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Bishop of Macerata E Tolentino
Diocese of Macerata-Tolentino-Recanati-Cingoli-Treia
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In the 13th century the territory and city of Recanati became heavily involved in the struggles between Guelphs and Ghibbelines. On 27 July 1263 the diocese was completely suppressed by Pope Urban IV in the Bull Cives Recanatensis, due to its support of Manfred, who claimed the Kingdom of Sicily. It was not restored until 1289. By the beginning of the 14th century the anti-papalist Ghibbelines were in control, and rejected papal control through the Rector of the Marches. In order to bring Recanati into submission, Pope John XXII embarked upon a program of punishment which included the reduction of Recanati's civil status and the removal of the bishopric. The Diocese of Recanati suppressed in 1320, and did not regain its episcopal status until 1356.
The Diocese of Macerata was established by Pope John XXII on 18 November 1320, in the Bull Sicut ex debito, which also suppressed the diocese of Recanati. The castrum Maceratae was raised to the status of a city, and its territory, which was partly in the diocese of Camerino and partly in the diocese of Fermo, was detached from those two dioceses and included in the new diocese of Macerata. The parish church of S. Giuliano in Macerata was elevated to the status of a cathedral, and the seat of the bishop of Macerata installed in it. Bishop Fridericus of Recanati was transferred to the new See of Macerata, with all the powers, rights, and privileges which he had enjoyed when Bishop of Recanati. The cathedral Chapter of Recanata was also transferred to the Cathedral of S. Giuliano in Macerata, with the same dignities, grades, numbers, and income as they had enjoyed at Recanati.
In 1698, the cathedral Chapter of Macerata had one dignity, the Archdeacon, and seventeen Canons.
On 17 March 1586, Pope Sixtus V, in the Bull Pro excellenti, raised the town of Loreto to the status of a bishopric. To provide territory to support the apparatus of a diocese, the already existing diocese of Recanati was suppressed, and its territory was transferred to the new diocese of Loreto. The cathedral of Recanati was demoted to the status of collegiate church. Bishop Galeazzo Moroni, the Bishop of Recanati who was also Bishop of Macerata, was released from his connection to the diocese of Recanati. To compensate the diocese of Macerata for the loss of Recanati, it was united with the newly (re-)created Diocese of Tolentino on 10 December 1586.
The diocese, in its current configuration, was established in order to conform to Italian civil law which was embodied in the Concordat between the Vatican and the Italian Republic of 18 February 1984. After extensive consultations, Pope John Paul II decreed that the status of the bishop governing several dioceses aeque personaliter was abolished, and that the Diocese of Macerata-Tolentino was merged with the Diocese of Osimo e Cingoli, the Diocese of Recanati and the Diocese of San Severino (Treia) to form a single diocese, albeit with a long name. The changes were embodied in a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops in the Roman Curia, promulgated on 30 September 1986. The seat of the merged dioceses was to be in Macerata. All of the cathedrals except Macerata were to have the status of co-cathedral. The diocesan offices (curia) was to be in Macerata, as was the diocesan tribunal, the diocesan seminary, the College of Consultors, the Priests' Council, unless otherwise directed by the bishop.
A diocesan synod was an irregularly held, but important, meeting of the bishop of a diocese and his clergy. Its purpose was (1) to proclaim generally the various decrees already issued by the bishop; (2) to discuss and ratify measures on which the bishop chose to consult with his clergy; (3) to publish statutes and decrees of the diocesan synod, of the provincial synod, and of the Holy See.
Bishop Papirio Silvestri (1642-1659) held a diocesan synod in Macerata on 12 September 1651. In 1663, Bishop Francesco Cini (1660-1684) presided over a diocesan synod in Macerata. In 1687 Bishop Fabrizio Paolucci (1685-1698) had his Synodial Constitutions published, but it is uncertain when he held his synod.
In 1728, Bishop Alessandro Carlo Gaetano Varano (1698-1735) held a diocesan synod. Bishop Domenico Spinucci (1777-1796) held a diocesan synod in Macerata on 9-11 May 1784, and another at Tolentino on 23-25 May. Bishop Francesco Ansaldo Teloni (1824-1846) held a diocesan synod in Macerata from 8 to 10 August 1830, and another in Tolentino from 22 to 24 August 1830. The decisions were published in 1832.
^Synodus dioecesana Maceratensis, habita anno domini 1651 (Macerata: Augustinus Griseius 1651).
^Constitutiones editae in synodo habita ab illustrissimo et reverendissimo d. d. Francisco Cino, episcopo Maceratae et Tolen., anno Domini M.DC.LXIII, atque olim in synodis praedecessorum, eiusdem iussu simul collectae et in summam redactae (Macerata: Heredes Augustini Grisei & Iosephi Picelmi 1663).
^Constitutiones synodales ab illustriss. et reverendiss. d. d. Fabritio Paulucci, episcopo Maceraten. et Toletinati, aeditae anno M.DC.LXXXVII (Macerata: Muti & Sassi 1687).
^One of its decrees is referred to in Francesco Ansaldo Teloni, Dioecesana synodus, p. 54: Præsbyteri vero poenam suspensionis ipso facto incurrent, si choreas ducere cum fæminis, aut larvati ausi fuerint incedere.
^Fridericus had been a Canon of the cathedral Chapter of Recanati. He was elected by the Chapter and approved by Pope Boniface VIII on 13 November 1301. From 20 November 1320 he was Bishop of Macerata. Federico was transferred to the diocese of Senigallia on 6 June 1323 by Pope John XXII. Leopardi, pp. 112-116. Eubel, I, pp. 120, 410, 447.
^Bishop Pietro was appointed by Pope John XXII on 6 June 1323. He died on 29 October 1347. Stefani, Dizionario corografico-universale, p. 475. Eubel, I, p. 410.
^Bishop Guido had previously been Archpriest of Vercelli. He was named Bishop of Macerata on 5 November 1347 by Pope Clement VI. He was transferred to the diocese of Massa Marittima by Pope Clement on 21 October 1349. He died in 1351. Eubel, I, pp. 310, 410.
^Bishop Nicolò was appointed bishop of the united Sees of Recanati e Macerata.
^Nicolò (Nicola) da San Martino had been Vicar General of his Order, and had already been Bishop of Macerata since 1348; he therefore governed the territory which had once been the diocese of Recanati. On 22 April 1357, the Papal Legate of the Marches, Cardinal Egidio (Gil) Álvarez de Albornoz, acting on authority granted him by Pope Innocent VI restored the diocese of Recanati, making Nicolò da San Martino Bishop of Macerata e Recanati. He died in January 1369. Leopardi, pp. 123-126. Eubel, I, p. 10.
^Oliviero was a native of Verona, and Dean of Negroponte and a papal chaplain. While Bishop Nicolò was still alive, Pope Urban V reserved to himself the right to appoint the next bishop. When Oliviero was elected by the Chapter, Urban immediately quashed the election, but on 19 February 1369, Urban exercised his option and appointed Oliviero Bishop of Macerata e Recanati. He renounced the bishopric in 1374, and was transferred to the diocese of Ceneda on 29 April 1374 by Pope Gregory XI. He died in 1377. Leopardi, pp. 126-128. Gaetano Moroni, ed. (1846). Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica (in Italian). Vol. XLI: Mac-Mag. Venezia: dalla Tipografia Emiliana. p. 82. Eubel, I, pp. 180, 447.
^Nicolas had been Prior General of the Augustinian Hermits. He was appointed Bishop of Recanate e Macerata by John XXIII, but was never able to take possession of the diocese. He was oppossed by Cardinal Angelo Correr, the former Pope Gregory XII, who had been made Legate of the Marches by the Council of Constance, until his death in 1415. He was then obstructed by Marino de Tocco, Bishop of Teramo, who had been made Administrator of Recanate by Gregory XII. Leopardi, pp. 135-145. Eubel, I, p. 411, with note 7.
^A native of Chieti, Marinus de Tocco had been an Auditor of the Roman Rota. He was appointed Bishop of Teramo by Pope Gregory XII on 14 February 1407. Marinus attended the Council of Constance as an Auditor. He was transferred to the diocese of Recanati e Macerata by Pope Martin V on 6 July 1418. He was transferred to the diocese of Chieti on 7 January 1429. He died in 1438. Leopardi, pp. 145-150. Eubel, I, pp. 95, 411, 481.
^Benedetto had previously been Bishop of Teramo (1427-1429). He was appointed Bishop of Recanati e Macerata on 7 January 1429. He took possession by proxy, appointing his brother (or nephew) Francesco Guidalotti, Provost of Compostela. He died on 9 August 1429, and was taken for burial in his native Perugia. Leopardi, pp. 150-151. Eubel, I, pp. 95, 411.
^Tomasini was a native of Venice. He was Bishop of Emona (Istria) from 1409, and participated in the Council of Constance. He was then Bishop of Pola (Istria) from 1420 to 1423, then Bishop of Urbino (1423-1424). He had been Bishop of Trau in Dalmatia (1424-1435), and was named Governor of Forlì by Pope Eugene IV in 1431. He was one of the presidents of the Council of Basel in 1433. He was transferred to Recanati on 24 October 1435, and then to the diocese of Belluno e Feltri on 10 October 1440 He died on 24 March 1446. Vogel, pp. 186-196. Eubel, I, pp. 74, 404, 411, 490, 509; II, pp. 103, 220.
^Leopardi, pp. 158-172. Vogel, pp. 197-226. Cappelletti, VII, pp. 228-230, according to whom Leopardi (pp. 171-172) and Vogel (p. 220) misread the date on Bishop Nicolaus' Last Will and Testament by a decade (1469 for 1459).
^Bishop Petrus died on 7 October 1469. Eubel, II, p. 220. Leopardi says he died in 1475, according to Cappelletti, p. 230-231.
^The Venetian Morosini was Bishop of Parenzo (1464-1471) He was appointed Administrator of Recanati e Macerata on 2 February 1470. A successor bishop was appointed on 4 September 1471. Morosini died on 3 October 1471, and was buried in the cathedral of Recanati (Vogel, p. 229). Leopardi, pp. 172-174. Vogel, pp. 226-229. Eubel, II, pp. 212, 220.
^Andreas de Pilis da Fano the son of a lawyer of Fano, Ugolino, a friend of Pandolfo Malatesta, who had been Podestà of Milan. Andrea held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure from Perugia, and was a cleric of the chamber. In 1453 he became Abbot commendatory of Santa Croce de Sassoferrato. In 1458 he was Treasurer of Perugia and the Duchy of Spoleto. Under Pope Paul II. he was governor of the Castel S. Angelo. He was appointed bishop on 5 September 1471, but he was not residentiary. In 1472, he was named Prefect of the Treasury of Picenum, and in 1473 governor of Cesena and then of Picenum. He died at Foligno at the beginning of October 1476. Vogel, pp. 230-234.
^Della Rovere: Eubel, II, p. 220; III, p. 281 note 2.
^Teseo de Cupis: Leopardi, p. 182. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 281 with note 3.
^Tasso: Leopardi, pp. 180-182. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 281.
^Giovanni de Cupis was the nephew of Bishop Teseo de Cupis. Leopardi, pp. 183-185. Cappelletti, p. 232. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 231 with notes 4l and 5.
^Roccabella was appointed Bishop of Macerata on 27 January 1546. In 1547 he attended the Council of Trent. He was transferred to the diocese of Recanati on 6 March 1553 by Pope Julius III, following the death of Bishop Paolo de Cupis. He died in 1571. Ughelli, p. 744. Teloni, Dioecesana synodus, p. 142. Eubel, III, p. 231 with note 7.
^Moroni was a native of Milan, and held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure. He was appointed Bishop of Macerata e Recanati on 10 June 1573. When the diocese of Recanati was suppressed on 17 March 1586, he was released from all obligations to Recanati and continued as Bishop of Macerata, to which was added the new diocese of Tolentino. When Recanati was restored in 1592, he did not recover any rights over it. He died in Macerata on 1 September 1613. Leopardi, pp. 189-190, 197-198. Eubel, III, p. 231 with note 11.
^Centini was a native of Ascoli. He was named a Consultor of the Holy Office of the Roman and Universal Inquisition in August 1609, and in December 1609 became Procurator General of his Order; he was then named Bishop of Mileto (Kingdom of Naples) (1611-1613). On 17 August 1611 he was appointed a cardinal by Pope Paul V, and consecrated a bishop by him on 2 October 1611. He was appointed Bishop of Macerata e Tolentino on 23 September 1613, where he established the seminary in accordance with the decrees of the Council of Trent. He died in Macerata on 24 January 1641 at the age of seventy-eight, according to the Acta Camerarii: 24 Ian. 1641 em. et rev.mus card, frater Felix Centinus Aseulan., ep. Sabinen., et Maceraten., in suo palatio Maceratae morte omnino repentina diem clausit no'vissimum. Eius aet. ad septuagesimum nonum a. vergebat. Corpus eius quiescit in eccl. Maceraten. Ughelli, II, pp. 745-746. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, pp. 12 no 30; 227 with note 2; 242 with note 3.
^A native of Cingoli, Silveztri held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure. He was a Canon of the Roman church of S. Maria in Via Lata, and a Consultor at the Holy Office of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. He was named Bishop of Macerata e Tolentino on 14 July 1642 by Pope Urban VIII. He died in February 1659. Gauchat, p. 227 with note 3.
^Cini was a native of Osimo, and held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure. He was appointed Bishop of Macerata and Tolentino on 15 November 1660 by Pope Alexander VII. He died in Macerata in May 1684. Gauchat, p. 227 with note 4. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica V, p. 251 note 2.
^Paolucci was born in Forlì in 1651. He held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure (Sapienza, Rome 1674). He was appointed Bishop of Macerata e Tolentino on 9 April 1685 by Pope Innocent XI. He was named papal Nuncio in Cologne on 24 February 1696, and created a cardinal (in secret) on 22 July 1697. He was transferred to the diocese of Ferrara with the personal title of Archbishop on 27 January 1698 by Pope Innocent XII, and on the same day named papal Nuncio to Poland. His cardinalate was made public on 19 December 1698. He was named papal Secretary of State on 3 December 1700, and resigned the diocese of Ferrara by March 1701. He died in Rome on 12 June 1726. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, pp. 21 no. 20, with notes 5-6; 201 with note 5; 251 with note 3.
^Varano was born in Ferrara in 1667, and held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure (Sapienza, Rome). He was appointed bishop of Macerata on 21 July 1698, and consecrated in Rome by Cardinal Sebastiano Tanara on 17 August 1698. He died on 20 October 1735. Cappelletti, III, p. 700. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 251 with note 4; VI, p. 270 note 2.
^Born in Fabriano in 1685, Stelluti belonged to the family of the Counts of Rotorscio. He held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure (Urbino 1725), and became Referendary of the Tribunal of the Two Signatures. He was governor of Benevento (1729), Orvieto (1730), prefect of Norcia and Montalto (1732), and of Ascoli. He was named Bishop of Macerata on 19 December 1735. He died in Macerata on 5 May 1756. Oreste Marcoaldi (1874). Guida e statistica della città e Comune di Fabriano (in Italian). Fabriano: Crocetti. p. 70. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VI, p. 270 with note 3.
^Spinucci was born in Fermo in 1739. He held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure (Bologna 1757, according to Ritzler-Sefrin; an error for 1767?). He was Archdeacon of Fermo and pro-Vicar-General of the diocese. He was named Bishop of Macerata on 12 May 1777. He was transferred to the diocese of Benevento on 27 June 1796 by Pope Pius VI. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 121 with note 8; 270 with note 4; 393 with note 4.
^Born in Imola in 1738, Alessandretti held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure (Cesena 1779). He had been a Jesuit before the dissolution of that Order in 1773. He served as Canon and Treasurer of the Chapter of Imola, and in the Sede vacante of 1774 was elected Vicar Capitular. Pope Pius VI named him Vicar Apostolic of Comacchio on 23 December 1786, and appointed him titular Bishop of Zama (Africa). On 27 June 1796, the Pope transferred him to the diocese of Macerata e Tolentino. He resigned the diocese on 6 December 1800, due to illness, and returned to his native Imola. He died on 12 July 1815. Orazione funebre in lode di Monsignor Alessandro Alessandretti (Imola, dalla stamperia Camerale, 1815). Luigi Angeli (1828). Memorie biografiche di que' uomini illustri imolesi (in Italian). Imola: dai tipi d'Ignazio Galeati. pp. 193-196. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 270 with note 6; 449 with note 3.
^Strambi was appointed bishop by Pope Pius VI on 20 July 1801. On 28 September 1808, he was driven out of his diocese by violence, and took refuge in Novara and then Milan, from which he returned in 1814. He resigned on 11 November 1823, due to illness, and died on 1 January 1824.Pietro Rudoni (1824). Compendio della vita di Vincenzo Strambi gia vescovo di Macerata (in Italian). Milano: Manini. Ritzler-Sefrin, VII, p. 247.
^Born in Fabrica in 1794, Clementi was appointed Bishop of Macerata e Tolentino on 21 September 1846 by Pope Pius IX. He was named titular Archbishop of Damascus, and sent by Pius IX as his Apostolic Delegate to Mexico and Central America (1851-1861) On 21 December 1863, he was named Bishop of Rimini, and authorized to keep the title of Archbishop. He died in Rome on 30 January 1869. Annuario pontificio 1869 (in Italian). Roma: Tip. della Reverenda Camera Apostolica. 1869. p. 207. Ritzler-Sefrin, VIII, pp. 122, 238, 357.
^Zangari was born in Rimini in 1806. He was a Canon of the Chapter of Rimini, and a local professor. He was appointed Bishop of Cività Castellana in 1848. He was transferred to the dioceses of Macerata e Tolentino on 5 September 1851. He died on 31 May 1864. Annuario pontificio pel anno 1864 (in Italian). Roma: Tip. della Reverenda Camera Apostolica. 1864. p. 172. Ritzler-Sefrin, VIII, pp. 206, 357.
^Acta Apostolicae Sedis 77 (Città del Vaticano 1985), pp. 997-998: cathedrales Ecclesias Maceratensem, Tolentinam, Recinetensem, Cingulanam, Triengem aeque principaliter inter se unit, ita ut unus idemque Antistes dioecesibus illis praesit et Episcopus Maceratensis, Tolentinus, Recinetensis, Cingulanus, Triensis simul censeatur ac sit.