involved almost all of the existing buildings being demolished including a Woolworths branch and a small bus station. The project was so large that two new shopping streets were created as part of the development. It now has major chains such as H&M and Argos. The development was planned in the 1980s but delayed due to the economics at the time. A new multi-storey car park on Beetwell Street was added as part of the revised plan. The area is located between the "Pavements Centre" and Markets and the "Crooked Spire".
Cuisine available in the area includes Chinese, Italian, Japanese, Indian and Thai restaurants and takeaways. Several late-night venues are located around the town, predominantly located in the Church Way, Holywell Street, Corporation Street areas. Venues such as Apartment, Chandlers and Einstein's offer cocktails and selection of world beers, whereas Association on Corporation Street and others aim for the younger, more party-orientated crowd. Scattered around the town are many other bars and pubs and west of the town centre the "Brampton Mile" provides 13 pubs on a 1 mile (1.6 km) section of Chatsworth Road.
In February 2006, the first ever international gluten free beer festival was held in Chesterfield. The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) hosted the event as part of their regular beer festival in the town.
The Winding Wheel, previously an Odeon Cinema, is a multi-purpose venue, hosting concerts, exhibitions, conferences, dinners, family parties, dances, banquets, wedding receptions, meetings, product launches and lectures. Past notable appearances include Bob Geldof, The Proclaimers and Paddy McGuinness. Chesterfield Symphony Orchestra give three concerts a year at the Winding Wheel.
The "Pomegranate Theatre" (formerly known as Chesterfield Civic Theatre and previously as the Stephenson Memorial Theatre) is a listed Victorian building (in what is now known as the Stephenson Memorial Hall), with an auditorium which seats around 500 people. Shows are performed at the venue throughout the year. Also in the Stephenson Memorial Hall is the Chesterfield Museum, opened in 1994. Until 1984 it was used for the town's main library. The museum is owned by Chesterfield Borough Council, as are the Winding Wheel and the Pomegranate Theatre. The box office for both entertainment venues is located in the entrance area of the theatre.
The Royal Mail building Future Walk, on West Bars, was the former site of Chetwynd House (referred to locally as "the AGD"). Here a work by sculptor Barbara Hepworth Carved Reclining Form or Rosewall was prominently displayed for many years and nicknamed Isaiah by local critics, due to it resembling a crude human face with one eye higher than the other ("eye's higher"). The work was under the threat of being sold in 2005, but the plan was eventually scrapped, recognising the piece's national significance. Other artworks of note include 'A System of Support and Balance' by Paul Lewthwaite located outside Chesterfield Magistrates' Court.
Junction 29 of the M1 motorway at Heath links Chesterfield to the motorway network to the south, via the A617 dual-carriageway. Junction 29a at Markham Vale, Duckmanton opened at the end of June 2008, but the signs do not signpost Chesterfield. The town has links to the M1 at Junction 30 and to the north via the A619. Other major roads include the A61 Sheffield Road (north)/Derby Road (south) (with a dual carriageway beginning in the town centre and continuing onto Sheffield) and the A619 (a major inroad to the Peak District, eventually joining the A6 near Bakewell) and the A632 to Matlock.
Stagecoach in Chesterfield are the predominant operator of buses in Chesterfield; other operators include Henry Hulleys, Trent Barton and TM Travel. Buses stop in several areas around the town centre rather than at a central bus station. The Stagecoach depot at Stonegravels is notable for its size and many vehicles stored there are not in regular use. Formerly it was the Chesterfield Corporation bus depot.
The main taxi ranks are located on Elder Way and Knifesmithgate as well as outside the railway station. Chesterfield's taxis can be easily recognised to hail as they are black in colour with distinctive white bonnets and tailgates.
Chesterfield previously had two other rail stations:
These railways all crossed each other at Horns Bridge, the Midland Main Line passed over the GCR loop into Chesterfield, and the LD&ECR passed over both on a 700 feet (210 m) long viaduct. Horns Bridge has been substantially redeveloped since the latter two railways closed and Horns Bridge Roundabout, where the A61 Derby Road and A617 Lordsmill Street meet, now occupies the site. The viaduct was demolished in the 1970s.
In addition to railways, Chesterfield had a tramway system, which was built in 1882 and closed in 1927.
The nearest licensed airfield is Netherthorpe Aerodrome near Worksop in Nottinghamshire, but it is less than 600m of grass. When travelling by air, passengers usually do so via East Midlands, Leeds Bradford, Doncaster Sheffield Robin Hood, Manchester and Birmingham Airport airports. These are all within two hours travel time by road.
The Chesterfield Canal linked the town to the national network of waterways, and was the most important trade route through the 19th century. Overtaken by rail and then road for freight transport it fell into disuse, but has been partially restored since the mid-20th century for leisure use. However, the section through Chesterfield remains isolated from the rest of the waterway network.
The borough of Chesterfield has many schools within and around it. There are several secondary schools in the area including Hasland Hall Community School, Brookfield Community School, Tupton Hall School, Parkside Community School, Netherthorpe School, Outwood Academy Newbold, The Bolsover School, Springwell Community College, Heritage High School and Whittington Green School. Almost half have a sixth form. There is also a Roman Catholic school, St Mary's Roman Catholic High School, in Newbold.
The spire is both twisted and leaning, twisting 45 degrees and leaning 9 feet 6 inches (2.90 m) from its true centre. Folklore recounts that a Bolsover blacksmith mis-shod the Devil, who leapt over the spire in pain, knocking it out of shape. In reality the leaning characteristic has been attributed to various causes, including the absence of skilled craftsmen (the Black Death having been gone only twelve years prior to the spire's completion), the use of unseasoned timber, and insufficient cross-bracing. The bend in the spire follows the direction of the sun and has been caused by heat expansion and a weight it was never designed for. The tower which the spire sits upon contains 10 bells. These bells were cast in 1947 by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry in London, replacing a previous ring. The heaviest weighs 25 long hundredweight (2,800 lb; 1,300 kg).
Chesterfield is home to the National League club Chesterfield FC, which formerly played at the Recreation Ground (usually referred to as Saltergate). The Chesterfield club is known as the Spireites, after the Crooked Spire in the town. In 2005 plans were announced to build a new stadium on the old Dema Glass site north of the town in Whittington Moor. Construction of the new stadium, named the B2net Stadium began in summer 2009 and was completed for the start of the 2010/2011 season. The B2net Stadium became the Proact Stadium for the 2012-13 season due to restructuring of the sponsoring company. The team's most notable achievement of recent decades came in April 1997, when it reached the semi-final of the FA Cup, losing to Middlesbrough in a replay following a 3-3 draw at Old Trafford. It turned out to be controversial, with Chesterfield scoring a goal not given when referee David Elleray decided the ball had not crossed the goal line from a Jonathan Howard shot, a decision which was later proved incorrect by video replays. Had the goal stood, the club might have progressed to the final of the FA Cup for the first time in its history - a feat which no club in the third tier of the league has yet achieved. The team has fierce rivalry with the neighbouring town Mansfield.
In 2006 Chesterfield beat Premier League heavyweights Manchester City and West Ham to move into the last 16 of the League Cup where it was narrowly beaten on penalties by Charlton Athletic. Despite its League Cup exploits, Chesterfield was relegated on the penultimate game of the season.
Chesterfield Ladies FC have women's and girls' teams and is based at Queen's Park Annexe; it plays in the Sheffield & Hallamshire Girls County League.
The town also has an amateur Sunday football league that hosts over 100 teams on a Sunday morning. The Chesterfield and District Sunday Football League consists of nine divisions and three cup competitions.
Chesterfield Panthers Rugby Union Football Club was initially formed in 1919 and played its first game in 1920. It fields three men's senior squads, a senior ladies squad and numerous junior teams -- the senior squads can be found training on Tuesday and Thursday nights from 7 pm. They relocated to a new purpose-built ground on the outskirts of the town at 2012 Dunston Road from the former Stonegravels site, the 2013/14 season being the first season at the new ground. The facilities include three rugby pitches (one of which is floodlit), numerous changing rooms and a large open-plan bar area.
There has been success over the 2013/14 season with the first XV winning the championship (Midlands North 4) and being promoted to the Midlands North 3 for the first time in 25 years. The second XV won the Notts, Lincs and Derbys Cup competition to the delight of the large crowd, thanks to contributions by Derek Sherlock, Gerraint Davies, John Jefferson and Mark Blair. The recent success was locally publicised on the radio and in print form, which sparked extra interest in the club and the game.
The club has become a nurturing ground for players who make the grade to professional level in such clubs as Northampton Saints and London Wasps.
Chesterfield also has a men's hockey team, which typically competes in the Midland's Premier Hockey League. The side has typically been mid-table or battled against relegation until its greatest success when it recruited Australian import striker Adam Clifford from Tasmania. During his two seasons Clifford scored over 50 goals and Chesterfield narrowly lost the league in the final weeks by a single point.
Chesterfield Swimming Club, the largest competitive swimming club in North Derbyshire, is based at the Queen's Park Sports Centre in Boythorpe Road. In October 2011 the club began delivering the programme for Derventio eXcel (Performance Swim Squad for Derbyshire) for the North East of the county. In 2012, Chesterfield SC took part in the Arena National Swimming League and achieved promotion to the top division at the first attempt. Further success led to increased membership.
A speedway training track operated at Glasshouse Farm in the early 1950s.
Queen's Park is located just outside the town centre, recently benefited from a multimillion-pound programme of investment, allowing it to host county cricket once again. Alderman T P Wood, Mayor of Chesterfield in 1886 proposed that local land should be acquired by the Local Board for the creation of a public park to mark the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887, and officially opened in 1893. The park includes a cricket field, pavilion, lake, conservatory, bandstand, and miniature railway. A further 13 acres (5.3 ha) of land south of the park separated by a road was acquired as a memorial to Queen Victoria in 1901, and was laid out as a recreation ground known as Queen's Park Annex.
Queens Park Sports Centre was constructed in the mid- and late-20th century within Queen's Park, adjacent to its western boundary, which included a swimming pool, gym, several indoor courts (for a variety of sports) and several more outdoor tennis courts, before closing in December 2015.
A new £11.2 million building for Queen's Park Sports Centre was opened in January 2016, on the Queen's Park Annex south of Queen's Park. The facility includes: an eight-lane swimming pool, learner pool, gym, eight-court sports hall, squash courts, training rooms, exercise class studio, climbing wall, and café.
The town also has a Healthy Living Centre at Staveley. The centre, which opened in Spring 2008, has a 25 m (82 ft) swimming pool with a movable platform, an 11 m (36 ft) climbing wall, leisure facilities including an indoor children's soft play area, crèche facilities, a fitness suite, health spa and dance studios.
Chesterfield is policed by Derbyshire Constabulary, and Chesterfield Police Station, on New Beetwell Street, is the Division 'C' Headquarters, with local police stations in Bolsover, Clay Cross, Dronfield, Killamarsh, Newbold, Staveley, and Shirebrook.
In health care, Chesterfield has two NHS hospitals, Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust in Calow, with maternity services and accident and emergency department, and the smaller Walton Hospital run by Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. In 1984, the entire site of the old Chesterfield Royal Hospital in the town centre was purchased by an orthopaedic surgeon, who converted the lower portion of the hospital, adjoining Infirmary Road and Durrant Road, into the Alexandra Private Hospital.
As with the rest of Derbyshire, Chesterfield is covered by the East Midlands Ambulance Service (EMAS) and the Derbyshire, Leicestershire & Rutland Air Ambulance.
Chesterfield is served by Derbyshire Fire and Rescue Service, which has fire stations in Chesterfield, Clay Cross, Clowne and Staveley. Chesterfield fire station moved from Whittington Moor to a newly built station located behind B&Q at Horns Bridge.
Notable people to come from Chesterfield include:
Other prominent people connected with the town: