Calcium Channel
Get Calcium Channel essential facts below. View Videos or join the Calcium Channel discussion. Add Calcium Channel to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Calcium Channel

A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions. It is sometimes synonymous with voltage-gated calcium channel,[1] although there are also ligand-gated calcium channels.[2]

Comparison tables

The following tables explain gating, gene, location and function of different types of calcium channels, both voltage and ligand-gated.


Type Voltage ?1 subunit (gene name) Associated subunits Most often found in
L-type calcium channel ("Long-Lasting" AKA "DHP Receptor") HVA (high voltage activated) Cav1.1 (CACNA1S)
Cav1.2 (CACNA1C) Cav1.3 (CACNA1D)
Cav1.4 (CACNA1F)
?2?, ?, ? Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, bone (osteoblasts), ventricular myocytes** (responsible for prolonged action potential in cardiac cell; also termed DHP receptors), dendrites and dendritic spines of cortical neurons
P-type calcium channel ("Purkinje") /Q-type calcium channel HVA (high voltage activated) Cav2.1 (CACNA1A) ?2?, ?, possibly ? Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum / Cerebellar granule cells
N-type calcium channel ("Neural"/"Non-L") HVA (high-voltage-activated) Cav2.2 (CACNA1B) ?2?/?1, ?3, ?4, possibly ? Throughout the brain and peripheral nervous system.
R-type calcium channel ("Residual") intermediate-voltage-activated Cav2.3 (CACNA1E) ?2?, ?, possibly ? Cerebellar granule cells, other neurons
T-type calcium channel ("Transient") low-voltage-activated Cav3.1 (CACNA1G)
Cav3.2 (CACNA1H)
Cav3.3 (CACNA1I)
neurons, cells that have pacemaker activity, bone (osteocytes), thalamus (thalamus)


Type Gated by Gene Location Function
IP3 receptor IP3 ITPR1, ITPR2, ITPR3 ER/SR Releases calcium from ER/SR in response to IP3 by e.g. GPCRs[4]
Ryanodine receptor dihydropyridine receptors in T-tubules and increased intracellular calcium (Calcium Induced Calcium Release - CICR) RYR1, RYR2, RYR3 ER/SR Calcium-induced calcium release in myocytes[4]
Two-pore channel Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NAADP) TPCN1, TPCN2 endosomal/lysosomal membranes NAADP-activated calcium transport across endosomal/lysosomal membranes[5]
Cation channels of sperm Calcium (CICR) PKD2 family sperm (specifically flagella) non-selective calcium-activated cation channel directing sperm in female reproductive tract[6]
store-operated channels indirectly by ER/SR depletion of calcium[4] ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3 plasma membrane provide calcium signaling to the cytoplasm[7]


Depiction of binding sites of various antagonistic drugs in the L-type calcium channel.

L-type calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension. In most areas of the body, depolarization is mediated by sodium influx into a cell; changing the calcium permeability has little effect on action potentials. However, in many smooth muscle tissues, depolarization is mediated primarily by calcium influx into the cell. L-type calcium channel blockers selectively inhibit these action potentials in smooth muscle which leads to dilation of blood vessels; this in turn corrects hypertension.[8]

T-type calcium channel blockers are used to treat epilepsy. Increased calcium conductance in the neurons leads to increased depolarization and excitability. This leads to a greater predisposition to epileptic episodes. Calcium channel blockers reduce the neuronal calcium conductance and reduce the likelihood of experiencing epileptic attacks.[9]


  1. ^ "calcium channel" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Striggow F, Ehrlich BE (August 1996). "Ligand-gated calcium channels inside and out". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 8 (4): 490-5. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(96)80025-1. PMID 8791458.
  3. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approach. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Page 479
  4. ^ a b c Rang HP (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-443-07145-4.
  5. ^ "TPCN1 - Two pore calcium channel protein 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - TPCN1 gene & protein". Retrieved .
  6. ^ Gao, Zhiqian; Ruden, Douglas M.; Lu, Xiangyi (2003-12-16). "PKD2 cation channel is required for directional sperm movement and male fertility". Current Biology. 13 (24): 2175-2178. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2003.11.053. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 14680633.
  7. ^ Putney, James W.; Steinckwich-Besançon, Natacha; Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Davis, Felicity M.; Desai, Pooja N.; d'Agostin, Diane M.; Wu, Shilan; Bird, Gary S. (2017-06-01). "The functions of store-operated calcium channels". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research. 1864 (6): 900-906. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2016.11.028. ISSN 0167-4889. PMC 5420336. PMID 27913208.
  8. ^ Katz, A. M. (September 1986). "Pharmacology and mechanisms of action of calcium-channel blockers". Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2 (3 Suppl): 28S-37S. ISSN 0748-450X. PMID 3540226.
  9. ^ Zamponi, Gerald W.; Lory, Philippe; Perez-Reyes, Edward (July 2010). "Role of voltage-gated calcium channels in epilepsy". Pflügers Archiv. 460 (2): 395-403. doi:10.1007/s00424-009-0772-x. ISSN 0031-6768. PMC 3312315. PMID 20091047.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes