Castellón de la Plana
Castelló de la Plana (official)
|Castelló de la Plana |
Central parts of Castelló de la Plana.
Location in the Valencian Community
|Autonomous community||Valencian Community|
|Judicial district||Castelló de la Plana|
|o Alcaldesa||Amparo Marco Gual (2015) (PSPV-PSOE)|
|o Total||108.78 km2 (42.00 sq mi)|
|Elevation||30 m (100 ft)|
|Highest elevation||609 m (1,998 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|o Density||1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Official language(s)||Valencian, Spanish|
Castellón de la Plana (Spanish pronunciation: [kaste'?on de la 'plana]), Castelló de la Plana (official) (Valencian pronunciation: [kaste'?o ðe la 'plana]), or simply Castellón or Castelló, is the capital city of the province of Castellón, in the Valencian Community (Spain). It is located in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, on the Costa del Azahar by the Mediterranean Sea. The mountain range known as Desert de les Palmes rises inland north of the town.
According to the 2018 census, Castellón has a population of 170,888 inhabitants (called castellonencs in Valencian), ranking as the fourth most populated city in the Valencian Community (after Valencia, Alicante and Elche). The Prime Meridian, or Greenwich Meridian, intersects the 40th parallel at Castellón de la Plana and is commemorated with a monolith in Meridian Park (Parque del Meridiano) located at the exact point where this occurs.
The town inherited the name from a Moorish castle on the top of the hill of Magdalena (the Castle of Fadrell), a ?i?n dominating over a demarcation roughly consisting of the current-day municipalities of Castellón and Almassora. The area capitulated to James I of Aragon in 1233. This was followed by a series of attempts to create new settlements in the area starting with the alqueria of Benimahomet, the first Christian project to leave the castle, with mixed results. Following the 1247 mudéjar revolt, James I decreed the expulsion of the mudéjares from the area in 1248. The current settlement was however not founded until the 1250s, after James I, on 8 September 1251, granted Ximén Pérez d'Arenós a privilege authorising him to move from the castle to a new unspecified place in the plains (plana). Tradition claims that the move was completed by the third Sunday of Lent, 1252.
In the 16th century the town was one of the last strongholds in the Revolta de les Germanies (local guilds). It also supported Archduke Charles of Austria in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14), but was later taken by the troops of Philip d'Anjou.
In the 19th century, the city walls were torn down and it slowly began to expand, a process interrupted by the War of Independence against Napoleon (1804-14) and the Carlist Wars (1833-63). In 1833 Castelló became the capital of the newly constituted province. In the second half of the 19th century, the city again began to expand, marked by the arrival of the railway, the enlargement of the port and the construction of representative buildings (Provincial Hospital, Casino, Theater) and parks.
Most of the historical buildings are located in the diminutive old town, around the Plaça Major (Main Square). These include:
The annual festivities in Castellón are a week of celebrations three weeks before Easter every year called La Magdalena. People come from all over the province and many international bands and groups participate.
The city is notorious for its music festivals, among which we find: early in February the Tanned Tin music festival for alternative music and experimental music, in July the Festival Internacional de Benicàssim (also known as FIB, which translates to Benicàssim's International Festival), at the beginning of August there is the Arenal Sound and during the middle of that same month, we can find the Rototom Sunsplash Festival, known for its reggae music.
The local professional football club is CD Castellón, which currently plays in the Segunda División (Spanish second league). It holds home games at Nou Estadi Castàlia, which has a capacity of 15,500 seats. Despite its stadium and social support, the club financial problems and unstable history brought it to play in semi-pro and amateur regional divisions, not playing in La Liga since the 1990-91 season. On 21 March 2018, Castellón beat the record of seasonal tickets in the fourth-tier division with 12,701, and is considered a giant amongst minnows. The presence of Villarreal CF in the adjacent town (only 8 km away) has created a fierce rivalry for geographical reasons, especially due to the success of Villarreal in the last decades.
The city is host to futsal club CFS Bisontes Castellón, which under the name Playas de Castellón was one of the best Spanish and European futsal clubs in the late 90s and early 2000s, having won the premier professional futsal league in Spain twice in 2000 and 2001, and the UEFA Futsal Cup three consecutive times in 2001, 2002 and 2003.
Jaume I University was founded in 1991, and in 2014 there were approximately 15,000 students enrolled who share a single campus.
|Climate data for Castellón de la Plana, Almazora 43m (1981-2010), extremes (1940-)|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.4
|Average high °C (°F)||15.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||10.6
|Average low °C (°F)||5.8
|Record low °C (°F)||-4.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||36
|Average precipitation days||4||4||3||5||5||3||1||2||5||5||4||4||46|
|Average relative humidity (%)||67||66||64||63||63||63||64||66||68||69||68||68||66|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||180||179||209||235||272||296||329||290||229||203||173||164||2,755|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
The small Castellón Airport offers charter and general aviation services, as well as scheduled passenger services to London, Bucharest and Pozna?. The new Castellón-Costa Azahar Airport is designed to support large international jet flights and was completed in 2011. It has become a symbol of the wasteful spending prior to the 2008-13 Spanish financial crisis. Valencia Airport is about 70 km (43 mi) south whilst Alicante Airport is another 185 km (115 mi) further down the coast.