Chamorro Language
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Chamorro Language

Chamorro
Finuʼ Chamoru
Native toMariana Islands
EthnicityChamorro
Native speakers
58,000 (2005-2015)[1]
Official status
Official language in
 Guam
 Northern Mariana Islands
Language codes
ch
cha
cha
Glottologcham1312[2]
Northern Mariana Islands on the globe (Southeast Asia centered) (small islands magnified).svg
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Chamorro [3] (Chamorro: Finuʼ Chamoru (CNMI), Finoʼ CHamoru (Guam)[4]) is an Austronesian language spoken by about 58,000 people (about 25,800 people on Guam and about 32,200 in the rest of the Mariana Islands and elsewhere).[5] It is the native and spoken language of the Chamorro people, who are the indigenous people of the Marianas (Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, both US territories).

Classification

Unlike most of its neighbors, Chamorro is not classified as a Micronesian or Polynesian language. Rather, like Palauan, it possibly constitutes an independent branch of the Malayo-Polynesian language family.[6][7]

At the time the Spanish rule over Guam ended, it was thought that Chamorro was a semi-Creole language, with a substantial amount of the vocabulary of Spanish origin and beginning to have a high level of mutual intelligibility with Spanish. It is reported that even in the early 1920s Spanish was reported to be a living language in Guam for commercial transactions, but the use of Spanish and Chamorro was rapidly declining as a result of English pressure.

Spanish influences in the language exist due to three centuries of Spanish colonial rule. Many words in the Chamorro lexicon are of Latin etymological origin via Spanish, but their use conforms with indigenous grammatical structures. Furthermore, indigenous pronunciation has "nativized" most words of foreign origin that haven't conformed to the ways that indigenous speakers of the language are accustomed to making sounds. By some, it may be considered a mixed language[8] under a historical point of view, even though it remains independent and unique. In his Chamorro Reference Grammar, Donald M. Topping states:

"The most notable influence on Chamorro language and culture came from the Spanish. ... There was wholesale borrowing of Spanish words and phrases into Chamorro, and there was even some borrowing from the Spanish sound system. But this borrowing was linguistically superficial. The bones of the Chamorro language remained intact. ... In virtually all cases of borrowing, Spanish words were forced to conform to the Chamorro sound system. ... While Spanish may have left a lasting mark on Chamorro vocabulary, as it did on many Philippine and South American languages, it had virtually no effect on Chamorro grammar. ... Japanese influence on Chamorro was much greater than that of German but much less than Spanish. Once again, the linguistic influence was restricted exclusively to vocabulary items, many of which refer to manufactured objects...[9]

In contrast, in the essays found in Del español al chamorro. Lenguas en contacto en el Pacífico (2009), Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga refers to modern Chamorro as a "mixed language" of "Hispanic-Austronesian" origins, while estimating that approximately 50% of the Chamorro lexicon comes from the Spanish language and that the contribution of this language goes far beyond loanwords.

Rodríguez-Ponga (1995) considers Chamorro a Spanish-Austronesian or a Spanish-Austronesian mixed language or at least a language that has emerged from a process of contact and creolization on the island of Guam, since modern Chamorro is influenced in vocabulary, and it has in its grammar many elements of Spanish origin: verbs, articles, prepositions, numerals, conjunctions, etc.[10]

This process, which began in the 17th century and ended in the early 20th century, meant a profound change from the old Chamorro (paleo-Chamorro) to modern Chamorro (neo-Chamorro) in its grammar, phonology and vocabulary.[11]

Speakers

The Chamorro language is threatened, with a precipitous drop in language fluency over the past century. It is estimated that 75% of the population of Guam was literate in the Chamorro language around the time the United States captured the island during the Spanish-American War[12] (there are no similar language fluency estimates for other areas of the Mariana Islands during this time). A century later, the 2000 U.S. Census showed that fewer than 20% of Chamorros living in Guam speak their heritage language fluently, and the vast majority of those were over the age of 55.

A number of forces have contributed to the steep, post-World War II decline of Chamorro language fluency. There is a long history of colonization in the Marianas, beginning with the Spanish colonization in 1668 and, eventually, the American acquisition of the islands in 1898 (whose hegemony continues to this day). This imposed power structures privileging the language of the region's colonizers. According to estimates, a large majority, as stated above (75%), maintained active knowledge of the Chamorro language even during the Spanish colonial era, but this was all to change with the advent of American imperialism and enforcement of the English language.

In Guam, the language suffered additional suppression when the U.S. government banned the Chamorro language in schools and workplaces in 1922. They collected and burned all Chamorro dictionaries.[13] Similar policies were undertaken by the Japanese government when they controlled the region during World War II. After World War II, when Guam was recaptured by the United States, the American administrators of the island continued to impose "no Chamorro" language restrictions in local schools, teaching only English and disciplining students for speaking their indigenous tongue.[14]

Even though these oppressive language policies were progressively lifted, Chamorro usage had substantially decreased. Subsequent generations were often raised in households where only the oldest family members were fluent. Lack of exposure made it increasingly difficult to pick up Chamorro as a second language. Within a few generations, English replaced Chamorro as the language of daily life.[]

There is a difference in the rate of Chamorro language fluency between Guam and the rest of the Marianas. On Guam (called Guåhan by Chamorro speakers, from the word guaha, meaning "have"; its English gloss "We have" references the island's providing everything needed to live[15][16]) the number of native Chamorro speakers has dwindled in the last decade[when?] or so. In the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), young Chamorros speak the language fluently. Chamorro is common among Chamorro households in the Northern Marianas, but fluency has greatly decreased among Guamanian Chamorros during the years of American rule in favor of American English, which is commonplace throughout the inhabited Marianas.

Today, NMI Chamorros and Guamanian Chamorros disagree strongly on each other's linguistic fluency. An NMI Chamorro would say that Guamanian Chamorros speak the language incorrectly or speak "broken Chamorro", whereas a Guamanian Chamorro might consider the form used by NMI Chamorros to be archaic.[]

Revitalization efforts

Representatives from Guam have unsuccessfully lobbied the United States to take action to promote and protect the language.[]

In 2013, "Guam will be instituting Public Law 31-45, which increases the teaching of the Chamorro language and culture in Guam schools," extending instruction to include grades 7-10.[17]

Other efforts have been made in recent times, most notably Chamorro immersion schools. One example is the Huråo Guåhan Academy, at the Chamorro Village in Hagåtña, GU. This program is led by Ann Marie Arceo and her husband, Ray Arceo. According to Huråo's official YouTube page, "Huråo Academy is one if not the first Chamoru Immersion Schools that focus on the teaching of Chamoru language and Self-identity on Guam. Huråo was founded as a non-profit in June 2005."[18] The academy has been praised by many for the continuity of the Chamoru language.

Other creative ways to incorporate and promote the Chamorro language have been found in the use of applications for smartphones, internet videos and television. From Chamorro dictionaries,[19] to the most recent "Speak Chamorro" app,[20] efforts are growing and expanding in ways to preserve and protect the Chamorro language and identity.

On YouTube, a popular Chamorro soap opera Siha[21] has received mostly positive feedback from native Chamorro speakers on its ability to weave dramatics, the Chamorro language, and island culture into an entertaining program. On TV, Nihi! Kids is a first-of-its-kind show, because it is targeted "for Guam's nenis that aims to perpetuate Chamoru language and culture while encouraging environmental stewardship, healthy choices and character development."[22]

Phonology

Chamorro has 24 phonemes: 18 are consonants and 6 are vowels.

Vowels

Chamorro has at least 6 vowels, which include:

Consonants

Below is a chart of Chamorro consonants; all are unaspirated.

Table of consonant phonemes of Chamorro
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p b t d k ? ?
Nasal m n ? ?
Fricative f s h
Affricate ts? dz?
Tap ?~?
Approximant (w) l
  • /w/ does not occur initially.
  • Affricates /ts? dz?/ can be realized as palatal [t d] before non-low front vowels.[23]

Grammar

Chamorro is a VSO or verb-subject-object language. However, the word order can be very flexible and so change to SVO (subject-verb-object), like English, if necessary to convey different types of relative clauses depending on context and stressing parts of what someone is trying to say or convey. Again, this is subject to debate as those on Guam believe the language is flexible whereas those in the CNMI do not.

Chamorro is also an agglutinative language, grammatically allowing root words to be modified by a number of affixes. For example, masanganenñaihon "talked awhile (with/to)", passive marking prefix ma-, root verb sangan, referential suffix i "to" (forced morphophonemically to change to e) with excrescent consonant n, and suffix ñaihon "a short amount of time". Thus Masanganenñaihon guiʼ "He/she was told (something) for a while".

Chamorro has many Spanish loanwords and other words have Spanish etymological roots (e.g., tenda "shop/store" from Spanish tienda), which may lead some to mistakenly conclude that the language is a Spanish Creole: Chamorro very much uses its loanwords in a Micronesian way (e.g., bumobola "playing ball" from bola "ball, play ball" with verbalizing infix -um- and reduplication of the first syllable of root).

Chamorro is a predicate-initial, head-marking language. It has a rich agreement system in the nominal and in the verbal domains.

Chamorro is also known for its wh-agreement in the verb: These agreement morphemes agree with features (roughly, the grammatical case feature) of the question phrase, and replace the regular subject-verb agreement in transitive realis clauses:[24]

(1) Ha-faʼgasi si Juan i kareta.
3sSA[a]-wash PND[b] Juan the car

'Juan washed the car.'

(2) Hayi fumaʼgasi i kareta?
who? WH[nom].[c] wash the car

'Who washed the car?

Pronouns

The following set of pronouns are the pronouns found in the Chamorro language:[25]

  Free Absolutive Agentive Irrealis nominative Possesive
1st person singular guåhu yuʼ hu (bai) hu -hu/-ku
2nd person singular hågu haoʼ un un -mu
3rd person singular guiya guiʼ ha u -ña
1st person plural inclusive hita hit ta (u) ta -ta
1st person plural exclusive hami ham in (bai) in -mami
2nd person plural hamyu hamyu en en -miyu
3rd person plural siha siha ma uha/u/uma -ñiha

Orthography

Chamorro alphabet
ʼ A a Å å B b Ch ch D d E e F f G g H h I i K k L l M m N n Ñ ñ Ng ng O o P p R r S s T t U u Y y
/?/ (glottal stop) /æ/ /?/ /b/ /ts/ and /t?/ /d/ /e/ /f/ /?/ /h/ /i/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ / ?/ /?/ /o/ /p/ /?/ ~ /? / /s/ /t/ /u/ /dz/, /z/ and /d?/

Additionally, some letter combinations in Chamoru sometimes represent single phonemes. For instance, "ci+[vowel]" and "ti+[vowel]" are both pronounced [?], as in hustisia ('justice') and the surname Concepcion (Spanish influence).

The letter ⟨y⟩ is usually (though not always) pronounced more like dz (an approximation of the regional Spanish pronunciation of y as [d?]); it is also sometimes used to represent the same sound as the letter i by Guamanian speakers. The phonemes represented by ⟨n⟩ and ⟨ñ⟩ as well as ⟨a⟩ and ⟨å⟩ are not always distinguished in print. Thus the Guamanian place name spelled Yona is pronounced "Dzonia"/[dzo?a], not *[jona] as might be expected. ⟨Ch⟩ is usually pronounced like ts rather than like English ch. Chamorro ⟨r⟩ is usually a flap [?], like Spanish r between vowels, and a retroflex approximant [?], like English r, at the beginning of words.

Chamorro has geminate consonants which are written double (GG, DD, KK, MM, NGNG, PP, SS, TT), native diphthongs AI and AO, plus OI, OE, IA, IU, IE in loanwords; penultimate stress, except where marked otherwise, if marked at all in writing, usually with an acute accent, as in asút 'blue' or dángkulu 'big'. Unstressed vowels are limited to /? i u/, though they are often spelled A E O. Syllables may be consonant-vowel-consonant, as in che'lu 'sibling', diskåtga 'unload', mamåhlåo 'shy', or oppop 'lie face down', gåtus (Old Chamorro word for 100), Hagåtña (capital of Guam); B, D, and G are not distinguished from P, T, and K in that position.[vague].

Today, there is an ongoing issue on the Chamorro language orthography between NMI Chamorros and Guamanian Chamorros (example: Mt. Tapochau vs. Mt. Tapochao). There is also a movement on Guam to capitalize both letters in a digraph such as "CH" in words like CHamoru (Guamanian spelling) or CHe'lu, which NMI Chamorros find silly.[] Additionally, the encoding of the glottal stop is a topic of debate: use of the single quotation mark (and less commonly, the grave accent) is challenged in favor of the Hawaiian ?okina.[]

Vocabulary

Numbers

Current common Chamorro uses only the number words of Spanish origin: uno, dos, tres, etc. Old Chamorro used different number words based on categories: "Basic numbers" (for date, time, etc.), "living things", "inanimate things", and "long objects".

English Modern Chamorro Old Chamorro
Basic Numbers Living Things Inanimate Things Long Objects
one unu/una (time) håcha maisa hachiyai takhachun
two dos hugua hugua hugiyai takhuguan
three tres tulu tatu toʼgiyai taktulun
four kuåttruʼ fatfat fatfat fatfatai takfatun
five singkuʼ lima lalima limiyai takliman
six sais gunum guagunum gonmiyai taʼgunum
seven sietti fiti fafiti fitgiyai takfitun
eight ochuʼ guåluʼ guagualu guatgiyai taʼgualun
nine nuebi sigua sasigua sigiyai taksiguan
ten dies månot maonot manutai takmaonton
hundred siento gåtus gåtus gåtus gåtus/manapo
  • The number 10 and its multiples up to 90 are dies (10), benti (20), trenta (30), kuårenta (40), sinkuenta (50), sisenta (60), sitenta (70), ochenta (80), nubenta (90). These are similar to the corresponding Spanish terms diez (10), veinte (20), treinta (30), cuarenta (40), cincuenta (50), sesenta (60), setenta (70), ochenta (80), noventa (90).

Months

Before the Spanish-based 12-month calendar became predominant, the Chamoru 13-month lunar calendar was commonly used. The first month in the left column below corresponds with January. On the right are the Spanish-based months.

Basic phrases

Chamorro studies

Chamorro is studied at the University of Guam and in several academic institutions of Guam and the Northern Marianas.

Researchers in several countries are studying aspects of Chamorro. In 2009, the Chamorro Linguistics International Network (CHIN) was established in Bremen, Germany. CHiN was founded on the occasion of the Chamorro Day (27 September 2009) which was part of the programme of the Festival of Languages. The foundation ceremony was attended by people from Germany, Guam, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States of America.[27]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ 3rd singular Subject Agreement
  2. ^ "Proper Noun Determiner", a special article used with names in Chamorro.
  3. ^ Here, the infix -um- is a WH-agreement morpheme for nominative question phrases.

References

Notes

  1. ^ Chamorro at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chamorro". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Chamorro". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ "Chamorro Orthography Rules". Guampedia. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ "Chamorro", Ethnologue (19th ed.), 2016, archived from the original on 5 April 2018, retrieved 2018
  6. ^ Blust, Robert (2000). "Chamorro Historical Phonology". Oceanic Linguistics. 39 (1): 83-122. doi:10.1353/ol.2000.0002. S2CID 170236058.
  7. ^ Smith, Alexander D. (2017). "The Western Malayo-Polynesian Problem". Oceanic Linguistics. 56 (2): 435-490. doi:10.1353/ol.2017.0021. S2CID 149377092.
  8. ^ Rodriguez-Ponga, Rafael (2009). Del español al chamorro: Lenguas en contacto en el Pacífico [From Spanish to Chamorro: Languages in Contact in the Pacific] (in Spanish). Madrid: Ediciones Gondo.
  9. ^ Topping, Donald (1973). Chamorro Reference Grammar. University Press of Hawaii. pp. 6 and 7. ISBN 978-0-8248-0269-1.
  10. ^ Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael (1995). El elemento español en la lengua chamorra (Islas Marianas) [The Spanish element in the Chamorro language (Mariana Islands)] (Doctoral thesis) (in Spanish). Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Filología. Archived from the original on 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  11. ^ Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga, Of Spanish to Chamorro: Language in contact in the Pacific. Madrid, Ediciones Gondo, 2009, www.edicionesgondo.com [1] Archived 2 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine[2] Archived 2 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Carano, Paul; Sanchez, Pedro (1964). A Complete History of Guam. Tokyo and Rutland, VT: Charles Tuttle Co.
  13. ^ Skutnabb-Kangas 2000: 206; Mühlhäusler 1996: 109; Benton 1981: 122
  14. ^ "Education During the US Naval Era". Guampedia. Archived from the original on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 2013.
  15. ^ Tamondong, Dionesis (16 February 2010). "Camacho: Name Change Will Affirm Identity". Pacific Daily News. Retrieved 2010.[dead link]
  16. ^ Saco, José Antonio (1859). Colección de papeles científicos, históricos, políticos y de otros ramos sobre la isla de Cuba [Collection of scientific, historical, political and other papers on the island of Cuba] (in Spanish). 3. Paris: d'Aubusson y Kugelmann. Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ Jones, Michael (29 August 2012). "Guam to Increase Education in Indigenous Language and Culture". Open Equal Free. Education. Development. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 2012.
  18. ^ "Hurao Guahan". YouTube. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 May 2015. Retrieved 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ Sablan, Jerick (19 March 2015). "Apps Help Users Speak, Learn Chamorro". Pacific Daily News. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  21. ^ Martinez, Lacee A. C. (27 March 2014). "Group Produces Chamorro Soap Opera: Siha Can Be Watched on YouTube". Pacific Daily News. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  22. ^ NIHI!, archived from the original on 16 October 2019, retrieved 2019NIHI!, archived from the original on 16 October 2019, retrieved 2019
  23. ^ Chung (1983).
  24. ^ Chung 1998:236 and passim
  25. ^ Zobel, Erik (2002). "The Position of Chamorro and Palauan in the Austronesian Family Tree: Evidence from Verb Morphosyntax". In Wouk, Fay; Ross, Malcolm (eds.). The History and Typology of Western Austronesian Voice Systems. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 405-434. doi:10.15144/PL-518.405. Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  26. ^ Cunningham, Lawrence J. (1992). Ancient Chamorro Society. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Bess Press. p. 144. ISBN 1-880188-05-8.
  27. ^ The Maga'låhi (president) is Dr. Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga Salamanca (Madrid, Spain); Maga'låhi ni onrao (honorary president): Dr. Robert A. Underwood (president, University of Guam); Teniente maga'låhi (vice-president): Prof. Dr. Thomas Stolz (Universität Bremen).

References

  • Blust, Robert. (2000). Chamorro Historical Phonology. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Chung, Sandra. (1983). Transderivational Relationships in Chamorro Phonology. University of California, San Diego.
  • Chung, Sandra. (1998). The Design of Agreement: Evidence from Chamorro. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
  • Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael (2003). El elemento español en la lengua chamorra. Madrid: Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad Complutense (Complutense University of Madrid). http://eprints.ucm.es/3664/
  • Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael (2009). Del español al chamorro. Lenguas en contacto en el Pacífico. Madrid: Ediciones Gondo.
  • Topping, Donald M. (1973). Chamorro reference grammar. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Topping, Donald M., Pedro M. Ogo, and Bernadita C. Dungca (1975). Chamorro-English dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Topping, Donald M. (1980). Spoken Chamorro: with grammatical notes and glossary, rev. ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Further reading

  • Aguon, K. B. (1995). Chamorro: A Complete Course of Study. Agana, Guam: K.B. Aguon.
  • Hunt, Mike (2008). "Speaking Chamoru Moru Moru". San Roque, Saipan.
  • Chung, Sandra (2020). Chamorro Grammar (PDF). Santa Cruz: University of California. doi:10.48330/E2159R.

External links


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