Chakma Script
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Chakma
Changmha Ajhapat
Chakma Ajhapat.png
'Changmha Ajhapat'
Type
LanguagesChakma language
Parent systems
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Cakm, 349
Unicode alias
Chakma
U+11100–U+1114F

The Chakma Script (Ajh? ph), also called Ojhapath, Ojhopath, Aaojhapath, is an abugida used for the Chakma language.

History

The Chakma script is an abugida that belongs to the Brahmic family of scripts. Chakma evolved from the Burmese script, which was ultimately derived from Pallava.[5][6][7]

The script, along with the Chakma language, has been introduced to non-government schools in Bangladesh, as well as schools in Mizoram and as of 2012 in Tripura in India. [8]

Structure

Chakma Letters

Chakma is of the Brahmic type: the consonant letters contain an inherent vowel. Unusually for Brahmic scripts, the inherent vowel in Chakma is a long '?' (a:) as opposed to short 'a' (?) which is standard in most other languages of India such as Hindi, Marathi or Tamil. Consonant clusters are written with conjunct characters, and a visible vowel killer shows the deletion of the inherent vowel when there is no conjunct.

Vowels

Four independent vowels exist: ? a, ? i, ? u, and ? e. Other vowels in initial position are formed by adding the vowel sign to ? a, as in ?, ?, ai, oi. Some modern writers are generalizing this spelling in i, u, and e.

Chakma vowel signs with the letter ? ka are given below:

? Ka = ? Ka

Ka = ? K? + ? - a (11127)

Ki = ? K? + ? - i (11128)

K? = ? K? + ? - ? (11129)

Ku = ? K? + ? - u (1112A)

K? = ? K? + ? - ? (1112B)

Ke = ? K? + ? - e (1112C)

K?i = ? K? + ? - ?i (1112D)

Ko = ? K? + ? - o (1112E)

Kau = ? K? + ? - au (1112F)

Koi = ? K? + ? - oi (11130)

Ka? = ? K? + ? - ? (11100)

Ka? = ? K? + ? - ? (11101)

Ka? = ? K? + ? - ? (11102)

K = ? K? + ? - MAAYYAA (11134)

One of the interesting features of Chakma writing is that candrabindu (c?naphud?) can be used together with anusvara (ekaphud?) and visarga (dviphud?):

A = ? ? + ? h +

A = ? ? + ? ? +

U = ? u + ? ? +

Mu? = ? m? + ? u +

Consonants with killed vowels and conjunct consonants

Like other Brahmic scripts, Chakma makes use of the maayyaa (killer) to invoke conjoined consonants. In the past, practice was much more common than it is today. Like the Myanmar script, Chakma is encoded with two vowel-killing characters in order to conform to modern user expectations. As shown above, most letters have their vowels killed with the use of the explicit maayyaa:

k = ? k? + ? MAAYYAA

In 2001 an orthographic reform was recommended in the book Cm? pattham p?t which would limit the standard repertoire of conjuncts to those composed with the five letters ? y?, ? r?, ? l?, ? w?, and ? n?. The four here are the most widely accepted repertoire of conjuncts.

ya: X + ? VIRAMA + ? y?

- -

- -

ra: X + ? VIRAMA + ? r?

- -

- -

la: X + ? VIRAMA + ? l?

- -

- -

wa: X + ? VIRAMA + ? w?

- -

- -

No separate conjunct forms of subjoined full-form -y? or -r? appear to exist. The fifth of these conjuncts, the -na conjunct, is exemplary of the orthographic shift which has taken place in the Chakma language.

na: X + ? VIRAMA + ? n?

- -

- -

While some writers would indeed write kakna (in ligating style) as ? or (in subjoining style) as ?, most now would probably expect it to be written as ?. The ligating style of glyphs is now considered old-fashioned. Thus, taking the letter ? m? as the second element, while the glyph shapes km?, tm?, nm?, bb?, mm?, ll?, sm?, and hm? are attested, most users now prefer the glyph shapes km?, tm?, nm?, bb?, mm?, ll?, sm?, and hm?. Again, this distinction is stylistic and not orthographic.

The 2004 book Phadaga? shows examples of the five conjuncts above together alongside conjuncts formed with ? b?, ? m?, and ? h?. These are all formed by simple subjoining.

ba: X + ? VIRAMA + ? n?

- -

- -

ma: X + ? VIRAMA + ? n?

- -

- -

ha: X + ? VIRAMA + ? n?

- -

- -

In the 1982 book Cm?r ?g pudhi a much wider range of conjunct pairs is shown, some of them with fairly complicated glyphs:

Kk? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? K?

Kt? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? T?

Kt? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? T?

Km? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? M?

Kc? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? C?

?k? = ? + ? VIRAMA + ? K?

?k? = ? + ? VIRAMA + ? G?

cc? = ? c? + ? VIRAMA + ? C?

Cch? = ? C? + ? VIRAMA + ? Ch?

ñc? = ? ñ? + ? VIRAMA + ? C?

ñj? = ? ñ? + ? VIRAMA + ? J?

Ñjh? = ? ñ? + ? VIRAMA + ? Jh?

Tt? = ? T? + ? VIRAMA + ? T?

Tt? = ? T? + ? VIRAMA + ? T?

Tm? = ? T? + ? VIRAMA + ? m?

Tth? = ? T? + ? VIRAMA + ? Th?

Dd? = ? D? + ? VIRAMA + ? D?

Ddh? = ? D? + ? VIRAMA + ? Dh?

nt? = ? n? + ? VIRAMA + ? t?

nth? = ? n? + ? VIRAMA + ? th?

nm? = ? n? + ? VIRAMA + ? m?

pp? = ? p? + ? VIRAMA + ? p?

bb? = ? b? + ? VIRAMA + ? b?

mm? = ? m? + ? VIRAMA + ? m?

jj? = ? j? + ? VIRAMA + ? j?

lk? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? k?

lg? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? g?

ll? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? l?

lt? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? t?

lp? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? p?

lch? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? ch?

st? = ? s? + ? VIRAMA + ? t?

sk? = ? s? + ? VIRAMA + ? k?

sp? = ? s? + ? VIRAMA + ? p?

sm? = ? s? + ? VIRAMA + ? m?

hm? = ? h? + ? VIRAMA + ? hm?

Letter, punctuation and digit names

Chakma letters have a descriptive name followed by a traditional Brahmic consonant. These are given in annotations to the character names. Alongside a single and double danda punctuation, Chakma has a unique question mark, and a section sign, Phulacihna. There is some variation in the glyphs for the Phulacihna, some looking like flowers or leaves. A set of digits exists although Bengali digits are also used.

Unicode

Chakma script was added to the Unicode Standard in January, 2012 with the release of version 6.1.[9]

The Unicode block for Chakma script is U+11100–U+1114F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points:

Chakma[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1110x 𑄀 𑄁 𑄂 𑄃 𑄄 𑄅 𑄆 𑄇 𑄈 𑄉 𑄊 𑄋 𑄌 𑄍 𑄎 𑄏
U+1111x 𑄐 𑄑 𑄒 𑄓 𑄔 𑄕 𑄖 𑄗 𑄘 𑄙 𑄚 𑄛 𑄜 𑄝 𑄞 𑄟
U+1112x 𑄠 𑄡 𑄢 𑄣 𑄤 𑄥 𑄦 𑄧 𑄨 𑄩 𑄪 𑄫 𑄬 𑄭 𑄮 𑄯
U+1113x 𑄰 𑄱 𑄲  𑄳  𑄴 𑄶 𑄷 𑄸 𑄹 𑄺 𑄻 𑄼 𑄽 𑄾 𑄿
U+1114x 𑅀 𑅁 𑅂 𑅃 𑅄 𑅅 𑅆 𑅇
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References

  1. ^ Handbook of Literacy in Akshara Orthography, R. Malatesha Joshi, Catherine McBride(2019),p.28
  2. ^ Talukdar, S. P. (2010). Genesis of Indigenous Chakma Buddhists and Their Pulverization Worldwide. ISBN 9788178357584.
  3. ^ Mru: Hill People on the Border of Bangladesh. 11 November 2013. ISBN 9783034856942.
  4. ^ http://unicode.org/L2/L2009/09187r-n3645r-chakma.pdf
  5. ^ Talukdar, S. P. (2010). Genesis of Indigenous Chakma Buddhists and Their Pulverization Worldwide. ISBN 9788178357584.
  6. ^ Mru: Hill People on the Border of Bangladesh. 11 November 2013. ISBN 9783034856942.
  7. ^ http://unicode.org/L2/L2009/09187r-n3645r-chakma.pdf
  8. ^ Brandt, Carmen (January 2014). "Script as a potential demarcator and stabilizer of languages in South Asia": 86. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ Download First & Only Chakma Unicode Font and Keyboard, retrieved

Further reading

External links


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