|Preferred IUPAC name
Additin RC 7110
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E321 (antioxidants, ...)|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Appearance||White to yellow powder|
|Melting point||70 °C (158 °F; 343 K) |
|Boiling point||265 °C (509 °F; 538 K) |
|1.1 mg/L (20 °C)|
|Vapor pressure||0.01 mmHg (20°C)|
|Safety data sheet|||
|GHS Signal word||Warning|
|P273, P391, P501|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||127 °C (261 °F; 400 K) |
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|> 2,000 mg/kg (dermal, rat)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 10 mg/m3|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), also known as dibutylhydroxytoluene, is a lipophilic organic compound, chemically a derivative of phenol, that is useful for its antioxidant properties.[better source needed] BHT is widely used to prevent free radical-mediated oxidation in fluids (e.g. fuels, oils) and other materials, and the regulations overseen by the U.S. F.D.A.--which considers BHT to be "generally recognized as safe"--allow small amounts to be added to foods. Despite this, and the earlier determination by the National Cancer Institute that BHT was noncarcinogenic in an animal model, societal concerns over its broad use have been expressed. BHT has also been promoted as an agent for health-related concerns, but as of March 2020, its promotion was not supported by relevant medical societies or by the secondary medical literature.
This section has multiple issues. Please help talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)( or discuss these issues on the Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Phytoplankton, including the green algae Botryococcus braunii, as well as three different cyanobacteria (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis aeruginosa and Oscillatoria sp.) are capable of producing BHT as a natural product.[verification needed] The fruit lychee also produces BHT in its pericarp.[verification needed]
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2020)
This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. (March 2020)
The species behaves as a synthetic analog of vitamin E, primarily acting as a terminating agent that suppresses autoxidation, a process whereby unsaturated (usually) organic compounds are attacked by atmospheric oxygen. BHT stops this autocatalytic reaction by converting peroxy radicals to hydroperoxides. It effects this function by donating a hydrogen atom:
BHT is listed under several categories in catalogues and databases, such as food additive, household product ingredient, industrial additive, personal care product/cosmetic ingredient, pesticide ingredient, plastic/rubber ingredient and medical/veterinary/research.
BHT is primarily used as an antioxidant food additive. In the United States, it is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) based on a National Cancer Institute study from 1979 in rats and mice.[page needed] It is approved for use in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration: For example, 21 CFR § 137.350(a)(4) allows BHT up to 0.0033% by weight in "enriched rice", while 9 CFR § 381.147](f)(1) allows up to 0.01% in poultry "by fat content". It is permitted in the European Union under E321.
BHT is used as a preservative ingredient in some foods. With this usage BHT maintains freshness or prevents spoilage; it may be used to decrease the rate at which the texture, color, or flavor of food changes.
Some food companies have voluntarily eliminated BHT from their products or have announced that they were going to phase it out.
BHT is also used as an antioxidant in products such as metalworking fluids, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber, transformer oils, and embalming fluid. In the petroleum industry, where BHT is known as the fuel additive AO-29, it is used in hydraulic fluids, turbine and gear oils, and jet fuels.[page needed] BHT is also used to prevent peroxide formation in organic ethers and other solvents and laboratory chemicals. It is added to certain monomers as a polymerisation inhibitor to facilitate their safe storage. Some additive products contain BHT as their primary ingredient, while others contain the chemical merely as a component of their formulation, sometimes alongside butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA).
This section needs to be updated.March 2020)(
Like many closely related phenol antioxidants, BHT has low acute toxicity (e.g., the desmethyl analog of BHT, 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, has an LD50 of >9 g/kg).[where?] The US Food and Drug Administration classifies BHT as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a food preservative when used according in an approved manner. In 1979, the National Cancer Institute determined that BHT was noncarcinogenic in a mouse model.[needs update]
Nevertheless, the World Health Organization discussed a possible link between BHT and cancer risk in 1986,[page needed][verification needed][needs update] and some primary research studies in the 1970s-1990s reported both potential for increased risk and potential for decreased risk in the area of oncology.[non-primary source needed] As well, concern has been expressed regarding a dietary role for BHT in asthma and behavioral issues in children.[according to whom?][non-primary source needed] Because of this uncertainty, the Center for Science in the Public Interest puts BHT in its "caution" column and recommends avoiding it.
Based on various, disparate primary research reports, BHT has been suggested to have anti-viral activity, and the reports divide into various study types. First, there are studies that describe virus inactivation--where treatment with the chemical results in disrupted or otherwise inactivate virus particles.[non-primary source needed] The action of BHT in these is akin to the action of many other organic compounds, e.g., quaternary ammonium compunds, phenolics, and detergents, which disrupt viruses by insertion of the chemical into the virus membrane, coat, or other structure, which are established methods of viral disinfection secondary to methods of chemical oxidation and UV irradiation. In addition, there is a report of BHT use, topically against genital herpes lesions,[non-primary source needed] a report of inhibitory activity in vitro against pseudorabies (in cell culture),[non-primary source needed] and two studies, in veterinary contexts, of use of BHT to attempt to protect against virus exposure (pseudorabies in mouse and swine, and Newcastle in chickens).[non-primary source needed] The relevance of other reports, regarding influenza in mice, is not easily discerned.[non-primary source needed] Notably, this series of primary research reports does not support a general conclusion of independent confirmation of the original research results, nor are there critical reviews appearing thereafter, in secondary sources, for the various host-virus systems studied with BHT.
Hence, at present, the results do not present a scientific consensus in favour of the conclusion of the general antiviral potential of BHT when dosed in humans. Moreover, as of March 2020, no guidance from any of the internationally recognized associations of infectious disease specialists had advocated use of BHT products as an antiviral therapy or prophylactic.
Vattenlöslighet: 1,1 mg/l (20 °C) [Water solubility: 1.1 mg/l (20°C)][better source needed]
Types of Ingredients: Preservatives[.] What They Do: Prevent food spoilage from [...]; maintain freshness[.] Examples of Uses: Fruit sauces and jellies, beverages, baked goods, cured meats, oils and margarines, cereals, dressings, snack foods, fruits and vegetables[.] Names Found on Product Labels: Ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium benzoate, calcium propionate, sodium erythorbate, sodium nitrite, calcium sorbate, potassium sorbate, BHA, BHT, EDTA, tocopherols (Vitamin E)[.]
DOI, DERM-04-2002-129-4-C2-0151-9638-101019-ART18CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
No results found
There are 0 results for 'BHT'
Search for "bht" / Displaying results 1 to 1 out of 1 / Activities in 2018 81% / ...module was recently published in the Slovene medical journal ISIS in March. Follow this link to get the headlines. http://online.pubhtml5.com/agha/zmfh/#p=42This site does not capture search results, but search for the term "BHT" in the areas of Level 1: Research & Projects, ESCMID Publications, and News & Media gave no substantive hits, as indicated (only the single, stray appearance of the trio of characters in a web address).