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FoundedSeptember 12, 1997; 23 years ago (1997-09-12)[1]
FounderScott Blum[2]
HeadquartersSan Mateo, California, U.S.
Area served
Key people
Hiroshi Mikitani
ServicesOnline shopping
ParentRakuten, Inc. is an e-commerce marketplace based in San Mateo, California. Previously known as, it was founded in 1997 by Scott Blum. In 2010, it was purchased by Japanese company Rakuten, and rebranded as[3]

History (1997-2010) originally sold only computers, at below cost, intending to bring in revenue through advertising and ancillary services such as sales of warranties and equipment leases, before expanding into numerous other categories, including software, books, videos and games.[4] The company sold $125 million worth of goods and services in 1998, its first full year, beating Compaq's 1984 record for most first-year sales.[5]

After raising $120 million from Japanese tech company SoftBank in 1998 and 1999,[5] founder Scott Blum sold a portion of his stake to SoftBank in 1999 shortly before's $195 million initial public offering in early 2000.[6] On February 8, 2000, went public at $13 per share and rose to $37.50 per share that day, its peak price.[5] Mr. Blum still owned approximately 48% of the company at the time of the IPO. Stock values dropped in the year following's initial public offering, and it was delisted from the NASDAQ Stock Market for failing to maintain a stock price above $1 per share.[5][6] In February 2001, the UK arm of was sold to the UK department store John Lewis,[7] and the technology was repurposed to create a new transactional website for the John Lewis chain. In November 2001, Blum reacquired for $23.6 million (about 17 cents per share), and took the company private.[5][6]

In 2002, went beyond selling solely electronics, movies and music, adding more soft goods to their catalog, such as sports equipment, apparel, shoes, health and beauty products. It was at this time that Blum placed a full-page ad in The Wall Street Journal promising customers that would prove to be the better buying option. This statement came shortly after announced a 10% below cost on all books sold on the site and free shipping site-wide, with no minimum purchase required. At the time, Amazon had 25 million customers, approximately five times as many as[8]

In March 2002, announced its first issue of Magazine, providing information about the latest electronic devices and computers, with four issues per year and a circulation of five million. The magazine was later converted into an all-digital publication.[9]

On January 25, 2005, filed to go public again,[6] before withdrawing those plans in May 2007.[10] officially launched a partnership with eBay in April 2008, striking a deal to sell millions of items on eBay.[11] would quickly become the largest seller on eBay.[3] Many independent sellers were upset that, unlike other sellers, was allowed to sell on eBay without paying listing fees.[12][13]

From 2007 to 2009, the number of products for sale in's marketplace grew from 2.3 million to 5 million, positioning it as the number two e-commerce site behind[11]

Rakuten purchase and rebranding (2010-present)

In May 2010, was acquired by Rakuten, Inc., the largest e-commerce retailer in Japan,[3][14] for $250 million in cash.[15][16] This was considered Rakuten's attempt to enter the American e-retail market,[15] and to compete globally with e-commerce competitors such as and eBay.[3] At the time, Rakuten in Japan had 64 million members,[15] and had 14 million customers, mostly located in the US and Europe. Half its products were sold directly to customers and half were sold through other e-commerce businesses using its online store.[3][15]

On January 10, 2013, Rakuten announced the official rebranding of to Shopping,[17] which became effective on January 31, 2013.[18] On the site, now known simply as, there are a series of unique virtual storefronts for shoppers to browse and connect online,[16] with the focus on providing high quality, unique merchandise, and a shopper- and merchant-friendly experience.[14] Each seller within's marketplace can customize their page's layouts, photos and promotions, and can communicate with customers directly.[14] With the rebranding, the site was populated entirely by individual merchants, whereas previous iterations of had just a portion of the site devoted to independent sellers.[19] Rakuten has also launched e-commerce sites in Germany, Brazil, France, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Korea, Austria, Russia, Canada and the United Kingdom.[14][20][21]

On September 9, 2014, Rakuten announced the purchase of San Francisco-based online rebate site for $1 billion in cash. The acquisition of Ebates, a website that allows customers to earn cash back when shopping online with over 2,600 retailers, gave additional presence in the US e-commerce market, as well as a way to offer items such as online e-coupons.[21][22]

In March 2015, started accepting bitcoin as payment. Through a partnership with Bitnet, shoppers may complete purchases on using bitcoin.[23][24]

On August 12, 2020, sent an email to its customers stating that it would be closing its US operations as of September 15, 2020: "Rakuten's United States marketplace service located at will stop taking orders from September 15, 2020".


In May 2013, some users on started complaining about alleged fraudulent charges on credit cards after using their cards on In some cases it was alleged that the victims' names, Social Security numbers, dates of birth and credit card information were used to open accounts at other online vendors.[25][26] In response, issued a statement that the company has undertaken significant measures to validate the security of the site, and that the results of a third-party investigation from a technical forensics company found no wrongdoing on their end.[27]


  1. ^ " WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools". WHOIS. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Richard Fletcher, " is sold to its founder", The Telegraph, August 12, 2001.
  3. ^ a b c d e Claire Cain Miller, " Makes Its Biggest Sale Yet: Itself", The New York Times, May 11, 2010.
  4. ^ Nee, Eric (1999-03-29). "Meet Mister Buy(everything).com". Fortune. Retrieved .
  5. ^ a b c d e Quentin Hardy, "The Death and Life of", Forbes, January 21, 2002.
  6. ^ a b c d Sarah Lacy, "Back to the Future at", Bloomberg Businessweek, January 25, 2005.
  7. ^ "John Lewis snaps up", BBC News
  8. ^ Wolverton, Troy (25 June 2002). " vows to undersell Amazon books". CNET. Retrieved 2013.
  9. ^ " Launches Magazine". The Write News. Writers Write, Inc. 1 March 2002. Retrieved 2013.
  10. ^ Dean Takahashi, "Japan's Rakuten acquires e-commerce site for $250M", VentureBeat, May 20, 2010.
  11. ^ a b Renfrow, Jacqueline (1 March 2009). " Grows Up in a Hurry". Response Magazine. Retrieved 2013.
  12. ^ Brad Stone, " Deal With eBay Angers Sellers", The New York Times, July 14, 2008.
  13. ^ Renee Oricchio, "Et Tu EBay?" Inc., July 15, 2008.
  14. ^ a b c d Omar Akhtar, "Rakuten: The biggest e-commerce site you haven't heard of", Fortune, March 22, 2013.
  15. ^ a b c d Toto, Serkan (20 May 2010). " Gets Acquired by Japanese E-Commerce Giant Rakuten For $250 Million". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013.
  16. ^ a b Jay Alabaster, "Rakuten, Japan's 'Amazon,' launches U.S. brand, the former", PC World, February 2, 2013.
  17. ^ "Rakuten Relaunches as Shopping". 10 January 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  18. ^ Allison Enright, "Rakuten rolls out a new name and new seller fees",, January 31, 2013.
  19. ^ Laura Heller, " to Become a Marketplace-only Site, Hopes to Take on Amazon",, January 28, 2013.
  20. ^ Ina Steiner, "Rakuten Global Branding Continues with UK Marketplace Launch",, October 23, 2014.
  21. ^ a b Sarah Perez, "Rakuten Buys Ebates For $1 Billion", TechCrunch, September 9, 2014.
  22. ^ Mark Scott, "Rakuten of Japan to Buy Ebates, a U.S. Rebate Site, for $1 Billion", The New York Times, September 9, 2014.
  23. ^ Takashi Mochizuki, "Rakuten Starts Accepting Bitcoin", The Wall Street Journal, March 16, 2015.
  24. ^ Jon Russell, "Rakuten To Put Its Bitnet Investment To Work And Accept Bitcoin Worldwide", TechCrunch, March 17, 2015.
  25. ^ Superville, Denisa. "Bogota police warn website users of suspicious charges". Retrieved 2013.
  26. ^ Northrup, Laura. "Here's Everything We Know About The Rakuten/ Credit Card Breaches". Consumerist. Retrieved 2013.
  27. ^ Laura Northrup, "Rakuten Is Taking Credit Card Fraud Complaints Very Seriously", Consumerist, June 10, 2013.

External links

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