COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada
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COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada

COVID-19 pandemic in Canada
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Canada (Pop Density).svg
Total cases per million inhabitants by province/territory
COVID-19 Outbreak Deaths in Canada (Pop Density).svg
Total deaths per million inhabitants by province/territory
DiseaseCOVID-19
LocationCanada
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseToronto, Ontario
Arrival dateJanuary 22, 2020[1]
(9 months, 1 week and 2 days)
DateOctober 30, 2020
Confirmed cases231,999[2]
Active cases27,952[2]
Recovered193,937[2]
Deaths
10,110[2]
Fatality rate4.36%
Government website
canada.ca/coronavirus

The COVID-19 pandemic in Canada is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 . The virus was confirmed to have reached Canada on January 27, 2020, after an individual who had returned to Toronto from Wuhan, Hubei, China, tested positive. As of October 29, 2020, there have been approximately 228,500 confirmed cases, over 191,200 recoveries and over 10,000 deaths in the country.[2] The Government of Canada has released modelling anticipating 11,000-22,000 deaths over the course of the pandemic, assuming "stronger epidemic control".[3]

Most of those cases are in Canada's two most populous provinces, Ontario and Quebec. Confirmed cases have been reported in all of Canada's provinces and territories, with the exception of Nunavut.[4][5][6][7] Until March, all cases were linked to recent travel to a country with a substantial number of cases. The first case of community transmission in Canada was confirmed in British Columbia on March 5,[8] and Toronto's chief health officer announced on March 16 that there is "some evidence of community transmission".[9]

In mid March, as cases of community transmission were confirmed, all of Canada's provinces and territories declared states of emergency. Provinces and territories have, to varying degrees, implemented school and daycare closures, prohibitions on gatherings, closures of non-essential businesses, restrictions on entry, and mandatory self-isolation for travellers.[10] Canada severely restricted its border access, barring travellers from all countries with some exceptions. The federal Minister of Health invoked the Quarantine Act, legally requiring all travellers (excluding essential workers) returning to the country to self-isolate for 14 days.

By mid to late summer, active cases were on steady decline across the country, including Ontario and Quebec, which had the most cases of all provinces in the country.

In late summer and autumn, the country saw a resurgence of cases in most provinces, from British Columbia to Quebec (with the exception of the "Atlantic Bubble", a travel-restricted area of the country set up amongst New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia & Newfoundland and Labrador). The Country's territories continued to be affected minimally by the virus. Prime Minister Trudeau declared that Canada was now in a "Second Wave".[11] In provinces affected, new restrictions and reactions from Provincial governments were put in place once again as cases increased. The federal government passed legislation to approve further modified economic aid for businesses and individuals.[12]

Background and epidemiology

On January 12, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on December 31, 2019.[13][14]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[15][16] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[17][15]

COVID-19 pandemic in Canada by province and territory, 30 October 2020 2350 UTC ()
Province Population Tests Per k Cases Per m Recov. Deaths Per m Active Ref.
British Columbia British Columbia 5,110,917 827,496 161.9 14,381 2,814 11,670 263 51.5 2,390 [18]
Alberta Alberta 4,413,146 1,789,173 405.4 27,664 6,269 22,169 323 73.2 5,172 [19]
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan 1,181,666 260,333 220.4 3,066 2,596 2,299 25 21.2 742 [20]
Manitoba Manitoba 1,377,517 253,357 183.9 5,374 3,903 2,572 65 47.2 2,737 [21]
Ontario Ontario 14,711,827 5,068,007 344.5 74,715 5,079 63,919 3,127 212.6 7,669 [22]
Quebec Quebec 8,537,674 3,080,384 360..8 104,952 12,294 89,592 6,231 729.9 9,128 [23][24]
New Brunswick New Brunswick 779,993 101,595 130.3 342 438 297 6 7.7 39 [25]
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island 158,158 44,669 282.4 64 398 64 0 0 0 [26]
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia 977,457 112,499 115.1 1,104 1,127 1,033 65 66.5 6 [27]
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador 521,365 52,145 100 291 558 284 4 7.7 3 [28]
Yukon Yukon 41,078 4,031 98.1 23 560 17 1 24.3 5 [29]
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories 44,904 6,481 144.3 10 223 8 0 0 2 [30]
Nunavut Nunavut 39,097 3,501 89.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 [31]
 Repatriated travellers N/A N/A N/A 13 N/A 13 0 N/A 0 [32][33][34]
Canada Canada 37,894,806 11,603,671 306.2 231,999 6,122 193,937 10,110 266.8 27,893


Timeline of cases by province and territory
Date Western Central Atlantic Northern RT Cases Deaths Recoveries[35] Sources
BC
[n 1]
AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU New Cml New Cml New Cml
Jan 25 1[n 2] 1 1 [36]
Jan 27 1 1 2 [36]
Jan 28 1 1 3 [36]
Jan 31 1 1 4 [36]
Feb 4 1 1 5 [36]
Feb 6 2 2 7 [36]
Feb 12 7 1 1 [36]
Feb 14 1 1 8 1 [36]
Feb 19 8 1 2 [36]
Feb 20 1 1 9 2 [36]
Feb 23 1 1 10 2 4 [36]
Feb 24 1 1 11 4 [36]
Feb 25 11 3 7 [36]
Feb 26 1 1 12 7 [36]
Feb 27 1 1 2 14 7 [36]
Feb 28 2 2 16 7 [36]
Feb 29 1 3 4 20 7 [36]
Mar 1 4 4 24 7 [36]
Mar 2 3 3 27 7 [36]
Mar 3 4 2 6 33 7 [36]
Mar 4 1 1 34 1 8
Mar 5 8 1 3 2 14 48 8 [37][38][39][40]
Mar 6 1 5 6 54 8 [41][42][43]
Mar 7 6 6 60 8 [44]
Mar 8 2 4 1 7 67 8 [45][46][47][48][49]
Mar 9 5 3 3 1 12 79 1 1 1 9 [50]
Mar 10 7 7 2 2 18 97 1 9 [51][52][53]
Mar 11 7 5 5 2 1 1 21 118 1 1 10 [54][55]
Mar 12 7 4 1 3 18 8 41 159 1 10 [56]
Mar 13 11 6 1 1 19 1 39 198 1 10 [57][58]
Mar 14 9 10 4 24 4 1 1 1 2 56 254 1 10 [59][60][61][62][63]
Mar 15 17 3 42 15 4 3 84 338 1 10 [64]
Mar 16 30 18 1 1 32 14 1 2 4 103 441 3 4 1 11 [65]
Mar 17 83 23 1 7 13 24 1 2 2 1 157 598 4 8 11 [66][67]
Mar 18 45 22 8 2 25 20 3 5 130 728 1 9 11 [68]
Mar 19 40 27 4 43 27 1 2 1 145 873 3 12 2 13 [69][70]
Mar 20 77 49 6 60 18 1 1 3 215 1,088 12 2 15 [71]
Mar 21 76 31 18 2 59 42 6 6 2 1 243 1,331 7 19 1 16
Mar 22 33 8 1 48 38 1 7 3 2 141 1,472 1 20 2 18
Mar 23 48 42 14 78 409[n 3] 13 15 619 2,091 4 24 94 112 [72][73]
Mar 24 145 57 6 1 85 412 1 10 11 728 2819 3 27 72 185 [74][75][76]
Mar 25 42 61 14 14 100 299 8 2 17 32 1 590 3,409 8 35 11 197 [77]
Mar 26 66 67 9 1 170 290 7 4 5 15 634 4,043 4 39 31 228
Mar 27 67 56 9 3 135 392 12 2 17 20 1 714 4,757 16 55 125 353
Mar 28 92 79 30 25 151 477 6 20 18 898 5,655 6 61 146 499
Mar 29 40 22 8 211 342 15 12 15 665 6,320 5 66 31 530
Mar 30 86 29 20 24 351 590 2 7 5 13 1 1,128 7,448 23 89 529 1,059
Mar 31 43 64 8 7 260 732 2 3 20 4 1,143 8,591 12 101 173 1,232
Apr 1 53 117 9 24 426 449 11 26 23 1 1 1,140 9,731 10 111 309 1,541
Apr 2 55 97 13 40 401 907 10 1 20 8 2 1,554 11,285 27 138 430 1,971
Apr 3 53 107 14 15 462 583 4 14 12 1,264 12,549 49 187 351 2,322
Apr 4 29 106 11 12 375 896 3 29 8 1,469 14,018 46 233 326 2,648
Apr 5 69 18 9 408 947 3 26 14 1 1,495 15,513 47 280 294 2,942 [78]
Apr 6 63 98 4 1 309 636 2 31 9 1 1,154 16,667 43 323 674 3,616
Apr 7 25 25 7 13 379 760 2 17 2 1,230 17,897 58 381 434 4,050
Apr 8 45 50 11 4 550 691 3 3 32 4 1 1,394 19,291 54 435 603 4,653
Apr 9 34 28 7 3 483 881 3 31 4 1,474 20,765 74 509 658 5,311 [78]
Apr 10 40 49 7 6 478 765 1 34 3 1,383 22,148 60 569 702 6,013 [78]
Apr 11 35 69 4 13 411 615 21 2 1,170 23,318 84 653 415 6,428 [78]
Apr 12 82 9 -1 401 554 2 17 1 1,065 24,383 64 717 744 7,172 [78][79]
Apr 13 45 81 2 4 421 711 2 29 2 1,297 25,680 63 780 586 7,758
Apr 14 27 138 1 483 691 43 1,383 27,063 123 903 477 8,235
Apr 15 44 126 3 494 612 1 1 32 3 1,316 28,379 107 1,010 744 8,979 [80]
Apr 16 14 162 1 4 514 997 30 5 1,727 30,106 186 1,196 750 9,729
Apr 17 43 239 2 564 941 27 4 1 1,821 31,927 114 1,310 814 10,543
Apr 18 29 165 6 3 485 723 1 43 0[n 4] 1,455 33,382 160 1,470 664 11,207 [81]
Apr 19 241 2 568 836 26 1,673 35,055 117 1,587 636 11,843
Apr 20 52 105 1 1 606 962 46 2 1,775 36,830 103 1,690 743 12,586
Apr 21 25 187 4 1 551 807 16 1,591 38,421 144 1,834 602 13,188
Apr 22 71 306 6 2 510 839 35 1,769 40,190 140 1,974 798 13,986
Apr 23 29 319 5 5 634 873 55 1,920 42,110 173 2,147 775 14,761
Apr 24 29 297 10 1 640 778 23 1,778 43,888 155 2,302 780 15,541
Apr 25 95 216 8 4 476 651 15 1 1,466 45,354 163 2,465 884 16,425
Apr 26 247 4 4 437 840 8 1 1,541 46,895 95 2,560 818 17,243
Apr 27 50 216 12 1 424 875 27 1,605 48,500 147 2,707 910 18,153
Apr 28 55 154 1 525 775 1 15 1,526 50,026 152 2,859 942 19,095
Apr 29 34 315 17 1 347 837 20 1,571 51,597 137 2,996 1,079 20,174
Apr 30 25 190 6 2 459 944 12 0[n 5] 1,638 53,235 188 3,184 1,041 21,215
May 1 33 218 26 4 421 1,110 12 1 1,825 55,060 207 3,391 1,338 22,553
May 2 26 97 6 1 511 1,008 4 1,653 56,713 175 3,566 1,073 23,626
May 3 96 12 1 434 2,209[n 6] 8 2,760 59,473 116 3,682 1,103 24,729
May 4 53 70 34 370 758 14 1,299 60,772 172 3,854 1,059 25,788
May 5 8 57 20 1 387 794 1 6 1,274 62,046 189 4,043 928 26,716
May 6 23 70 25 2 412 910 1 7 1,450 63,496 189 4,232 1122 27,838
May 7 31[n 7] 54 19 -1 399 911 9 2 1,424 64,920 176 4,408 1,152 28,990 [82]
May 8 29 81 13 1 477 912 1 1,514 66,434 161 4,569 1,025 30,015 [83]
May 9 15 59 9 346 836 3 1,268 67,702 124 4,693 1,050 31,065
May 10 96 11 3 294 735 7 1,146 68,848 178 4,871 846 31,911
May 11 23 47 4 2 308 748 1 1,133 69,981 122 4,993 813 32,724
May 12 7 45 5 1 361 756 1 1,176 71,157 176 5,169 1,111 33,835
May 13 16 62 4 329 706 4 1,121 72,278 133 5,302 1,119 34,954
May 14 16[n 8] 50 5 -1 345 793 2 1,210 73,488 170 5,472 1,009 35,962 [84][85]
May 15 15 58 8 341 696 8 -1 1,125 74,613 90 5,562 821 36,783 [86]
May 16 21 72 1 391 763 3 1,251 75,864 117 5,679 1,066 37,849
May 17 57 1 340 737 3 1,138 77,002 103 5,782 625 38,474
May 18 16 39 1 304 707 3 1,070 78,072 60 5,842 698 39,172
May 19 2 33 7 427 570 1 1,040 79,112 70 5,912 803 39,975
May 20 21 19 21 390 578 1 1,030 80,142 119 6,031 748 40,723
May 21 22[n 9] 33 2 413 720 1 1 1,192 81,334 121 6,152 919 41,642 [87]
May 22 18 32 5 2 441 646 2 1,146 82,480 98 6,250 861 42,503
May 23 10 18 3 412 697 1 1,141 83,621 105 6,355 734 43,237
May 24 42 2 460 573 1 1,078 84,699 69 6,424 693 43,930
May 25 13 19 2 404 573 1 1,012 85,711 121 6,545 653 44,583
May 26 11 22 287 614 1 1 936 86,647 94 6,639 687 45,270
May 27 8[n 10] 25 2[n 11] 292 541 1 1 870 87,517 126 6,765 836 46,106
May 28 9 29 2 2 383 563 3 2 1 994 88,511 112 6,877 680 46,786
May 29 4 24 2 344 530 2 906 89,417 102 6,979 674 47,460
May 30 11 13 4 323 419 1 1 772 90,189 94 7,073 616 48,076
May 31 18 1 1 326 408 3 757 90,946 222[n 12] 7,295 765 48,841
Jun 1 24 34 1 404 295 1 759 91,705 31 7,326 667 49,508
Jun 2 4 13 2 446 239 1 705 92,410 69 7,395 813 50,321
Jun 3 22 19 1 1 338 291 2 1 675 93,085 103 7,498 677 50,998
Jun 4 9 15 1 356 259 1 641 93,726 139 7,637 717 51,715
Jun 5 0[n 13] 7 1 2 344 255 609 94,335 66 7,703 840 52,555
Jun 6 40 1 455 226 1[n 14] 723 95,058 70 7,773 1,027 53,582
Jun 7 415 225 1 1 642 95,700 27 7,800 651 54,233
Jun 8 27 64 4 243 198 9 545 96,245 35 7,835 600 54,833
Jun 9 10 27 2 230 138 1 1 409 96,654 62 7,897 739 55,572
Jun 10 11[n 15] 47 2 251 156 4 471 97,125 63 7,960 1,067 56,639
Jun 11 14 40 2 203 144 2 405 97,530 34 7,994 1,085 57,724
Jun 12 15[n 16] 30 3 1 182 181 1 413 97,943 55 8,049 799 58,523
Jun 13 37 1 2 266 158 3 467 98,410 58 8,107 831 59,354
Jun 14 50 1 1 197 128 377 98,787 39 8,146 918 60,272
Jun 15 36 20 18 181 102 3 360 99,147 29 8,175 770 61,042
Jun 16 11 29[n 17] 1 184 92 3 320 99,467 38 8,213 401 61,443
Jun 17 19 48 9 2 190 117 1 386 99,853 41 8,254 574 62,017
Jun 18 8 49 15 2 173 120 367 100,220 46 8,300 479 62,496
Jun 19 7 46 8 3 178 167 409 100,629 46 8,346 507 63,003
Jun 20 48 10[n 18] 2 206 124 0[n 19] 390 101,019 64 8,410 485 63,488
Jun 21 31 20 175 92 318 101,337 20 8,430 398 63,886
Jun 22 32 32 5 1 161 69 300 101,637 6 8,436 448 64,334
Jun 23 13 45 2[n 20] 216 49 1 326 101,963 18 8,454 370 64,704
Jun 24 14 44 4 1 163 53 279 102,242 30 8,484 387 65,091
Jun 25 20 26 2[n 21] 1 189 142 380 102,622 20 8,504 334 65,425
Jun 26 9[n 22] 37 13 2 111 77 249 102,871 11 8,515 301 65,726
Jun 27 69 5[n 23] 4 160 85 323 103,194 25 8,540 247 65,973
Jun 28 39 1 178 77 295 103,489 12 8,552 218 66,191
Jun 29 26 71 1 2 257 72[n 24] 429 103,918 14 8,566 987 67,178 [88]
Jun 30 12 41 6 1 157 68 1 286 104,204 25 8,591 416 67,594 [89]
Jul 1 149 66 1 216 104,420 28 8,619 152 67,746
Jul 2 24 94 10 153 69 1 0[n 25] 351 104,771 23 8,642 601 68,347
Jul 3 7[n 26] 57 1 165 89 319 105,090 21 8,663 346 68,693
Jul 4 9 29 2 121 102 3 266 105,356 11 8,674 313 69,006 [90]
Jul 5 15 52 4 138 79 2 290 105,646 10 8,684 251 69,257
Jul 6 7 49 3 154 74 1 299 105,934 9 8,693 313 69,570
Jul 7 12 47 1 112 60 232 106,166 18 8,711 313 69,883
Jul 8 18 46 2 118 82 1 267 106,433 26 8,737 364 70,247
Jul 9 20 37 5 170 137 1 1 371 106,804 12 8,749 297 70,544
Jul 10 25 77 2 116 100 1 321 107,125 10 8,759 327 70,871
Jul 11 21 54 2 130 91 298 107,423 14 8,773 365 71,236
Jul 12 20 96 23 129 114 1 383 107,806 10 8,783 201 71,437
Jul 13 21 80 31 116 100 1 349 108,155 7 8,790 404 71,841
Jul 14 13 86 5 5 111 109 1 1 331 108,486 8 8,798 329 72,170
Jul 15 21 82 5 102 129 1 1 341 108,827 12 8,810 315 72,485
Jul 16 21 120 42 1 111 142 437 109,264 17 8,827 351 72,836
Jul 17 28 105 13 5 111 141 2 405 109,669 12 8,839 23,851[n 27] 96,687
Jul 18 51 165 5 1 166 158 546 110,215 9 8,848 225 96,912
Jul 19 19 96 2 6 164 166 1 454 110,669 4 8,852 137 97,049
Jul 20 30 107 19 11 135 150 1 453 111,122 6 8,858 448 97,497
Jul 21 30 141 8 12 203 180 1 575 111,697 4 8,862 283 97,780
Jul 22 34 133 60 8 165 142 1 543 112,240 8 8,870 362 98,142
Jul 23 30 114 42 1 103 142 432 112,672 4 8,874 377 98,519
Jul 24 27 111 27 9 195 163 1 1 534 113,206 7 8,881 354 98,873
Jul 25 36 110 37 4 138 171 496 113,702 4 8,885 242 99,115
Jul 26 21 103 42 6 137 169 1 479 114,181 5 8,890 240 99,355
Jul 27 24 91 31 6 119 145 416 114,597 11 8,901 505 99,860
Jul 28 23 80 9 5 111 169 397 114,994 11 8,912 274 100,134
Jul 29 39 133 50 2 76 112[n 28] 412 115,406 7 8,919 331 100,465 [91]
Jul 30 29 113 38 2 89 139 410 115,816 10 8,929 397 100,862
Jul 31 50 127 13 6 134 164 2 496 116,312 6 8,935 365 101,227
Aug 1 43 97 15 2 124 146 427 116,739 6 8,941 358 101,585
Aug 2 29 67 8 18 116 141 2 381 117,120 4 8,945 249 101,834
Aug 3 46 74 17 7 88 123 355 117,475 2 8,947 209 102,043
Aug 4 28 65 9 91 123 316 117,791 11 8,958 407 102,450
Aug 5 47 94 8 2 86 155 4 396 118,187 4 8,962 338 103,788
Aug 6 47 56 11 30 95 133 2 374 118,561 4 8,966 318 103,106
Aug 7 53 134 22 17 88 108 1 1 424 118,985 4 8,970 329 103,435 [92]
Aug 8 50 108 24 16 70 126 394 119,379 6 8,976 131 103,566
Aug 9 37 101 12 35 79 104 368 119,747 5 8,981 162 103,728
Aug 10 44 48 5 16 115 156 1 385 120,132 7 8,987 2,627 106,355
Aug 11 46 85 29 4 33 91 1 289 120,421 4 8,991 391 106,746
Aug 12 85 121 5 16 95 95 1 5 423 120,844 15 9,006 402 107,148
Aug 13 78 76 27 25 78 104 2 390 121,234 9 9,015 404 107,552
Aug 14 84 84 30 40 92 87 1 418 121,652 5 9,020 390 107,942
Aug 15 100 95 25 20 106 80 4 2 432 122,084 4 9,024 275 108,217
Aug 16 88 86 14 34 81 67 2 372 122,456 2 9,026 267 108,484
Aug 17 48 96 1 34 99 55 1 334 122,790 6 9,032 496 108,980
Aug 18 83 89 1 17 125 46 3 364 123,154 13 9,045 377 109,357
Aug 19 68 82 4 15 102 64 1 336 123,490 4 9,049 465 109,822
Aug 20 80 103 4 33 76 86 1 383 123,873 5 9,054 466 110,288
Aug 21 90 144 5 34 131 93 2 499 124,372 10 9,064 360 110,648
Aug 22 109 83 2 42 108 104 1 449 124,821 7 9,071 230 110,878
Aug 23 81 106 2 72 115 74 1 2 453 125,274 2 9,073 234 111,112
Aug 24 79 69 2 49 105 68 372 125,646 10 9,083 582 111,694
Aug 25 58 77 25 100 62 1 323 125,969 7 9,090 356 112,050
Aug 26 62 127 3 25 88 142 1 448 126,417 4 9,094 405 112,455
Aug 27 68 108 5 21 118 81 401 126,818 7 9,101 370 112,825
Aug 28 124 158 2 32 122 50 1 2 1 492 127,310 7 9,108 409 113,234
Aug 29 86 133 4 55 148 156 582 127,892 5 9,113 267 113,501
Aug 30 107 184 34 112 120 557 128,449 4 9,117 163 113,664
Aug 31 101 109 4 28 114 140 2 498 128,947 9 9,126 554 114,218
Sep 1 58 164 3 18 112 122 477 129,424 6 9,132 386 114,604
Sep 2 104 114 2 13 133 132 1 499 129,923 3 9,135 446 115,050
Sep 3 89 130 10 20 132 187 2 570 130,493 4 9,139 394 115,444
Sep 4 121 164 4 9 148 184 1 631 131,124 2 9,141 482 115,926
Sep 5 123 154 5 21 169 175 1 648 131,772 2 9,143 210 116,136
Sep 6 116 171 8 29 158 205 687 132,459 2 9,145 221 116,357
Sep 7 107 137 11 15 190 216 4 1 681 133,140 1 9,146 102 116,459
Sep 8 83 157 7 11 185 163 2 608 133,748 7 9,153 1,106 117,565
Sep 9 100 98 1 16 149 180 2 546 134,294 2 9,155 706 118,271
Sep 10 139 113 6 13 170 192 1 634 134,928 8 9,163 734 119,005
Sep 11 132 111 12 15 213 221 704 135,632 0 9,163 669 119,674
Sep 12 137 105 21 17 232 269 1 782 136,414 7 9,170 401 120,075
Sep 13 119 173 17 18 204 310 841 137,255 1 9,171 356 120,431
Sep 14 61 140 5 21 313 372 1 913 138,168 8 9,179 793 121,224
Sep 15 97 124 10 17 251 382 2 883 139,051 9 9,188 616 121,840
Sep 16 122 171 10 23 315 303 944 139,995 5 9,193 609 122,449
Sep 17 165 146 6 11 293 251 872 140,867 7 9,200 679 123,128
Sep 18 179 107 19 40 401 297 1 1,044 141,911 5 9,205 595 123,723
Sep 19 121 119 11 17 407 427 1,102 143,013 6 9,211 464 124,187
Sep 20 117 102 20 29 365 462 1,095 144,108 6 9,217 504 124,691
Sep 21 128 137 7 22 425 586 2 1,307 145,415 11 9,228 848 125,539
Sep 22 96 150 10 24 478 489 1 1,248 146,663 6 9,234 1,366 126,905
Sep 23 91 143 6 42 335 471 1 1 1,090 147,753 9 9,243 883 127,788
Sep 24 148 158 5 37 409 582 2 1,341 149,094 6 9,249 919 128,707
Sep 25 98 153 11 53 409 637 1 1,362 150,456 7 9,256 866 129,573
Sep 26 68 60 17 65 435 698 1,343 151,799 6 9,262 755 130,328
Sep 27 125 184 15 51 491 896 1 1,763 153,562 6 9,268 770 131,098
Sep 28 74 162 14 39 700 750 1,739 155,301 10 9,278 1,509 132,607
Sep 29 105 160 7 34 554 799 1 1,660 156,961 13 9,291 1,130 133,737
Sep 30 125 153 14 40 625 838 1 1 1,797 158,758 6 9,297 1,233 134,970
Oct 1 82 173 14 36 538 933 1 1,777 160,535 22 9,319 1,380 136,350
Oct 2 161 122 13 43 732 1052 1 2,124 162,659 90 9,409 1,264 137,614
Oct 3 130 97 14 36 653 1107 1 1 2,039 164,698 52 9,461 1,217 138,831
Oct 4 108 263 5 32 566 1079 2 1 2,056 166,754 20 9,481 1,376 140,207
Oct 5 120 218 9 51 615 1191 2 2,206 168,960 23 9,504 2,127 142,334
Oct 6 102 276 16 55 548 1364 2 2,363 171,323 26 9,530 1,660 143,994
Oct 7 115 143 10 32 583 900 17 1,800 173,123 11 9,541 1,672 145,666
Oct 8 110 364 18 66 797 1078 3 2,436 175,559 16 9,557 1,842 147,508
Oct 9 119 277 22 84 939 1102 13 2 2,558 178,117 28 9,585 2,016 149,524
Oct 10 170 236 34 96 809 1097 20 3 3 2,468 180,585
Oct 11 159 259 24 54 649 980 14 2 2,141 182,726
Oct 12 119 246 48 77 807 1056 6 1 2,360 185,086
Oct 13 101 220 34 124 746 923 6 2,154 187,240
Oct 14 158 243 25 146 721 844 8 2,145 189,385
Oct 15 142 244 31 173 783 969 1 2,343 191,728
Oct 16 155 332 40 75 712 1055 5 1 3 2,378 194,106
Oct 17 172 311 36 85 805 1279 8 2 2,698 196,804
Oct 18 153 231 24 44 658 1094 5 2 2,211 199,015
Oct 19 173 356 66 80 704 1038 3 2 2,422 201,437
Oct 20 167 323 43 109 821 787 1 1 2,252 203,689
Oct 21 203 406 59 135 790 1072 6 2 2,673 206,362
Oct 22 274 427 60 146 841 1033 3 1 2,785 209,147
Oct 23 223 437 33 163 826 905 2 3 1 2,593 211,740
Oct 24 317 391 78 153 978 1009 2 3 1 2,932 214,672
Oct 25 293 572 60 161 1042 879 2 1 3,010 217,682
Oct 26 207 504 54 100 851 808 3 1 1 2 2,531 220,213
Oct 27 217 422 58 182 827 963 3 1 2,673 222,886
Oct 28 287 410 67 170 834 929 3 2,700 225,586
Oct 29 234 477 82 193 934 1030 4 1 1 2,956 228,542
Cases 14,109 27,042 2,990 4,894 73,819 103,844 341 64 1,102 291 23 10 0 13 228,542 cases
Provincial
sources
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU RT
Western Central Atlantic Northern
[93] [94] [95] [96][97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107]
  1. ^ British Columbia does not update on the number of cases on Sundays.
  2. ^ This case was presumptive until confirmed on January 27.
  3. ^ On March 23, Quebec announced that this large increase is due to new acceptance of tests by hospital center laboratories, without requiring confirmation by the Quebec Public Health Laboratory (LSPQ).
  4. ^ There was a clerical error on April 18 that incorrectly recorded one positive case. The correction was noted by Dr. Janice Fitzgerald, Chief Medical Officer of Health, on April 22.
  5. ^ The case was found to be a false positive on May 4.
  6. ^ On May 3, Quebec announced that a computer error caused 1,317 missing positive COVID-19 cases, meaning there was only 892 new cases on the previous day.
  7. ^ Two cases were removed to correct a data error in the Island Health region. This correction was noted in the BC COVID-19 Daily Situation Report on May 8.
  8. ^ One case was added to correct a data error in the Island Health region. This correction was noted in the BC COVID-19 Daily Situation Report on May 14.
  9. ^ Ten cases were added to correct data errors in the Interior and Island Health regions. This corrections were noted in the BC COVID-19 Daily Situation Report on May 22.
  10. ^ One case was removed to correct a data error in the Vancouver Coastal region. This correction was noted in the BC COVID-19 Daily Situation Report on May 28.
  11. ^ One case was removed as Saskatchewan Health authorities determined it to be a false positive. This correction was noted in Saskatchewan's COVID-19 Update for June 1.
  12. ^ On May 31, Quebec announced that 165 deaths reported were the result of catching up on deaths that occurred before May 23.
  13. ^ One case was removed to correct a data error. This correction was noted in the BC COVID-19 Daily Situation Report on June 5.
  14. ^ One case missed in data entry on June 6. Case totals from Jun 6 to the 9th adjusted.
  15. ^ One case was removed to correct a data error. This correction was noted in the BC COVID-19 Daily Situation Report on Jun 10.
  16. ^ One case was removed to correct a data error. This correction is based on the total cases reported by BC on June 12.
  17. ^ Although Alberta reported 35 new cases the total number of cases increased by only 29. There was no explanation on the Alberta website explaining the difference.
  18. ^ One case was removed as Saskatchewan Health authorities determined it involved someone who was from out of province. This correction was noted in Saskatchewan's COVID-19 Update for June 20.
  19. ^ One case was removed as New Brunswick Health authorities determined it to be a false positive. This correction was noted in New Brunswick's COVID-19 Update for June 20.
  20. ^ The Saskatchewan Health authorities reported the following in the June 23 update: The Public Health Agency of Canada has provided surveillance guidance regarding the attribution of COVID-19 cases amongst provinces and territories. As a result, nine cases that have been attributed to Saskatchewan will no longer be included in the Saskatchewan total count.
  21. ^ One case was removed as Saskatchewan Health authorities determined it involved someone who was from out of province. This correction was noted in Saskatchewan's COVID-19 Update for June 25.
  22. ^ One case was removed to correct a data error. This correction was noted in the BC COVID-19 Daily Situation Report on Jun 26.
  23. ^ One case was removed as Saskatchewan Health authorities determined this to be a repeat positive result of an individual that has already been reported earlier. This correction was noted in Saskatchewan's COVID-19 Update for June 27.
  24. ^ From June 26 to June 28, Quebec did not release daily updates on COVID-19 deaths and cases. After public outcry, the province resumed daily reporting on June 29
  25. ^ The case was found to be a false positive on July 10.
  26. ^ Six cases were removed because they are residents of a different province. The correction was noted in the BC COVID-19 Daily Situation Report on July 3.
  27. ^ On July 17, the large number of recoveries is due to a revision of the algorithm used by the Institut National de Santé Publique du Quebec to determine when a person may be considered recovered.
  28. ^ A data system change resulted in misreporting of the case and death numbers in Quebec on July 29. It was fixed on July 30.

Preparations

COVID-19 cases in Canada()
     Deaths     Recoveries     Active cases

Jan Jan Feb Feb Mar Mar Apr Apr May May Jun Jun Jul Jul Aug Aug Sep Sep Oct Oct Last 15 days Last 15 days

Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-25 1(n.a.)
2020-01-26 1(=)
2020-01-27 2(+100%)
2020-01-28 3(+50%)
? 3(=)
2020-01-31 4(+33%)
? 4(=)
2020-02-04
5(+25%)
2020-02-05
5(=)
2020-02-06
7(+40%)
?
7(=)
2020-02-12
7(=)
2020-02-13
7(=)
2020-02-14
8(+14%)
?
8(=)
2020-02-19
8(=)
2020-02-20
9(+12%)
?
9(=)
2020-02-23
10(+11%)
2020-02-24
11(+10%)
2020-02-25
11(=)
2020-02-26
12(+9.1%)
2020-02-27
14(+17%)
2020-02-28
16(+14%)
2020-02-29
20(+25%)
2020-03-01
24(+20%)
2020-03-02
24(=)
2020-03-03
33(+38%)
2020-03-04
34(+3%)
2020-03-05
46(+35%)
2020-03-06
54(+17%)
2020-03-07
60(+11%)
2020-03-08
67(+12%)
2020-03-09
86(+28%) 1(n.a.)
2020-03-10
95(+10%) 1(=)
2020-03-11
116(+22%) 1(=)
2020-03-12
156(+34%) 1(=)
2020-03-13
198(+27%) 1(=)
2020-03-14
257(+30%) 1(=)
2020-03-15
341(+33%) 1(=)
2020-03-16
441(+29%) 4(+300%)
2020-03-17
597(+35%) 8(+100%)
2020-03-18
727(+22%) 9(+12%)
2020-03-19
872(+20%) 12(+33%)
2020-03-20
1,087(+25%) 13(+8.3%)
2020-03-21
1,331(+22%) 18(+38%)
2020-03-22
1,470(+10%) 20(+11%)
2020-03-23
2,091(+42%) 24(+20%)
2020-03-24
2,792(+34%) 27(+12%)
2020-03-25
3,409(+22%) 35(+30%)
2020-03-26
4,043(+19%) 39(+11%)
2020-03-27
4,757(+18%) 55(+41%)
2020-03-28
5,655(+19%) 61(+11%)
2020-03-29
6,320(+12%) 66(+8.2%)
2020-03-30
7,448(+18%) 89(+35%)
2020-03-31
8,591(+15%) 101(+13%)
2020-04-01
9,731(+13%) 111(+9.9%)
2020-04-02
11,283(+16%) 138(+24%)
2020-04-03
12,549(+11%) 187(+36%)
2020-04-04
14,018(+12%) 233(+25%)
2020-04-05
15,512(+11%) 280(+20%)
2020-04-06
16,667(+7.4%) 323(+15%)
2020-04-07
17,897(+7.4%) 381(+18%)
2020-04-08
19,291(+7.8%) 435(+14%)
2020-04-09
20,765(+7.6%) 508(+17%)
2020-04-10
22,148(+6.7%) 569(+12%)
2020-04-11
23,318(+5.3%) 653(+15%)
2020-04-12
24,383(+4.6%) 717(+9.8%)
2020-04-13
25,680(+5.3%) 780(+8.8%)
2020-04-14
27,063(+5.4%) 903(+16%)
2020-04-15
28,379(+4.9%) 1,010(+12%)
2020-04-16
30,106(+6.1%) 1,195(+18%)
2020-04-17
31,927(+6%) 1,310(+9.6%)
2020-04-18
33,383(+4.6%) 1,470(+12%)
2020-04-19
35,056(+5%) 1,587(+8%)
2020-04-20
36,831(+5.1%) 1,690(+6.5%)
2020-04-21
38,422(+4.3%) 1,834(+8.5%)
2020-04-22
40,190(+4.6%) 1,974(+7.6%)
2020-04-23
42,110(+4.8%) 2,147(+8.8%)
2020-04-24
43,888(+4.2%) 2,302(+7.2%)
2020-04-25
45,354(+3.3%) 2,465(+7.1%)
2020-04-26
46,895(+3.4%) 2,560(+3.9%)
2020-04-27
48,500(+3.4%) 2,707(+5.7%)
2020-04-28
50,026(+3.1%) 2,859(+5.6%)
2020-04-29
51,597(+3.1%) 2,996(+4.8%)
2020-04-30
53,236(+3.2%) 3,184(+6.3%)
2020-05-01
55,061(+3.4%) 3,391(+6.5%)
2020-05-02
56,714(+3%) 3,566(+5.2%)
2020-05-03
59,474(+4.9%) 3,682(+3.3%)
2020-05-04
60,772(+2.2%) 3,854(+4.7%)
2020-05-05
62,046(+2.1%) 4,043(+4.9%)
2020-05-06
63,496(+2.3%) 4,232(+4.7%)
2020-05-07
64,922(+2.2%) 4,408(+4.2%)
2020-05-08
66,434(+2.3%) 4,569(+3.7%)
2020-05-09
67,702(+1.9%) 4,693(+2.7%)
2020-05-10
68,848(+1.7%) 4,871(+3.8%)
2020-05-11
69,981(+1.6%) 4,993(+2.5%)
2020-05-12
71,157(+1.7%) 5,169(+3.5%)
2020-05-13
72,278(+1.6%) 5,304(+2.6%)
2020-05-14
73,401(+1.6%) 5,472(+3.2%)
2020-05-15
74,613(+1.7%) 5,562(+1.6%)
2020-05-16
75,770(+1.6%) 5,677(+2.1%)
2020-05-17
77,002(+1.6%) 5,782(+1.8%)
2020-05-18
78,072(+1.4%) 5,842(+1%)
2020-05-19
79,112(+1.3%) 5,912(+1.2%)
2020-05-20
80,142(+1.3%) 6,031(+2%)
2020-05-21
81,324(+1.5%) 6,152(+2%)
2020-05-22
82,480(+1.4%) 6,250(+1.6%)
2020-05-23
83,621(+1.4%) 6,355(+1.7%)
2020-05-24
84,699(+1.3%) 6,424(+1.1%)
2020-05-25
85,711(+1.2%) 6,545(+1.9%)
2020-05-26
86,647(+1.1%) 6,639(+1.4%)
2020-05-27
87,517(+1%) 6,765(+1.9%)
2020-05-28
88,511(+1.1%) 6,877(+1.7%)
2020-05-29
89,417(+1%) 6,979(+1.5%)
2020-05-30
90,189(+0.86%) 7,073(+1.3%)
2020-05-31
90,946(+0.84%) 7,295(+3.1%)
2020-06-01
91,705(+0.83%) 7,326(+0.42%)
2020-06-02
92,410(+0.77%) 7,395(+0.94%)
2020-06-03
93,085(+0.73%) 7,498(+1.4%)
2020-06-04
93,726(+0.69%) 7,637(+1.9%)
2020-06-05
94,335(+0.65%) 7,703(+0.86%)
2020-06-06
95,057(+0.77%) 7,773(+0.91%)
2020-06-07
95,699(+0.68%) 7,800(+0.35%)
2020-06-08
96,244(+0.57%) 7,835(+0.45%)
2020-06-09
96,652(+0.42%) 7,896(+0.78%)
2020-06-10
97,125(+0.49%) 7,960(+0.81%)
2020-06-11
97,530(+0.42%) 7,994(+0.43%)
2020-06-12
97,945(+0.43%) 8,049(+0.69%)
2020-06-13
98,410(+0.47%) 8,107(+0.72%)
2020-06-14
98,787(+0.38%) 8,146(+0.48%)
2020-06-15
99,147(+0.36%) 8,175(+0.36%)
2020-06-16
99,467(+0.32%) 8,213(+0.46%)
2020-06-17
99,853(+0.39%) 8,254(+0.5%)
2020-06-18
100,220(+0.37%) 8,299(+0.55%)
2020-06-19
100,629(+0.41%) 8,346(+0.57%)
2020-06-20
101,019(+0.39%) 8,410(+0.77%)
2020-06-21
101,337(+0.31%) 8,430(+0.24%)
2020-06-22
101,637(+0.3%) 8,436(+0.07%)
2020-06-23
101,963(+0.32%) 8,454(+0.21%)
2020-06-24
102,242(+0.27%) 8,484(+0.35%)
2020-06-25
102,622(+0.37%) 8,504(+0.24%)
2020-06-26
102,794(+0.17%) 8,508(+0.05%)
2020-06-27
103,032(+0.23%) 8,516(+0.09%)
2020-06-28
103,250(+0.21%) 8,522(+0.07%)
2020-06-29
103,918(+0.65%) 8,566(+0.52%)
2020-06-30
104,204(+0.28%) 8,591(+0.29%)
2020-07-01
104,420(+0.21%) 8,619(+0.33%)
2020-07-02
104,771(+0.34%) 8,642(+0.27%)
2020-07-03
105,090(+0.3%) 8,663(+0.24%)
2020-07-04
105,316(+0.22%) 8,674(+0.13%)
2020-07-05
105,535(+0.21%) 8,684(+0.12%)
2020-07-06
105,934(+0.38%) 8,693(+0.1%)
2020-07-07
106,106(+0.16%) 8,708(+0.17%)
2020-07-08
106,433(+0.31%) 8,737(+0.33%)
2020-07-09
106,804(+0.35%) 8,749(+0.14%)
2020-07-10
107,125(+0.3%) 8,759(+0.11%)
2020-07-11
107,347(+0.21%) 8,773(+0.16%)
2020-07-12
107,812(+0.43%) 8,783(+0.11%)
2020-07-13
108,156(+0.32%) 8,790(+0.08%)
2020-07-14
108,486(+0.31%) 8,798(+0.09%)
2020-07-15
108,827(+0.31%) 8,810(+0.14%)
2020-07-16
109,264(+0.4%) 8,827(+0.19%)
2020-07-17
109,669(+0.37%) 8,839(+0.14%)
2020-07-18
109,999(+0.3%) 8,848(+0.1%)
2020-07-19
110,338(+0.31%) 8,852(+0.05%)
2020-07-20
111,124(+0.71%) 8,858(+0.07%)
2020-07-21
111,697(+0.52%) 8,862(+0.05%)
2020-07-22
112,240(+0.49%) 8,870(+0.09%)
2020-07-23
112,672(+0.38%) 8,874(+0.05%)
2020-07-24
113,206(+0.47%) 8,881(+0.08%)
2020-07-25
113,556(+0.31%) 8,885(+0.05%)
2020-07-26
113,911(+0.31%) 8,890(+0.06%)
2020-07-27
114,597(+0.6%) 8,901(+0.12%)
2020-07-28
114,994(+0.35%) 8,912(+0.12%)
2020-07-29
115,406(+0.36%) 8,919(+0.08%)
2020-07-30
115,799(+0.34%) 8,929(+0.11%)
2020-07-31
116,312(+0.44%) 8,935(+0.07%)
2020-08-01
116,599(+0.25%) 8,941(+0.07%)
2020-08-02
116,884(+0.24%) 8,945(+0.04%)
2020-08-03
117,031(+0.13%) 8,947(+0.02%)
2020-08-04
117,792(+0.65%) 8,958(+0.12%)
2020-08-05
118,187(+0.34%) 8,962(+0.04%)
2020-08-06
118,561(+0.32%) 8,966(+0.04%)
2020-08-07
118,985(+0.36%) 8,970(+0.04%)
2020-08-08
119,221(+0.2%) 8,976(+0.07%)
2020-08-09
119,451(+0.19%) 8,981(+0.06%)
2020-08-10
120,132(+0.57%) 8,987(+0.07%)
2020-08-11
120,421(+0.24%) 8,991(+0.04%)
2020-08-12
120,844(+0.35%) 9,006(+0.17%)
2020-08-13
121,234(+0.32%) 9,015(+0.1%)
2020-08-14
121,652(+0.34%) 9,020(+0.06%)
2020-08-15
121,889(+0.19%) 9,024(+0.04%)
2020-08-16
122,558(+0.55%) 9,026(+0.02%)
2020-08-17
122,872(+0.26%) 9,032(+0.07%)
2020-08-18
123,151(+0.23%) 9,044(+0.13%)
2020-08-19
123,487(+0.27%) 9,049(+0.06%)
2020-08-20
123,870(+0.31%) 9,054(+0.06%)
2020-08-21
124,372(+0.41%) 9,064(+0.11%)
2020-08-22
124,629(+0.21%) 9,071(+0.08%)
2020-08-23
124,896(+0.21%) 9,073(+0.02%)
2020-08-24
125,647(+0.6%) 9,083(+0.11%)
2020-08-25
125,969(+0.26%) 9,090(+0.08%)
2020-08-26
126,417(+0.36%) 9,094(+0.04%)
2020-08-27
126,848(+0.34%) 9,102(+0.09%)
2020-08-28
127,358(+0.4%) 9,108(+0.07%)
2020-08-29
127,673(+0.25%) 9,113(+0.05%)
2020-08-30
127,940(+0.21%) 9,117(+0.04%)
2020-08-31
128,948(+0.79%) 9,126(+0.1%)
2020-09-01
129,425(+0.37%) 9,132(+0.07%)
2020-09-02
129,923(+0.38%) 9,135(+0.03%)
2020-09-03
130,493(+0.44%) 9,141(+0.07%)
2020-09-04
131,124(+0.48%) 9,141(=)
2020-09-05
131,495(+0.28%) 9,143(+0.02%)
2020-09-06
131,895(+0.3%) 9,145(+0.02%)
2020-09-07
132,142(+0.19%) 9,146(+0.01%)
2020-09-08
133,621(+1.1%) 9,153(+0.08%)
2020-09-09
134,294(+0.5%) 9,155(+0.02%)
2020-09-10
134,924(+0.47%) 9,163(+0.09%)
2020-09-11
135,626(+0.52%) 9,163(=)
2020-09-12
136,141(+0.38%) 9,170(+0.08%)
2020-09-13
136,659(+0.38%) 9,171(+0.01%)
2020-09-14
138,010(+0.99%) 9,179(+0.09%)
2020-09-15
138,803(+0.57%) 9,188(+0.1%)
2020-09-16
139,747(+0.68%) 9,193(+0.05%)
2020-09-17
140,867(+0.8%) 9,200(+0.08%)
2020-09-18
141,911(+0.74%) 9,205(+0.05%)
2020-09-19
142,774(+0.61%) 9,211(+0.07%)
2020-09-20
143,649(+0.61%) 9,217(+0.07%)
2020-09-21
145,415(+1.2%) 9,228(+0.12%)
2020-09-22
146,663(+0.86%) 9,234(+0.07%)
2020-09-23
147,753(+0.74%) 9,243(+0.1%)
2020-09-24
149,094(+0.91%) 9,249(+0.06%)
2020-09-25
150,456(+0.91%) 9,255(+0.06%)
2020-09-26
151,671(+0.81%) 9,262(+0.08%)
2020-09-27
153,125(+0.96%) 9,268(+0.06%)
2020-09-28
155,301(+1.4%) 9,278(+0.11%)
2020-09-29
156,961(+1.1%) 9,291(+0.14%)
2020-09-30
158,758(+1.1%) 9,297(+0.06%)
2020-10-01
160,535(+1.1%) 9,319(+0.24%)
2020-10-02
162,659(+1.3%) 9,409(+0.97%)
2020-10-03
164,471(+1.1%) 9,462(+0.56%)
2020-10-04
166,156(+1%) 9,481(+0.2%)
2020-10-05
168,960(+1.7%) 9,504(+0.24%)
2020-10-06
171,323(+1.4%) 9,530(+0.27%)
2020-10-07
173,123(+1.1%) 9,541(+0.12%)
2020-10-08
175,559(+1.4%) 9,557(+0.17%)
2020-10-09
178,117(+1.5%) 9,585(+0.29%)
2020-10-10
180,179(+1.2%) 9,608(+0.24%)
2020-10-11
181,864(+0.94%) 9,613(+0.05%)
2020-10-12
182,839(+0.54%) 9,627(+0.15%)
2020-10-13
186,881(+2.2%) 9,654(+0.28%)
2020-10-14
189,387(+1.3%) 9,664(+0.1%)
2020-10-15
191,732(+1.2%) 9,699(+0.36%)
2020-10-16
194,106(+1.2%) 9,722(+0.24%)
2020-10-17
196,321(+1.1%) 9,746(+0.25%)
2020-10-18
198,150(+0.93%) 9,760(+0.14%)
2020-10-19
201,437(+1.7%) 9,778(+0.18%)
2020-10-20
203,688(+1.1%) 9,794(+0.16%)
2020-10-21
206,357(+1.3%) 9,829(+0.36%)
2020-10-22
209,148(+1.4%) 9,862(+0.34%)
2020-10-23
211,732(+1.2%) 9,888(+0.26%)
2020-10-24
213,959(+1.1%) 9,922(+0.34%)
2020-10-25
216,104(+1%) 9,946(+0.24%)
2020-10-26
220,213(+1.9%) 9,973(+0.27%)
2020-10-27
222,887(+1.2%) 10,001(+0.28%)
2020-10-28
225,586(+1.2%) 10,032(+0.31%)
2020-10-29
228,541(+1.3%) 10,074(+0.42%)
2020-10-30
231,999(+1.5%) 10,110(+0.36%)
Sources: The Globe and Mail and the Government of Canada
* On 17 July 2020, the large number of recoveries is due to a revision of the algorithm used in Quebec to determine whether a patient who is neither deceased nor currently hospitalized may be considered recovered.[108]

On January 1, 2020, the WHO set up the IMST (Incident Management Support Team) across all three levels of the organization: headquarters, regional headquarters and country level, putting the organization on an emergency footing for dealing with the outbreak.[109]

On January 7, when it appeared that there was a health crisis emerging in Wuhan, Public Health Canada advised travellers to China to avoid contact with animals, noting that they were very carefully monitoring the situation but there wasn't evidence of what caused the illness, or how it's spread.[110]

On January 14, a person in Thailand was the first patient outside of China who was confirmed to have COVID-19.[109]

On January 15, the federal government activated its Emergency Operations Centre.[111]

On January 17, the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) indicated plans were in progress "to implement signage" in the Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver airports to raise awareness of the virus, and that there would be an additional health screening question added to the electronic kiosks for passengers arriving from central China. The agency noted the overall risk to Canadians was low and there were no direct flights from Wuhan to Canada. The CBSA said it would not be, at that time, implementing extra screening measures, but would "monitor the situation closely".[112][113]

On January 23, the federal Minister of Health, Patty Hajdu, said that five or six people were being monitored for signs of the virus.[114][115] That same day, Dr. Theresa Tam was a member of the WHO committee that broadcast that it was too early to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The following day, in Wuhan, China, construction began on a new hospital to treat COVID-19 patients. The hospital took only 10 days to build and was widely reported around the world.[116]

Timeline of outbreak in Canada

Government response

Federal

Public health

The federal government activated its Emergency Operations Centre on January 15.[111] The federal government's pandemic response is based on two primary documents: the Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness planning guidelines, which outlines risks and measures to address a viral disease,[117] and the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events, which includes identifying, tracking, and ensuring rapid access to medical care.[118] As of February 27, the response plan was at level 3 (escalated).[119]

On March 18, the federal Minister of Health, Patty Hajdu, announced that the federal government had signed an interim order to speed up access to COVID-19 test kits that would allow provincial labs to increase testing. The test kits are made by Switzerland-based Roche Molecular Systems and Thermo Fisher Scientific.[120] According to Health Canada, "an Interim Order is one of the fastest mechanisms available to the Government of Canada to help make health products available to address larger scale public health emergencies. This Interim Order provides the Minister with the flexibility to consider the urgent circumstances relating to the need for the medical device, authorizations granted by foreign regulatory authorities, or possible new uses for medical devices that are approved in Canada."[121]

Social distancing at Shoppers Drug Mart in Toronto with limited number of shoppers allowed inside the store.

Theresa Tam, Chief Public Health Officer of Canada and head of the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), said on March 19 that Canada would not know for two or three weeks if country-wide social distancing efforts have curbed the spread of COVID-19.[122]

On March 19, 2020, the federal government announced that it had added to Trudeau's March 11 announcement of $275 million in funding for an additional 49 projects to bring the total to 96 research projects that will focus on developing and implementing measures to detect, manage, and reduce the transmission of COVID-19.[123][124]

On March 20, as part of the announcement on Canada's industrial strategy (see below), Trudeau stated that the National Research Council will work with small- and medium-sized companies on health research to fight the virus.[125]

On March 23, Tam began appearing in public service announcements on radio and television, urging personal hygiene, social distancing, and against unnecessary travel.[126]

On March 24, 2020, a small number of MPs from each party met in the House of Commons to vote on an $82-billion emergency spending legislation, known as Bill C-13. The passage of the bill was stalled due to the federal government's proposed clauses that gave the finance minister the right to spend money and raise taxes without the approval of Parliament until December 31, 2021. After criticism from the Official Opposition over the minority government's "power grab" which was considered undemocratic, a revised bill was agreed upon the next day that would permit the government six months of special spending powers until September 30, 2020, with oversight from a Parliamentary committee.[127][128][129][130][131] The House of Commons' Health and Finance committees began holding weekly virtual meetings during the pandemic.[132][133]

On April 2, American President Donald Trump slammed 3M after invoking the US Defense Production Act of 1950 to get the company to produce N95 respirators and on April 3, Canadian officials protested a move by Trump to block 3M's export of N95 masks for use by doctors and nurses as COVID-19 cases were projected to soar in Ontario and Quebec. Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland said Canada would "do whatever it takes to defend the national interest."[134] On April 6, the Trump administration agreed to a deal with the 3M to import more than 166 million respirators from China over the next three months and allow 3M to continue exporting its US made respirators to Canada.[135]

On April 6, Tam began to suggest that the use of non-medical face masks in public could be an "additional measure" to "protect others around you in situations where physical distancing is difficult to maintain", but that this is not proven to protect the wearer, and is considered complementary to all existing health guidance issued thus far.[136] Trudeau brought up the topic the next day, where he said, "If people want to wear a mask, that is okay. It protects others more than it protects you, because it prevents you from breathing or... or... speaking, uh... 'moistly' on them." He immediately regrets his word choice and says, "Ugh, what a terrible image."[137][138][139] The unusual word choice has led the creation of a remix song, "Speaking Moistly", based on the speech.[140][141][142]

In anticipation of a COVID-19 vaccine, the Canadian government has purchased more than 75 million hypodermic needles and syringes.[143] The government made deals with the leading research companies developing a vaccine.[144]

In response to backlogs in COVID-19 testing, especially provinces like Ontario, Health Canada approved new rapid testing for the virus.[145]

Long-term care homes

"Thank You Heroes" sign at a long-term care home in Markham, Ontario

Long-term care homes have been impacted heavily by the pandemic; on April 13, Tam reported that at least half of COVID-19 deaths in Canada had been linked to long-term care homes (with the exact number varying by province), and that "these deaths will continue to increase, even as the epidemic growth rate slows down.[146][147] Tam cited factors such as outside visitors, communal living spaces, and staff being transferred among multiple facilities, as particular vulnerabilities.[148][149] The pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing staffing issues at some facilities, including underpaid staff, and being understaffed in general.[150][146][151] On April 28, Tam stated that as many of 79 percent of Canada's COVID-19 fatalities occurred in long-term care homes.[152]

Health Canada has issued recommendations for long-term care homes, encouraging them to restrict outside visitors and volunteers, restrict employees from being transferred between multiple facilities, provide personal protective equipment, enforce physical distancing during meals, screen staff and essential visitors, On April 15, Trudeau announced that the federal government planned to provide additional pay to long-term care workers.[153][154]

Canadian Armed Forces

Travel and entry restrictions

An almost empty SkyTrain in Vancouver on a Saturday afternoon

On March 14, Canada recommended against any international travel, and advised those returning from outside of Canada, except for essential workers (such as flight crew), to self-isolate for 14 days.[155] The Quarantine Act was invoked by Hajdu on March 26, making self-isolation a legal mandate for travellers (excluding essential workers) returning to the country, and also prohibiting those who are symptomatic from using public transit as transport to their place of self-isolation, and prohibiting self-isolation in settings where they may come in contact with those who are vulnerable (people with pre-existing conditions and the elderly).[156]

Since March 16, only Canadian citizens and their immediate families, permanent residents, and U.S. citizens are allowed to enter the country. The only exceptions are flight crews, diplomats, and trade and commerce. Travellers showing COVID-19 symptoms are not allowed to board flights into Canada, regardless of their citizenship.[157][158] International flights to Canada from outside the Caribbean, Mexico, and the U.S. were instructed to land at either Calgary International Airport, Montréal-Trudeau International Airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport, or Vancouver International Airport.[157][158]

Since March 20, Canada and the United States have temporarily restricted all non-essential travel across their border, while maintaining supply chains between both countries;[159][160] On April 16, Trudeau stated that the Canada/U.S. border restrictions would remain in place "for a significant amount of time";[161] the next day, it was reported that Canada and the United States had agreed to extend their entry restrictions, which were to expire on April 21, for an additional 30 days beyond that date.[162] In fact, the border restrictions were later extended until at least September 21, 2020.[163]

Since March 30, individuals showing COVID-19 symptoms must be refused boarding on domestic flights (10 seats or more) and passenger trains. This excludes buses and intercity passenger rail services.[164] Since April 20, all travellers are required to wear non-medical face masks while departing and arriving on air travel, including during security screenings. Those who do not comply will be prevented from proceeding.[165]

As the border with the United States continued to be closed to non-essential travel, the Canadian government announced plans in October to allow family members to reunite under compassionate terms.[166] Within the country, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador established the "Atlantic Bubble", restricting travel from other provinces, but allowing free movement amongst citizens of the member provinces.[167]

Governmental cancellations

A First Ministers' meeting scheduled for March 12 and 13 was cancelled after Trudeau and his wife Sophie Grégoire self-isolated.[168] The Canadian House of Commons was suspended between March 14 and April 20, immediately after passing the new North American free trade deal. The federal budget, previously scheduled for March 20, was also suspended.[169]

Bank of Canada rate changes

The Bank of Canada has twice lowered its overnight rate target by 50 basis points, first to 1.25 percent on March 4, and then to 0.75 percent on March 13, citing the "negative shocks to Canada's economy arising from the COVID-19 pandemic and the recent sharp drop in oil prices.[170][171]

On March 27, the Bank lowered the rate a third time to 0.25 percent, citing "serious consequences for Canadians and for the economy" due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[172] The Bank also launched a program to "alleviate strains in the short-term funding markets" and another program to acquire Government of Canada securities at a minimum of $5 billion per week.[173]

Federal aid

On March 18, the federal government announced an $82-billion response package with a variety of measures.[174] On March 25, the COVID-19 Emergency Response Act received royal assent from Governor General Julie Payette.[175] The measures in this first package included:[]

  • Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB): Payments for the 2019-20-year were increased by $300 per child.
  • Goods and Services Tax (GST) credit: The maximum annual GST credit payment amount for the 2019-20 year was doubled.
  • Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB): This new benefit provided a taxable benefit of $2,000 a month for up to four months for those who had lost their job, were sick, quarantined, or taking care of someone sick with COVID-19, as well as working parents staying home to take care of their kids.
  • Canada Student Loans: A six-month moratorium was placed on repayment.
  • Temporary business wage subsidy: Eligible small employers received a three-month 10 percent wage subsidy.
  • Tax flexibility: The income tax filing deadline was also extended from April 30, 2020 to June 1, 2020. Tax payments were deferred to September 2020.

The CERB launched on April 6, and within one week, nearly 3.5 million Canadians applied for this benefit;[176] this grew to 7.12 million by April 24.[177] On April 15, Trudeau announced that the CERB would be extended to workers making up to $1,000 per month, and that the government planned to work with the provinces to implement salary top-ups for essential workers who make less than $2,500 per month.[178]

The Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy (CEWS) was announced on April 1, an expanded version of the temporary business wage subsidy. The Parliament reconvened on April 11 to pass the COVID-19 Emergency Response Act, No. 2 on division. It implemented the CEWS--which allows eligible companies to receive a 75 percent subsidy on each of their employees' wages (up to their first $58,700) for 12 weeks retroactive to March 15.[179]

Trudeau introduced new financial aid programs on April 10, including the Canada Emergency Business Account (CEBA) which offers loans, interest-free until the end of 2022, of up to $40,000 for small- and medium-sized businesses[180][181] The CEBA was expanded on April 16 to make more businesses eligible.[how?]

Catherine McKenna announced on April 16 that the Ministry of Infrastructure and Communities sought shovel-ready infrastructure projects to receive in the 2020 construction season some "largely unspent" funds that had already been budgeted.[182]

The Canada Emergency Student Benefit (CESB) was announced by Trudeau on April 22. It would provide $1,250 per month from May to August to eligible postsecondary students. Students with disabilities or taking care of someone else would receive $1,750 per month.[183]

On April 30, Parliamentary Budget Officer Yves Giroux issued a report projecting the federal deficit for fiscal year 2020 could be in excess of $252 billion, based on nearly $146 billion in spending on federal aid measures.[184]

On October 12, 2020, the federal government rolled out a new income support program after the ending of CERB, the Canada Recovery Benefit (CRB) which pays $500 per week for up to 26 weeks; over 240,000 Canadians applied to the program on its first day of launching.[185] Another program, the Canada Recovery Caregiving Benefit (CRCB) supports Canadians that have been working but have to take a break to care for dependents (a child below 12 years of age or a disabled family member). The benefit only applies if schools and care centres are closed, or the dependent fell sick, or contracted COVID-19.[186]

Oversight

On July 3, 2020, the Ethics Commissioner announced an investigation into Trudeau and the government's decision to have WE Charity administer the summer student grant program.[187][188] We Charity was criticized for its close ties to the Trudeau family. On the same day, Minister of Diversity and Inclusion and Youth, Bardish Chagger, announced that WE Charity would no longer be administering the Canada Student Service Grant program.[189]

Public service disruptions

Leslie Street empty at 9:00 a.m. on a weekday in Toronto

On March 16, the Treasury Board urged Federal public servants to work from home if possible. No date was provided for when this provision should end.[190]

Industrial strategy

On March 20, the government announced a plan to ramp up production of medical equipment, switching assembly lines to produce ventilators, masks and other personal protective gear. Companies will be able to access funds through the government's Strategic Innovation Fund. The PM stated that Canadian medical supply firms Thornhill Medical, Medicom and Spartan Bioscience were looking to expand production. In order to address shortages and supply-chain disruption, Canada passed emergency legislation that waived-patent protection, giving the government, and companies or organizations that it selects, the right to produce patented products without permission from the patent holder.[191] According to Innovation, Science and Industry minister Navdeep Bains, "the country's entire industrial policy will be refocused to prioritize the fight against COVID-19".[192][193]

Provincial and territorial

Restrictions imposed by provincial and territorial governments
Province or territory State of emergency declared Gatherings banned Border status[a] Face mask compulsory Stay-at-home ordered Closures ordered Sources
Schools Daycares Sit-down restaurants[b] Bars
Alberta Alberta March 17 Over 15 Open August 1 (age 2 and up, locally)[c] No No Yes Reopened with reduced seating as of June 12 Yes [194][195][196]
British Columbia British Columbia March 18 Over 50 Open No No No No Reopened with reduced seating as of May 19 Yes [197][198][199][195]
Manitoba Manitoba March 20 Over 25 indoors
Over 50 outdoors[d]
Screened[e] September 25 (Winnipeg) No No No Reduced seating: outdoors as of May 4, indoors as of June 1. Reduced seating as of June 1. [201][202][203][195][204]
New Brunswick New Brunswick March 19 Over 10 Screened[f] October 9 (age 2 and up) No No Yes Yes Yes [205][195]
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador March 18 Over 5 Screened[f] August 24 (age 5 and up) No No Yes Yes Yes [206][207][208][195][209][210]
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories March 18 All gatherings Restricted No No No No No No [211][212][195]
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia March 22 Over 10 Screened[f] July 31 (age 2 and up) No No Yes Reopened to 100% capacity with physical distancing on June 26 Yes [213][214][215][195][216]
Nunavut Nunavut March 18 All gatherings Restricted[g] No No No Yes Yes Yes [217][195]
Ontario Ontario March 17 Over 10 indoors

Over 25 outdoors

Open October 3 (age 2 and up, provincially)
July 7 (Toronto and Ottawa)
No No No[h] Reopened as of Stage 3[i] with physical distancing; mandatory contact tracing as of July 31. Regional re-closure of indoor dining as of Oct 10. Reopened as of Stage 3[i] while maintaining physical distancing;[j] mandatory contact tracing as of July 31. Regional re-closure of indoor dining as of Oct 10. [220][221][222][223][224][195][225]
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island March 16 Over 5 Screened[f] No No No Yes Yes Yes [226][195]
Quebec Quebec March 12 Over 10 in a private location
Over 250 in a public location[227]
Regional restrictions[k] August 24 (age 10 and up)
July 18 (age 12 and up)
No No Some (TBC) Reopened in June; closed again in September Yes [228][229][230][231][195][232][233]
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan March 18 Over 10 Regional restrictions[l] No No No No Yes Yes [236][237][238][195]
Yukon Yukon March 18 Over 10 Screened No No No No Yes Yes [239][240][195]
  1. ^ Refers to status of internal borders only. Although the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees broad mobility rights to Canadian citizens, during a state of emergency provincial and territorial governments can effectively restrict or deny entry due to primarily their lawful authority to, at their discretion, refuse any person permission to use their roads:
    Open: No restrictions on entry from other Canadian provinces and territories.
    Screened: Health checks and/or self-isolation mandatory for persons entering from other Canadian provinces and territories.
    Restricted: Entry prohibited for non-residents without a valid reason to enter the province or territory.
    Regional: Entry restricted to (a) specific region(s) of the province or territory.
  2. ^ For most provinces, takeout and delivery orders are still permitted even though dine-in section is closed.
  3. ^ Calgary, Edmonton, Lethbridge, Banff, Canmore, Jasper, St. Albert, Spruce Grove, Strathcona County, Leduc, Beaumont, Fort Saskatchewan, Chestermore, Cochrane, Airdrie, Okotoks, Edson, Sturgeon County
  4. ^ Effective May 22, limit raised from previous maximum group size of 10.[200]
  5. ^ Travellers from east of Terrace Bay, Ontario are required to isolate for 14 days.
  6. ^ a b c d Effective July 3, the Atlantic Provinces have formed a travel bubble that allows travel between the four provinces of the Atlantic region. Visitors outside of this bubble must continue to follow all public health orders.
  7. ^ Nunavut is not accessible from the rest of Canada by road. Its entry restrictions are therefore effectively enforced with respect to prospective non-resident air travelers by federal transportation officers serving at airports from which flights depart for the territory. Returning Nunavummiut and others permitted to enter the territory are required to isolate at designated hotels in the city of departure for fourteen days prior to boarding a flight.
  8. ^ Effective July 27, daycares can open if they have 15 people (staff and children) per group. [218]
  9. ^ a b Stage 3 is effective July 17 in most regions, July 24 in a few other regions, July 31 in Peel and Toronto, and August 12 in Windsor-Essex.
  10. ^ Dancing is prohibited but if the dancers are hired by the bar they are allowed to dance. [219]
  11. ^ Essential travel only in Nunavik and James Bay Territory
  12. ^ Since April 24, non-essential travel to and from Northern Saskatchewan has been restricted.[234][235]

States of emergency

On March 12, Quebec declared a public health emergency, requiring international travellers to self-isolate for 14 days and banning gatherings of 250 people. The ban has been extended to all gatherings outside workplaces and retail.[241]

On March 16, Prince Edward Island declared a public health emergency. Alberta and Ontario declared emergencies on March 17, followed by British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan and Yukon on March 18. New Brunswick, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia declared emergencies on March 19, March 20, and March 22 respectively.[242]

These emergencies allowed provinces to ban gatherings and require international travellers to self-isolate. On March 25, mandatory self-isolation was imposed federally, making it a legal requirement for all provinces who had not done so already.[243]

New Brunswick, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and have all restricted entry through interprovincial borders, prohibiting the entry of non-residents without valid reason. Quebec has additionally restricted travel into 9 of its 18 regions and parts of 3 other regions. The borders of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador are being screened, while also requiring travellers to self-isolate for 14 days upon entering the province.[244]

Schools and universities

Let's Work Together Stop the Spread sign at a school in the GTA.

On March 12, the Ontario government announced that all public schools will be closed from March 14 until at least April 5.[245] This was followed by all provinces and territories closing schools, and the closures being repeatedly extended or made indefinite. Governments have assured graduating students that they will be able to graduate, and classes have moved online.[]

Laurentian University in Greater Sudbury, was the first to voluntarily suspended classes and moved to online instruction on March 12.[246] This was quickly followed by many other universities in Ontario, Quebec, Alberta, and Manitoba voluntarily closing on the 12th and 13th. Initially, some universities in British Columbia continued while cancelling classes with more than 250 students due to the gatherings ban. All provinces have since closed down post-secondary institutions.

Due to the exceptional circumstances of the closures, various universities have given their students the option of receiving a pass/fail grade instead of a numeric or letter grade. The University of Alberta made this grading scheme mandatory, which received some backlash from the student body.[247]

Business closures

Playground in Port Moody, British Columbia, closed off with caution tape. A sign indicates the playground is closed because of COVID-19.

Bars, restaurants, cinemas, and other businesses have been ordered closed by provinces, territories, and municipalities across the country. Initially, some jurisdictions allowed restaurants or bars to stay open with reduced capacity and social distancing. Takeout and delivery orders are largely still permitted.[244] Jurisdictions have differed on daycare closures. In particular, British Columbia and Saskatchewan have faced criticism for allowing daycares to remain open while closing schools, bars, and restaurants.[248]

Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan have mandated the closure of all businesses not deemed essential by the provinces. Essential businesses include grocery stories, takeout and delivery restaurants, pharmacies, transportation, manufacturing, food production, energy, and healthcare.[249][250][251]

Liquor and cannabis stores have largely remained open across the country, with governments reversing their closure orders due to concerns surrounding alcohol withdrawal syndrome.[252][253]

Aid programs

Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Manitoba all offered one-time payments that aimed to bridge the gap before the implementation of the federal Canada Emergency Response Benefit. Quebec's Temporary Aid for Workers Program offers up to four weeks of payments for those who do not qualify for federal assistance. Prince Edward Island also provides payments to those who have kept their jobs but work reduced hours.[254]

Many provinces and territories have increased payments for those already receiving income supports.

Courts

Courts across the country instituted measures to reduce public contact, while maintaining access to the courts.[255] The Supreme Court of Canada has closed the building to public tours, while maintaining the ability to file documents for cases electronically. It has also adjourned appeals which were to be heard in March, to dates in June.[256] Other courts have prioritised the cases which will be heard, generally giving priority to ongoing criminal trials and trials in family and child protection matters, while adjourning most pending cases to later dates.

First Nations

On March 19, the Pimicikamak Cree Nation in northern Manitoba restricted entry to essential travellers, and Chief David Monias said the Sayisi Dene and others are doing the same.

As of March 19, the Council of the Haida Nation said it was discouraging all non-resident travel to the islands "for the time being."[257]

On March 27, Wasauksing First Nation declared a state of emergency with Gimaa (chief) Wally Tabobondung announcing the creation of a response team and the state of emergency via YouTube video. In an update posted on May 16, the chief and council announced they had installed cameras with facial and license plate recognition technology at local checkpoints to identify outsiders entering the territory. Cottagers leasing property on the territory had been barred from entering until June 6. As of June 6, anyone entering the Wasauksing must have a tag issued by the band government and provide information for a centralized registry. Re-opening has been occurring in phases. As of an update posted June 21, the state of emergency had been extended an additional 90 days.[258]

On October 1, in anticipation of the "Second Wave," Tk'emlups te Secwepemc Secwépemc First Nation instituted a mandatory face mask policy in indoor spaces where physical distancing was not possible, including hallways, staircases, and shared vehicles.[259]

As of October 8, the infection rate in Indigenous communities had been one-third of the infection rate in non-Indigenous communities, according to an update from Indigenous Services Minister Marc Miller in which he praised Indigenous leadership and, along with Indigenous Services Canada's Chief Medical Officer Dr. Tim Wong, encouraged Indigenous people to remain vigilant and safe.[260]

Economic impact

Panic buying: empty toilet paper shelves on March 12, 2020 at an Atlantic Superstore in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a deep impact on the Canadian economy. The Governments' social distancing rules had the effect of freezing the economy. Companies started considering mass-layoffs of workers, which was prevented by the Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy. But despite these efforts, Canada's unemployment rate was 13.5% in May 2020, the highest it has been since 1976.[261]

Many large-scale events that planned to take place in 2020 in Canada were canceled or delayed. This includes all major sporting and artistic events.[262] Canada's tourism and air travel sectors were hit especially hard due to travel restrictions.[263] Some farmers feared a labour shortfall and bankruptcy.[264]

COVID-19 affected consumer behaviors. In the early stages of the pandemic, Canadian grocery stores were the site of large-scale panic buying which lead to many empty shelves. By the end of March, most stores were closed to walk-in customers with the exception of grocery stores and pharmacies, which implemented strong social distancing rules in their premises. These rules were also implemented in other Canadian businesses as the began to re-open in the following months.

Cases by province or territory

Alberta

As of September 12, 2020, Alberta has reported a total of 15,415 cases and 253 deaths.[265][266] There have been 13,718 recoveries from the virus in the province.[267] The majority of cases were in the Calgary zone, which had 8,018 cases as of September 12.[266] The first case, which was confirmed on March 5, was a tourist, who had been repatriated from the Grand Princess to Calgary.[268][269] As of March 16, cases have been reported in every Alberta zone.[270] Community transmission was first reported on March 15, but at that time limited to seven people,[271][272] six of whom attended a dental conference held from March 5 to 7 at the Vancouver Convention Centre.[272][273] The first death caused by the virus in Alberta occurred on March 19.[274]

At their March 25 briefing Hinshaw said that, the "significant case numbers"--which included 61 new cases, of which 33 were believed to be by community transmission, 20 patients hospitalized, and 8 in ICU--"underscore the seriousness of the situation that we face."[275][276][277] Alberta's Chief Medical Officer, Deena Hinshaw, announced on March 26, that Alberta labs were conducting 3,000 tests a day.[278][277] As of August 20, 855,968 tests had been conducted in Alberta.[265]

A meat processing plant operated by Cargill is a significant cluster. As of May 6, 2020, its High River plant had been linked to 1,560 cases.[279] The plant was temporarily closed on April 20, 2020. All 2,100 employees were tested,[280] out of which 946 employees tested positive.[279]

British Columbia

Deserted exterior of Canada Place in Vancouver.
Anti-lockdown protest in Vancouver on April 26

As of September 12, 2020, British Columbia has reported 6,962 cases, 5,273 recoveries, and 213 deaths.[281] Additionally, the provincial government has announced that 420,556 people have been tested for the virus in British Columbia as of that date.[281]

The first case in British Columbia was reported on January 28. The person had returned from Wuhan and began experiencing symptoms on January 26.[282] The first case in BC's Interior Health region was reported on February 14. The person had recently returned from China.[283] The first case in the Fraser Health region was reported on February 20. This was also the first BC case where the person had travelled to or from Iran.[284]

The first two cases in the Lynn Valley Care Centre in North Vancouver were reported on March 7. One resident and one staff member were diagnosed.[285] The staff member is now thought to be Canada's first case of community transmission.[286] This care centre became Canada's worst outbreak, with 16 cases to date, and may be linked to subsequent cases in another seniors' home and a hospital in North Vancouver.[287]

On March 9, the Lynn Valley outbreak resulted in the first coronavirus death in Canada, by a man in his 80s with pre-existing health conditions. Three more deaths at the centre were reported on March 16. An additional 2 deaths were reported at the centre on March 17,[288][289][290] while another was reported on March 19.[291]

The seventh death was reported to have occurred "in [a] hospital in the Fraser Health region".[292]

BC's first two cases linked to the Grand Princess were also reported on March 7. They were hospitalized.[285]

Manitoba

As of October 1, 2020, Manitoba has reported 2,029 cases, with the first three reported on March 12.[293] There have been 1,388 recoveries, 20 deaths and 186,668 tests completed.[293] All of Winnipeg's cases were identified after March 12.[286]

Manitoba's rate of testing was increased to more than 500 tests a day on March 14.[294] By May, the province had the capacity to perform up to 1000 tests per day, but had averaged only 530 tests per day for the first two weeks of the month, so on May 14, 2020, Manitoba lowered the testing criteria to include anyone showing any symptoms of cold or flu.[295] By August, the province expected a testing capacity of 2500 per day.[296]

In Manitoba's first case, the person had returned to Winnipeg from the Philippines, and self-isolated at home.[297] Subsequent cases have been discovered in all the regions of the province, with 17 in the Northern Regional Health Authority (RHA) area, 136 in the Interlake-Eastern RHA area, 340 in the Southern RHA area, 522 in the Prairie Mountain RHA area, and the remaining 1,014 cases in the Winnipeg RHA area.[293]

Manitoba announced 124 new cases on October 13, 60 of which were in nine of the province's sixty-three First Nations. That same day, the province confirmed that Little Grand Rapids First Nation, which had over 30 cases, was in lockdown.[298]

New Brunswick

As of September 12, 2020, New Brunswick has reported 193 cases, with the first one reported on March 11. There have been 189 recoveries and 2 deaths.[299] Over 55,000 tests have been completed as of August 19.[299]

In New Brunswick's first case, the person had returned to southeastern New Brunswick from France, and self-isolated at home.[300] The second case was a close contact.[300]

On March 15, the province reported four more presumptive cases in the central part of the province.[301]

On March 16, New Brunswick confirmed one more case, and announced one more presumptive case, making 2 confirmed cases and 5 presumptive in total.[302]

On March 17, an eighth case was announced. This is the first child in the province to become infected.[]

Newfoundland and Labrador

As of September 12, 2020, there have been 271 cases confirmed in Newfoundland and Labrador, with 266 recoveries and 3 deaths. As of that date, 34,934 people have been tested in total.[303]

On March 14, a presumptive case was announced in the province.[304]

On March 24, a woman was arrested in Corner Brook for violating public health emergency orders by refusing to stay at home after she returned from a trip outside the province.[305]

By March 25, the number of cases had risen to 67, 44 of them associated with an outbreak at a funeral home, which occurred between March 15 and 17.[306][307]

Northwest Territories

As of September 12, 2020, there have been 5 confirmed cases in the territory, with all 5 cases recovered. 4,168 tests have been conducted, with 4,163 negative results.[308]

On March 21, the Northwest Territories reported its first case of COVID-19; the individual had travelled to British Columbia and Alberta before returning home to Yellowknife.[309]

Nova Scotia

As of September 12, 2020, Nova Scotia has reported 1,086 confirmed cases, with 1,020 recoveries and 65 deaths.[310] There have been 82,755 negative test results.[310] On March 15, 2020, three presumptive cases in Nova Scotia were announced. All three were travel-related.[311]

On March 29, a Halifax woman was fined $697.50, and had her vehicle seized by police after she was found in a park despite Nova Scotia having closed parks and beaches to the public under its emergency measures act.[312]

Nunavut

As of September 12, 2020, Nunavut remains the only territory in Canada with no confirmed COVID-19 cases after two previously confirmed case were deemed false positives.[313] The first false positive case was a resident of Pond Inlet, first announced on April 30; a rapid response team was dispatched to the community.[314][315][316] On May 4, it was declared that this case was a false positive.[317] The second false positive case originated from a presumed positive results of a fly-in, fly-out employee in the Mary River Mine on July 2. On July 10, it was subsequently revealed that the test results were negative.[318]

Ontario

Social distancing markers at Whole Foods Market in Toronto.

As of September 12, 2020, Ontario, the province with the first case in the country, has reported 44,300 cases with 39,717 recoveries and 2,814 fatalities.[319] In total, 3,281,455 people have been tested in the province as of that date.[319]

The first case in Canada, was reported on January 25 in Toronto.[320] The person had returned from Wuhan, China, on January 22, and had taken precautions in returning. After admission to hospital, the person made a full recovery by February 23.[286] Further cases imported from other countries were reported later in February, with the first case from Iran reported on February 26, Egypt on February 27, Grand Princess Cruise on March 7, the United States on March 7, France and Germany[321] on March 8, Switzerland on March 10, and Austria on March 11.[286]

On March 12, Sophie Grégoire Trudeau, the wife of Canada's prime minister Justin Trudeau, became Canada's first UK-linked case. Both she and the prime minister started self-isolation.[286]

Ontario reported its first death on March 17, a man in his 70s in Barrie, Ontario.[322] A second death, a man in his 50s in Milton, Ontario, was reported on March 19.[323]

Prince Edward Island

As of September 12, 2020, Prince Edward Island has reported 55 confirmed cases of the virus, 47 of which have resolved.[324] As of that date, 28,653 tests have come back negative and 84 are currently under investigation.[324] On March 14, 2020, the first confirmed case in Prince Edward Island was announced, a woman in her 50s who had returned from a trip on a cruise ship on March 7.[325] By March 26, there were five cases, all of which had been travel related, i.e., been contracted while persons were abroad.[326] To date, there was no re-transmission reported in the island province.[327]

Quebec

As of September 12, 2020, Quebec has reported 64,707 confirmed cases of the virus and 5,780 deaths, more than all of Canada's other provinces and territories combined. As of that date, 1,869,576 tests have been completed.[328]

The province confirmed its first case on February 28--a 41-year-old woman from Montreal who had returned from Iran on the 24th on a flight from Doha, Qatar.[329][330][331] She was transferred to Jewish General Hospital on March 3, and released on March 4;[332][333] since then, she has remained in isolation at her home in Verdun.[334] On March 5, the Ministry of Health and Social Services announced a second presumptive case, involving a man who had travelled to India in February, and was being treated in Mont-Laurier for symptoms similar to coronavirus. On March 4, the person was transferred to Jewish General Hospital, where he was diagnosed with pneumonia.[335] Hours afterwards, a third presumptive case was confirmed, involving a woman who had returned from France on March 3.[336][337]

A fourth case was confirmed March 8, involving a woman from Montérégie, Longueuil who had recently returned from a cruise that had visited Mexico.[338] On March 10, authorities stated that the person had used public transit between February 24 and March 6, and had travelled through the Berri-UQAM, Champ-de-Mars, and Longueuil metro stations.[339][340] Premier François Legault initially classified the threat posed by the virus as being "weak".[341]

On March 9, a Montreal resident who had recently returned from Ireland was reported as a fifth presumptive case.[342][343][344] Four new cases were confirmed on March 11, including one who had returned from Caribbean and Miami, a man who had returned from the Dominican Republic,[345] a person who had returned from Italy, and a resident of Montreal who had returned from international travel.[346][347]

By March 18, 94 confirmed cases had been reported in Quebec.[348] The province also had its first death.[349]

On March 20, a woman who tested positive for COVID-19 was arrested for being out in Quebec City's Limoilou neighbourhood despite being under a quarantine order; this was the first time that this type of warrant was executed.[350]

Saskatchewan

As of September 12, 2020, there have been 1,709 confirmed cases reported in the province of Saskatchewan, with 1,602 recoveries, and 24 deaths. Chief Medical Officer Saqib Shahab announced the first presumptive case of in the province on March 12, a person in their 60s that had recently returned from Egypt, who was tested on March 9, and was in self-isolation at their home.[6] Two cases involved attendees of the aforementioned dental conference in Vancouver.[351]

11 Saskatchewan health care employees tested positive after attending a physicians' bonspiel at a curling club in Edmonton on the week of March 11.[352] On March 28, Saskatchewan announced 18 cases involving attendees of a snowmobile rally at Christopher Lake on March 14.[353][354] Saskatchewan reported its first deaths from COVID-19 on March 30. Both people were in their 70s and were from separate parts of the province.[355]

By April 6, the number of new cases had begun to dwindle, and the number of new recoveries regularly exceeded or equalled the number of new cases.[356][357][358][359][360] This prompted Premier Scott Moe to announce on April 13 that he would begin to explore plans to gradually restore normal commerce and service (with the first phase having begun on May 4),[361] although some restrictions, especially those on public gatherings, are to remain in effect for the foreseeable future.[362][363]

However, by late-April, the province began to see a major spike of active cases in its northern region, centered upon the remote village of La Loche, with at least 29 traced to a case from northern Alberta.[364][365] On May 5, Theresa Tam stated that this outbreak was concerning due to the region's remote communities and indigenous population.[366]

After cases fell for a period, a new surge emerged in the western and central regions of the province through June and July, centred around communal Hutterite colonies. The province peaked at 332 active cases.[367] By the end of August, the surge had subsided.[367]

Yukon

As of September 12, 2020, Yukon has reported 15 confirmed cases of COVID-19, all of which have resolved. 2,883 tests have been completed, with 2,814 confirmed negative and 54 still under investigation.[368]

On March 22, 2020, Premier Sandy Silver and the Chief Medical Officer, Brendan Hanley, announced that Yukon had its first cases of coronavirus, a couple who had attended a convention in the United States and then returned home to Whitehorse. They developed symptoms upon their return and immediately sought medical assistance. They have self-isolated and have meticulously followed all public health directions.[369]

During the pandemic, the territory opened its first public university in the north, Yukon University.[370]

COVID-19 testing

COVID-19 testing can be used to track the prevalence and spread, to diagnose individuals for treatment, to identify infections for isolation and contact tracing, to screen at-risk populations, to clear exposed healthcare workers to return to work, and to identify individuals with potential immunity. The World Health Organization says that jurisdictions should aim to test every suspected case of COVID-19.[371] Since health care is under provincial jurisdiction, almost all testing is conducted by the provinces and territories rather than the federal government. On April 23, Trudeau identified broader testing as key to reopening the country, mentioning the target of 60,000 tests per day set by Dr. Theresa Tam, but warned that up to 120,000 per day may be required.[372] As of late April, approximately 20,000 tests per day were being performed in Canada.[373] Total numbers of tests conducted for the provinces and Canada show that over 800,000 Canadians have been tested as of early May 2020. The displayed chart shows the testing rates per capita in the provinces and territories from March to May 2020.

The COVID-19 testing rates in the provinces and territories of Canada from March to June 2020. The lines are a 7-day moving average. Sources:[374] and Statistics Canada. Table 17-10-0009-01 Population estimates, quarterly

Role of the Government of Canada

Federal approval and regulation of diagnostic tests

Only COVID-19 tests approved by Health Canada can be imported or sold in Canada.[375] Since this is usually a lengthy process, on March 18, Minister of Health Hajdu issued an interim order to allow expedited access to COVID-19-related medical devices for use by healthcare providers, including diagnostic test kits.[376] The same day, the first commercial tests were approved, RT-PCR tests from Roche and Thermo Fisher.[377] Another 13 diagnostic products have since been approved, all based on Nucleic Acid tests.[377] As of April 30, 21 diagnostic device applications were listed as submitted by Health Canada.[375]

National Microbiology Lab

Canada's National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg performs diagnostic testing for and research into COVID-19.[378] Samples from suspected cases early in the pandemic were sent by provinces and territories to this national lab for testing, either as the sole test or as a check of an in-province test result.[320] The first confirmed case in Canada was diagnosed by the lab on January 27, 2020.[379] Since then, provinces and territories have established their own testing capacity but have occasionally sent samples to the national lab for a second test as a check.[380]

Federal facilitation of testing

Provinces have faced COVID-19 testing backlogs due to a shortage of supplies, including the chemical reagents required to complete the tests.[381] In late April, the federal government arranged for a cargo flight from China that delivered the equivalent of about six to nine months of production for one particular raw material for the 20-odd raw materials needed by supplier LuminUltra to supply reagent kits for RT-PCR machines.[382]

Types of COVID-19 Tests

Virus-RNA tests

Health Canada identifies nucleic acid-based testing as "the gold standard used in Canada and abroad, for the diagnosis of active COVID-19 infection in patients with symptoms."[383] The predominant type of testing used is RT-PCR. In it, a carefully produced and validated swab is used to collect a sample from a person's throat, back of the nose, or front of the nose. The swab is put inside a sealed container containing a medium that preserves the virus, which is sent to test-processing centres in the corresponding province or territory. At the centres, highly skilled technicians use large commercial machines from a variety of manufactures to process batches of tens to hundreds of samples at a time. The test chemically strips the RNA from the sample then mixes it with a test kit containing chemical reagents designed to detect RNA signatures of SARS-CoV-2. The sample is cycled between a set of temperatures to amplify the chemical RNA signature. This leads to processing times that range from 4 to 24 hours.[384] The actual RT-PCR test is 99 percent accurate. However, false negative results are estimated to occur 8 to 10 percent of the time due to poor swabbing technique and might be as high as 30 percent depending on how long after symptom onset the test was performed.[385][386]

Provinces have faced COVID-19 testing backlogs due to a shortage of the chemical reagents and swabs required to complete the tests.[381]

Virus-RNA test reagent kits

LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. of Fredericton is producing reagent test-kits to use with automated RT-PCR machines. On April 15, Trudeau announced that the company would be "ramping up production ... to meet the weekly demand in all provinces."[381] The company announced the same day that it would provide "500,000 urgently needed COVID-19 tests per week to the Canadian federal government for use across Canada."[382]

Canadian-made Virus-RNA test systems

A few companies have developed alternate methods to test for the RNA of the virus. These might be faster than laboratory RT-PCR or portable making them useful at border crossings, isolated communities, prisons, and care homes.[]

Spartan Bioscience of Ottawa signed contracts with the federal government and the provinces of Alberta, Quebec, and Ontario to supply virus-RNA testing systems that process a single swab sample in 30 to 60 minutes.[387] Together the contracts were for over one million swab test kits, and at least 250 handheld devices.[388][387] On April 13, Health Canada approved this test, but on May 3 the test was recalled due to unreliable results.[389]

Precision Biomonitoring of Guelph signed a Letter of Intent on March 31 with the federal government to co-develop a novel point-of-care test kit for COVID-19, which is now pending an authorization from Health Canada.[390] Their 1.2 kg battery-operated mobile device performs nine tests per hour and takes 60 minutes to produce a result.[391]

Bio-ID Diagnostics of Edmonton developed a direct 24-hour virus test that can be scaled to 20,000 samples per day. Since it is based on sequencing DNA it avoids false positives, and it detects a low concentration of the virus substantially reducing false negatives in asymptomatic individuals.[385]

On October 5, Health Canada approved a portable PCR test -- the Hyris bCUBE --which was based on technology developed at the University of Guelph and can process tests in 90 minutes.[392][393]

Serological testing for antibodies

These blood tests look for antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and range in complexity from laboratory tests to at-home kits similar to pregnancy tests.[394] Antibodies do not form immediately upon infection, so these tests are not well-suited for detecting a current infection. However, they can potentially identify those who have been infected in the past.[394] Health Canada has been evaluating a number of antibody tests.[383] Health Canada deemed that "Serological tests are not appropriate for early diagnosis of COVID-19, largely due variability in the time required after infection to develop antibodies."[383] On May 12, 2020, Health Canada announced the first antibody test approved for use, a laboratory test from DiaSorin, an Italian multinational biotechnology company.[395] Health Canada wrote that the test will "contribute to a better understanding of whether people who have been infected are immune to the virus."[395]

Research and population immunity

Health Canada posts "studies will be required to determine how long the antibodies remain detectable, whether for weeks, months or years" and "the relationship between antibodies and immunity to future viral infection."[383] Nonetheless, many countries are conducting or planning large-scale testing to determine what proportion of the population has been infected and is potentially now immune. As of April 20, the WHO estimated that at most 2 to 3 percent of people in affected countries have been infected.[396] On April 23, 2020, Trudeau created a COVID-19 Immunity Task Force of researchers, including Dr. Tam, Dr. David Naylor, and Dr. Mona Nemer, to coordinate monitoring of immunity and vulnerability to COVID-19 in the Canadian population.[397] The taskforce will oversee national antibody surveys over the next two years in which will test one million Canadians.[372] Researchers at Sinai Health's Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute in Toronto are developing a robotic system that can process mass numbers of antibody tests.[398]

Canadian-made antibody tests

MedMira of Halifax developed one of the first rapid detection kits for HIV and has now developed a COVID-19 antibody test that takes three minutes from taking the blood drop specimen.[399]

Plantform Corp. of Guelph applied for funding from the National Research Council to develop an antibody test for COVID-19.[400]

Rapid antigen testing

Tests for antigens, proteins that are part of the surface of the virus, were first approved by Health Canada on October 6, when it approved and ordered 20.5 million units of one manufactured by Abbott Laboratories as a point-of-care test.[401] They can produce results faster than PCR tests (in around 20 minutes),[401] but are generally considered to be less accurate than PCR tests. Abbott states that they are designed for preliminary results and not intended "as the sole basis for treatment or other management decisions." Deputy Chief Public Health Officer Howard Njoo stated that these tests could be deployed in settings such as workplaces and communal living environments.[401]

Canadian-made rapid antigen tests

Sona Nanotech of Halifax was developing point-of-care COVID-19 antigen test kits that provide results in 5-15 minutes and is anticipated to cost less than $50. If successful, the project will yield 20,000 test kits available per week, with the potential to scale-up to 1 million test kits per week.[390][402]

Statistics

Map

National

By age

Classification Cases Hospitalizations ICU Deaths Lethality
(?)
Number % Number % Number % Number %
All 173,123 100 12,359 100 2,506 100 9,387 100 54
Age >=80 20,138 11.6 3,910 31.6 292 11.7 6,699 71.4 333
70-79 9,910 5.7 2,525 20.4 575 22.9 1,703 18.1 172
60-69 14,319 8.3 2,099 17.0 630 25.1 682 7.3 48
50-59 22,367 12.9 1,696 13.7 518 20.7 224 2.4 10
40-49 23,659 13.7 940 7.6 239 9.5 52 0.6 2
30-39 24,667 14.2 631 5.1 127 5.1 15 0.2 1
20-29 29,444 17.0 385 3.1 93 3.7 10 0.1 0.3
0-19 10,214 10.2 173 1.4 32 1.3 2 0.0 0.1
Source: Public Health Agency of Canada, as of October 7, 2020, 7 PM ET.[404]

Provincial and territorial

See also

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