Get Boys & Girls Clubs of America essential facts below. View Videos or join the Boys & Girls Clubs of America discussion. Add Boys & Girls Clubs of America to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
This article is missing information about boys' physical/mental/social characteristics. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page.(April 2019)
This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. When placing this tag, consider associating this request with a WikiProject.(April 2019)
A boy is a young malehuman, usually a child or adolescent. When he becomes an adult, he is described as a man. The term can be joined with a variety of other words to form compound words.
The word "boy" comes from Middle Englishboi, boye ("boy, servant"), related to other Germanic words for boy, namely East Frisianboi ("boy, young man") and West Frisianboai ("boy"). Although the exact etymology is obscure, the English and Frisian forms probably derive from an earlier Anglo-Frisian *b?-ja ("little brother"), a diminutive of the Germanic root *b?- ("brother, male relation"), from Proto-Indo-European *bh?-, *bh?t- ("father, brother"). The root is also found in Norwegian dialectalboa ("brother"), and, through a reduplicated variant *b?-b?-, in Old Norsebófi, Dutchboef "(criminal) knave, rogue", GermanBube ("knave, rogue, boy"). Furthermore, the word may be related to B?ia, an Anglo-Saxon personal name.
Historically, in the United States and South Africa, "boy" was not only a "neutral" term for domestics but also a disparaging term towards men of color; the term implied a subservient status. The use of the term "boy" to describe men of color has not always been used as an insult, however; for example, Thomas Branch, an early African-American Seventh-day Adventist missionary to Nyassaland (Malawi) referred to the native students as boys:
There is one way by which we judge many of our present boys to be quite different from some of those who were here long ago: those that are married have their wives here with them, and build their own houses, and all are busy making their gardens. I have told all the boys that if they wished to stay here and learn, those that had wives must bring them. This is having a good effect on them. They stay longer, and are more attentive to their work and their studies.
Multiple politicians - including New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and former Kentucky Congressman Geoff Davis - have been criticized publicly for referring to a black man as "boy."
Many mythological boys have frequently been represented in various arts, e.g. Venus' often mischievous son Cupid, himself a young god of love which he 'inflicts' on humans by shooting his arrows; in some style periods even multiplied as naked little boys called putti.
In religious art, generally adults preponderate (except as extras), with certain marked, stereotypical exceptions such as the infant Jesus or angels which may even act as 'Christianized' putti.
Some music has been written for boys' treble voices, especially in situations where female participation was considered inappropriate.
^The source defines gender-expansive as: "Children who do not conform to their culture's expectations for boys or girls. Being transgender is one way of being gender-expansive, but not all gender-expansive children are transgender."
Allen, Edward A. (1982). "Public School Elites in Early-Victorian England: The Boys at Harrow and Merchant Taylors' Schools from 1825 to 1850". Journal of British Studies. 21 (2): 87-117. doi:10.1086/385791.
Baggerman, Arianne; Dekker, Rudolf (2009). Child of the Enlightenment: Revolutionary Europe Reflected in a Boyhood Diary.
Clement, Priscilla Ferguson; Reinier, Jacqueline S., eds. (2001). Boyhood in America: an encyclopedia. 2 vol ABC-CLIO.description
Giese, Rachel (2018). Boys: What it Means to Become a Man. Seal Press.
Hunt, Peter (2004). International companion encyclopedia of children's literature. Routledge.
Illick, Joseph E. (2005). American childhoods.
Killian, Caitlin (2007). "Covered girls and savage boys: Representations of Muslim youth in France". Journal of Social and Ecological Boundaries. 3 (1): 69-90.
Liu, Fengshu (2006). "Boys as only-children and girls as only-children--parental gendered expectations of the only-child in the nuclear Chinese family in present-day China". Gender and Education. 18 (5): 491-505. doi:10.1080/09540250600881626.
Powell, Sacha; Smith, Kate, eds. (2017). An introduction to early childhood studies. Sage. from a variety of disciplines and international perspectives.
Rose, Clare (2016). Making, selling and wearing boys' clothes in late-Victorian England. Routledge.
Theriault, Daniel (2018). "A Socio-Historical Overview of Black Youth Development in the United States for Leisure Studies". International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure. 1 (2): 197-213. doi:10.1007/s41978-018-0013-y.
Wainman, Ruth (2017). "'Engineering for Boys': Meccano and the Shaping of a Technical Vision of Boyhood in Twentieth-Century Britain". Cultural and Social History. 14 (3): 381-396.
Wolff, Larry (1996). "The Boys Are Pickpockets, and the Girl Is a Prostitute": Gender and Juvenile Criminality in Early Victorian England from Oliver Twist to London Labour". New Literary History. 27 (2): 227-249. JSTOR20057349.