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Bishop of Beauvais
Diocese of Beauvais, Noyon, and Senlis
Dioecesis Bellovacensis, Noviomensis et Silvanectensis
The Diocese of Beauvais was founded in the 3rd century, by St. Lucian (Lucianus, Lucien), according to a story first told in the 9th century. Gregory of Tours, who wrote in the second half of the 6th century, however, never speaks of the diocese of Beauvais or of any of its bishops. Neither does the name of Beauvais appear in the documents of any church council down to 695.
After 1015 each Bishop of Beauvais was simultaneously Count of Beauvais, and one of the Peers of France. Count Odo of Beauvais had given all of his lands in his county to Bishop Roger and the Church of Beauvais, with the consent of King Robert; he also made the bishop his heir to the county. The Bishop had a role in the coronation ceremony of the French king, and played a role in politics.
Beginning in 1100, a five year long period of ecclesiastical, social and political discord descended upon Beauvais, involving eventually Bishop Ivo of Chartres, Archbishop Manasses of Reims, two papal legates, Joannes of Saint Anastasia and Benedict of Saint Pudenziana, King Philip I of France, and Pope Paschal II. On the death of Bishop Ansellus of Beauvais in November 1099, it became evident that there were two opposed parties in the business of the election of a successor. One was the majority of the Chapter and the secular clergy of the diocese, who were accommodated to the social system of society and preferred matters as they were; the other was led by the clergy of Saint-Quentin, who were seeking reform and greater rigor, and who looked to Ivo of Chartres, formerly a priest in Saint-Quentin, for advice and support. The Chapter chose as its candidate Étienne de Garlande, fourth son of Guillaume, Seneschal of France, a protegé of the excommunicated King Philip I and his mistress Bertrade, who were no doubt expecting Garlande's aid in solving their matrimonial problems. He was not in holy orders at all, and yet was Dean of Orleans and Archdeacon of Paris. The other candidate, supported by the monks of Saint-Quentin, was Walon (Gualon), abbot of Saint-Quentin. In the election, Étienne obtained exactly enough votes to form a majority.
It happened that the ecclesiastical Province of Reims was holding a synod at Soissons, and the leaders of the winning party, the Dean and Archdeacons of Beauvais, went to announce the election and request that letters be sent to the King and the Pope on Etienne's behalf, and they petitioned Lambert of Arras, the Papal Visitor in the province to write to Pope Paschal as well. The letter to Lambert seriously misrepresented the facts in stating that the election was nearly unanimous. The losing party enlisted Ivo of Chartres, who made a detailed investigation into the deeds and character of Étienne Garlande. He found that Garlande was not in holy orders, that he was illiterate and addicted to gambling, that he had a bad moral reputation, that he had been excommunicated by the Legate Hugh de Die for public incontenence (which made him ineligible for ecclesiastical office), and that his election had been intrigued at by laymen who were excommunicated. He then wrote both to the papal legates, Joannes and Benedict, and to the Pope himself.
The Pope took the case, and Étienne had to make the journey to Rome to clear his reputation. He failed, but on his return to France, he extorted a letter of recommendation from Ivo of Chartres. The Pope, however, was not fooled, and quashed the election. A new election was ordered, and Lambert of Arras was ordered to preside at the election. The canonically convoked assembly elected Walon (Gualon) the Abbot of Saint-Quentin. The King, however, refused to recognize the election, and Prince Louis made a statement to the effect that Walon would never be bishop of Beauvais, and that the King should install Étienne immediately, which was done. The Pope, however, ratified the election of Gualon, and issued a mandate to Archbishop Manasses of Reims to consecrate him. The Archbishop was a friend of the Court, though, and had crowned the excommunicated King. He procrastinated in taking action. Gualon, therefore, set out for Rome, where he so impressed the Pope that Paschal appointed him Apostolic Legate to Poland. In the meantime the Church of Beauvais sank into disorder, with two competing jurisdictions, that of the uncanonical and unconsecrated Étienne, and that of the Vicars appointed by the Chapter in the absence of a consecrated bishop. The King raged against the Chapter and exiled several of the Canons, and Ivo of Chartres consoled it with the knowledge that it was canonically justified.
Finally, Ivo worked out a settlement with the King. Prince Louis held a meeting in Beauvais with the Chapter in January 1104, which brought peace to the city. Since the diocese of Paris happened to be vacant, the Pope authorized the transfer of bishop-elect Gualon to the diocese of Paris, and the seat of Beauvais was declared to be vacant. In December the King was reconciled to the Church, and his excommunication was lifted.
Councils in Beauvais
A synod was held in Beauvais in 845, in the presence of King Charles the Bald, during a sede vacante of the See of Beauvais. The synod ratified the election of Hincmar as Archbishop of Reims.
On 6 December 1114 a Council was held in Beauvais, presided over by the Papal Legate Cardinal Kuno von Erach (Conon, Kono). The Archbishops of Reims, Bourges and Sens and their suffragans participated. The Emperor Henry V was again anathematized, along with the Bishop of Münster and Count Thomas de Marla, who enjoyed raving the areas of Laon, Reims and Amiens. The case of Bishop Geoffroy of Amiens, who had been driven from his city by the burghers, was discussed, and his resignation was submitted. The discovery of Manichaean heretics in the diocese of Soissons was discussed, but action was deferred until the next synod.
Cardinal Kuno von Erach held another synod in Beauvais, on 18 October 1120. The purpose was to decide on the sainthood of Bishop Arnulf of Soissons (died 1087). The synod accepted his sanctity and authorized the moving of his remains from the convent of Aldenbourg in the diocese of Tournai to the cathedral of Soissons.
There is a note in the Chronicon Malleacense that a council took place at Beauvais in 1124. Nothing at all is known about it.
In 1160 an important council was convoked at Beauvais by King Louis VII of France. The papal Conclave of 1159 had produced a schism between Pope Alexander III and the puppet of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, Octavianus de' Monticelli, Cardinal of S. Cecilia, who called himself Victor IV. The council agreed with the King that Alexander III was the true pope, a judgment that was confirmed in a joint meeting held by Louis VII and Henry II of England at Toulouse in the autumn of 1160.
Hundred Years War
Beauvais, which was situated close to the frontier between English and French territories, was frequently subjected to attack and siege from the English and their allies, especially the Burgundians.
The celebrated Battle of Agincourt took place only a few miles north of Beauvais on 25 October 1415.
On 1 June 1427, Bishop Pierre Cauchon, who was a partisan of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, and no supporter of Charles VII, was one of the consecrators of Jacques du Chastellier, the English candidate for the bishopric of Paris. He fled from Beauvais as Charles' armies appeared in the area, led by Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc). Cauchon took refuge in Rouen, where he was induced by the English to sit as judge in the trial of Joan, who had been captured on 23 May 1430. After a contentious trial he pronounced her guilty, and had her turned over to the secular authorities to be burned as an heretic. He also assisted at the coronation of the English King Henry VI in Paris on 17 December 1431.
In 1452 the case was reopened on orders of Pope Nicholas V by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, cousin of a former bishop of Beauvais, but the proceedings did not lead to a definitive conclusion. In 1455 they were begun again on orders of the new pope, Calixtus III, and the bishop of Beauvais at the time, Bishop Guillaume de Hellande, as successor of Pierre Cauchon, was required to provide defense attorneys to argue the case for Cauchon's right conduct. The court issued its judgment on 7 June 1456: "We say, pronounce, decree and declare the said Processes and Sentences full of cozenage, iniquity, inconsequences, and manifest errors, in fact as well as in law. We say that they have been, and are, and shall be--as well as the aforesaid Abjuration, their execution, and all that followed--null, nonexistent, without value or effect."
In 1472 Beauvais was attacked and besieged by forces of the Duke of Burgundy. Their leader, Philippe de Crevecoeur, Sieur d'Esquerdes (des Cordes) launched the attack on 27 June, which broke through the fortifications and seized the faubourg de Saint-Quentin. Bishop Jean de Bar immediately mounted his horse and tried to leave the city, heading for Paris to obtain royal aid, but he was stopped by the defenders, who had orders to allow no one to leave the city. Matters were clarified, and the bishop was in Paris on July 1. He offered the leaders of the commune nearly 1,000 livres which the King had given for the construction of the cathedral. The Seigneur de Tressures had also ridden out and obtained several thousand troops from various sources, including Robert d'Estouteville, Provost of Paris. In the meantime, the church of Saint-Hippolyte, which had been taken by the besiegers, was destroyed by fire, and the episcopal palace, next to the ramparts, took fire in three places, perhaps by arson. Assaults continued through 6 July, at which there was a pause until the 9th. In the third assault, when the Burgundian standard was planted on the ramparts, a courageous Beauvasienne, Jeanne Hachette, grabbed it and threw it back down into the ditch, rallying the citizens to throw back the Burgundians, and even to mount a nighttime attack on the Burgundian camp which killed over 200, many of them officers. After losses of more than 3,000 men, the Duke of Burgundy abandoned the siege on 22 July. Three days later, the bishop celebrated a Mass. The Abbey of Saint-Quentin had been rendered uninhabitable.
Cathedral and Chapter
In 875, Bishop Odo, with the consent of King Charles the Bald, as an act of considerable generosity, increased the number of Canons in the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre to fifty. Around the year 1320, the Cathedral was served by a Chapter composed of eight dignities (not 'dignitaries') and forty canons. The dignities were: the Dean (who was also Archdeacon of Bray), the Treasurer, the Archdeacon of Beauvais, the Archdeacon of Belvacinio, the Cantor, the Succentor, the Penitentiary, and the Chancellor. The Dean was elected by the Chapter, the others were episcopal appointments. By 1679 the dignities had been reduced to five.
Six of the churches in Beauvais were also capitular churches: Saint-Nicolas (6 prebends), Saint-Bartholomew (7 prebends), Saint-Michel (13 prebends), Saint-Laurent (7 prebends), Nôtre-Dame du Châtel (12 prebends), and Saint-Vaast (11 prebends). These offices were all benefices, in the gift of the bishop or of the Chapter, and provided a regular income for the incumbents. These offices were a way of rewarding faithful followers. There was also a Collegiate Church at Geberoy (headed by a Dean, with 5 prebends, later 12 prebends).
In 1516 King Francis I signed at treaty with Pope Leo X, which has come to be called the Concordat of Bologna, in which the King and his successors acquired the right to nominate each and every one of the bishops in France, except those of the dioceses of Metz, Toul and Verdun.
During the French Revolution the diocese of Beauvais was suppressed by the Legislative Assembly, under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790). Its territory was subsumed into the new diocese, called 'Oise', which was coterminous with the new civil department of the same name. Oise was made part of the Metropolitanate called the 'Métropole des Cotes de la Manche'. The new Civil Constitution mandated that bishops be elected by the citizens of each 'département', which immediately raised the most severe issues in Canon Law, since the electors did not need to be Catholics and the approval of the Pope was not only not required, but actually forbidden. Erection of new dioceses and transfer of bishops, moreover, was not canonically in the competence of civil authorities or of the Church in France. The result was schism between the 'Constitutional Church' and the Roman Catholic Church.
The legitimate bishop of Beauvais, François-Joseph de la Rochefoucauld, declined to take the required oath to the Civil Constitution, and betook himself to Paris, where he was accused and arrested. He was imprisoned in the monastery of the Carmelites, along with his brother, Pierre Louis, who was Bishop of Saintes. Both were massacred on 2 September 1792.
In 1791 the electors of 'Oise' assembled and elected as their Constitutional Bishop a priest, Jean-Baptiste Massieu, who had been a teacher, first at Vernon, and then at Nancy. He became cure of Cergy near Pontoise in 1782, and was elected to the Estates General for the bailliage of Senlis. He was in Paris at the time of his election, serving as an active member of the Ecclesiastical Committee which had drawn up the civil Constitution. He had just been elected secretary of the Legislative Assembly. He was consecrated at Notre-Dame de Paris on 6 March 1791 by Constitutional Bishop Jean-Baptiste Gobel, the seventh constitutional bishop to be consecrated. His behavior became more and more radical, during 1791 and 1792. He voted in favor of the execution of King Louis XVI. He resigned the priesthood and helped to organize the Terror. He married the daughter of the mayor of Givet, and presided at the Festivals of Reason. Complaints against him were so frequent, however, that he was delated to the Committee of Public Safety, and condemned on 9 August 1794. Somehow he escaped the guillotine and was pardoned in October 1794, and given a post as teacher in the school at Versailles. He had no successor in the Constitutional church, which he had helped to make universally loathed in the former diocese of Beauvais.
The territory of the former diocese of Beauvais was made part of the Diocese of Amiens when legitimate ecclesiastical government was restored in 1802. Church property, which had been confiscated for the public good by the Constitutional Assembly, was not restored. Bishops and priests therefore continued to be dependent upon salaries paid to them by the State, a practice which continued down until the Law of the Separation of the Churches and the State of 1905. The Diocese of Beauvais was re-established in 1822, and the Diocese of Beauvais, Noyon, and Senlis was created in 1851, comprising the territories of all three formerly separate dioceses. Beauvais Cathedral serves as the seat of the enlarged diocese.
^J. D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XIV (Venice: A. Zatta 1669), pp. 809-810. Delettre, I, p. 340. C. J. Hefele, Histoire des Conciles Tome IV, première partie (ed. H. Leclercq) (Paris: Letouzey 1911), p. 118.
^Bishops and priests were also to be salaried by the State. The salaries were paid out of funds realized from the confiscation and sale of church properties. After the Concordat of 1801, bishops and priests continued to be salaried and pensioned by the State, down to the Law of Separation of 1905, Article 2. Jean Marie Mayeur (1991). La séparation des Églises et de l'État (in French). Paris: Editions de l'Atelier. p. 11. ISBN978-2-7082-4340-8.
^Gallia christiana IX, p. 695. Duchesne, p. 119, points out that the only evidence for the bishops from Thalasius to Cogerimus comes from a list in the chronicle of Robert of Torigni, written in the third quarter of the twelfth century.
^Bishop Maurinus subscribed the charter of foundation of the monastery of Solignac in 632, of Burgundofaro (637/638), and Emmon. Duchesne, p. 120 no. 13.
^Himbertus is only a name. Gallia christiana IX, p. 695.
^Bishop Clemens signed a charter for Sainte-Marie de Soissons in 667, and another for Aigilbert of Mans. Duchesne, p. 120 no. 15.
^Constantinus signed documents for Merovingian kings Clovis III, Childebert III, and Childeric III. Duchesne, p. 120 no. 16.
^Dodo is known only from episcopal lists, and his position is uncertain. There is no documentary evidence with regard to him. Gallia christiana IX, p. 695. The same is the case with the following bishops, down to Austringus (p. 696).
^Deodatus is mentioned in Letter XI of Pope Zacharias. Gallia christiana IX, p. 696.
^Andreas is only a name. Gallia christiana IX, p. 696.
^Hildemannus had been a monk in the abbey of Corbie (diocese of Amiens) when he was elected by the clergy and people of the diocese of Beauvais. He died on 8 December 844. Delettre, I, pp. 324-337.
^Erminfridus' election was confirmed by the Council of Paris (846), and he was consecrated by Archbishop Hincmar of Reims. He participated in the councils of Querzy (848), Tours (849), Soissons (853), and Verberie (853). In 853 Erminfridus was designated, along with Abbot Louis of Saint Denis, as missus dominicus, in charge of inspecting the districts of Paris, Meaux, Senlis, Beauvais, Vendeuil and Vexin. Gallia christiana IX, p. 698. He died 859 in Beauvais, massacred during a new incursion of the Normans. Delettre, I, pp. 342-347.
^Roger of Blois was the son of Eudes of Blois, Chartres and Tours; his brother was Eudes II, the second Count de champagne. Roger was Chancellor of France (Rogerius Prothocancellarius, Rogerius Cancellarius) (995-1000) of Kings Hugh Capet and Robert the Pious, and held custody of the royal seal. In his reign Beauvais Bishopric elevated to title Bishop-Count. François Du Chesne (1680). Histoire Des Chanceliers Et Gardes Des Sceaux De France (in French). Paris: Autheur. pp. 135-138. Gallia christiana IX, pp. 705-707.
^Warinus (Guarinus) was present at the Council of Orléans in 1022. He died on 8 November 1030. Gallia christiana IX, pp. 707-708.
^Bishop Roger was in office in time to attend the Council of Clermont as Bishop of Beauvais in November 1095. Martin Bouquet; Michel-Jean-Joseph Brial (1877). Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France (in French and Latin). Tome quatorzieme (14) (nouvelle ed.). Gregg Press. p. 98. Roger is said to have been Keeper of the Seals, and to have died in Egypt during the First Crusade. François Duchesne, p. 164, expressed the view that the office of Garde des Sçeaux was established in 1095, and that the first holder of the office was Hambald; he makes no mention of Roger. Gallia christiana IX, p. 714, states that it was believed by some that this Roger is the same person as had been Chancellor of France in 1074, 1078, and 1080. Nothing in the documents cited, however, mentions Beauvais. Duchesne, pp. 158-159, attributing the notion to the brothers Sainte-Marthe. The idea that Roger resigned the diocese of Beauvais to go on crusade is rejected by Delettre, I, p. 548, who indicates that Roger had left the three archdeacons in charge, Hugues de Gerberoy, Lisiard, and Roger.
^Ansellus (Anselmus) was elected bishop of Beauvais, but his election was contested, due to the irregularities in the departure of Bishop Roger. Ansellus carried the matter to Pope Urban, who was holding a Council at Nîmes, and he received papal confirmation on 12 July 1096. Gallia christiana IX, pp. 714-715. J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XX, p. 937. Delettre, I, p. 559, places his death on 21 November 1100; Gams, p. 511 column 2, places it on 21 November 1099.
^Gualon was never installed, due to the intrusion of Étienne Garlande and the opposition of King Philip I. Instead Paschal II made Gualon papal legate in Poland. As legate he deposed two bishops, one of them the bishop of Cracow. In 1104, he was named Bishop of Paris and the See of Beauvais was declared vacant. Gallia christiana VII, p. 55. Augustinus Theiner (ed.), Caesaris S. R. E. Baronius Annales EcclesiasticiTomus octavusdecimus (Bar-le-Duc: Guerin ), pp. 125-126, 143. Baronius-Theiner, p. 148, places the mission to Poland in 1104.
^Bartholomew died on 17 May 1175: Delettre, II, pp. 143-161.
^Philippe was a son of Count Robert I of Dreux, and Agnes, Countess of Braine and Bar-sur-Seine; and thus nephew of Bishop Henry of France. Philippe wished to visit the Holy Land before his consecration; he was abroad from 1176 to 1179. On 1 November 1179 he participated in the coronation of Philip II Augustus as King of France. He was consecrated a bishop by Archbishop Guillaume de Champagne in Reims in 1180. He went on the Third Crusade in the summer of 1190 with his brother Robert II of Dreux, returning in 1197. While Richard the Lionheart was a prisoner in Germany, Philip II attacked his possessions in northern France, and when Richard was ransomed, he made war on Philip, during with Bishop Philippe was captured (c. 1196-1198). On the death of Archbishop Guillaume de Champagne of Reims in 1202, Philippe was a candidate for the office, with royal support, but his warlike spirit convinced the electors to look elsewhere. They tried Archdeacon Thibault de Perche, but he refused. They rejected Archdeacon Milon de Nantueil of Beauvais due to youth. Exasperated, King Philip II sent an embassy to Rome, and Pope Innocent III appointed Cardinal Guillaume Paré. Philippe was a participant the Albigensian Crusade. He died on 12 November 1217. Delettre, II, pp. 162-233.
^Milo was a participant in the Albigensian Crusade with King Louis VIII of France. He died on 6 September 1234. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I, p. 132.
^Godefredus had been Dean of the Chapter of the Cathedral of Beauvais since 1218. He was consecrated a bishop on 25 December 1234 by Henri de Dreux, Archbishop of Reims. He died in August 1236. Delettre, II, p. 273-283. Eubel, I, p. 132.
^There was a sede vacante of more than a year following the death of Bishop Godefrey, which resulted in several exchanges of letters between Pope Gregory IX and Louis IX. Finally Robert de Cressonsacq, whose father had participated in the taking of Constantinople in 1203, and who was Dean of the Chapter of the Cathedral, was chosen. Robert was elected in August 1237, and took possession on 24 August. He dedicated the Église Saint-Étienne de Cambronne-lès-Clermont. In 1247 he took part in the council held in Paris by Louis IX, to arrange for the crusade which had been voted at the Council of Lyon in 1245, and in August of 1248 he was one of the crusaders who departed for Cyprus. He died in Cyprus of one of the usual campaigning diseases, during the Seventh Crusade, on 1 October 1248. Guillaume de Nangis claims that he returned from crusade and died in 1253; this view is contradicted by the documentary evidence showing his successor in office in 1250. His nephew, also named Robert de Cressonsacq, became Bishop of Senlis (1260-c. 1283). Delettre, II, p. 284-308. Eubel, I, p. 132, 451.
^Guillaume died on 22 February 1267. Delettre, II, pp. 309-327. Eubel, I, p. 132.
^Renaud, a brother of Philippe de Nanteuil, and Dean of the Chapter, was elected by the Chapter of the Cathedral of Beauvais on 31 March 1267, and was approved by Pope Clement IV on 10 July 1267. He died on 27 September 1283. Delettre, II, pp. 328-350. Eubel, I, p. 132 with note 3.
^Thibaud, Seigneur of Nanteuil, son of Philippe de Nanteuil, was the nephew of Bishop Renaud de Nanteuil. He quickly rose through the ranks of the Cathedral Chapter, first being Canon, then Cantor, then Dean and Archdeacon. He was elected in October 1283, and sat as Bishop-elect in the Parlement of 1283. He was present at the Council of Reims in 1287. He died on 26 December 1300. Delettre, II, pp. 351-367. Eubel, I, p. 132.
^Miles de Dormans was the son of Guillaume de Dormans and nephew of Cardinal Jean de Dormans (above). He was a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law). He had been President-Clerk of the Court of Finances of Paris (1376-1380), and Chancellor of Charles VI (1380-1383). He had been Archdeacon of Meaux, and then Bishop of Angers (1371-1374), and Bishop of Bayeux (1374-1375) for seven months. He was approved as Bishop of Beauvais by Pope Gregory XI on 31 January 1375. He died on 17 August 1387. Delettre, II, pp. 472-485. Eubel, I, pp. 88, 125, 132.
^Guillaume de Vienne had previously been Abbot of the Benedictine Monastery of S. Secanus (diocese of Langres), and was then Bishop of Autun (1379-1387); he was appointed to Beauvais by Clement VII on 26 August 1387. He was named Archbishop of Rouen on 29 March 1389. Delettre, II, pp. 486-490. Eubel, I, pp. 73, 132, 426.
^Thomas d'Estouteville was a relative of Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, brother of Bishop Guillaume d'Estouteville of Lisieux. He was a Master of Requests at the Royal Court from 1382 to 1388. He was appointed Bishop of Beauvais by Pope Clement VII on 29 March 1389, and died on 22 March 1395. Delettre, II, pp. 491-500. Eubel, I, p. 132.
^Louis d'Orleans was the illegitimate son of Philip, Duke of Orléans who was the fifth son of King Philip VI of France. Louis had previously been Archdeacon of Cambrai and then Bishop of Poitiers (1391-1395). He was appointed Bishop of Beauvais by Benedict XIII (Avignon Obedience) on 2 April 1395. Charles VI sent him as ambassador to Hungary and Bohemia in 1396, to discuss plans to get the two competing popes in the Great Western Schism to resign. He died in Jerusalem in 1397, before 27 March, when the news of his death reached Paris. Delettre, II, pp. 501-509. Eubel, I, p. 132, 399.
^Pierre's father and brother were Chamberlains of King Charles VI. Pierre had previously been Treasurer of the Chapter of Saint Martin of Tours, and then Bishop of Le Mans (1385-1398); and on 16 January 1398, he was transferred by Benedict XIII to Beauvais. He took part in the Assembly of Paris which began on 22 May 1398, which discussed withdrawing the right of either pope to appoint to benefices in France, and whether to withdraw obedience from Benedict XIII; on 27 July 1398 King Charles VI signed an ordinance which did so (which was withdrawn on 30 May 1403). In 1406 he was a member of an embassy to Pope Benedict, to attempt to compose the quarrel between him and France, which did not succeed. The clergy assembled again in Paris and again definitively revoked their obedience. He also participated in an assembly of the clergy at Reims in August 1408, which decided that France would adhere to neither obedience. Pierre de Savoisy attended the Council of Pisa, which met from 25 March to 2 August 1409 and which deposed both popes. During his absence the diocese was administered by Pierre's nephew Henri, who was his Vicar General. He died on 13 September 1412. Delettre, II, pp. 511-529. Eubel, I, pp. 132, 181.
^Assembling on 16 November 1412, the Chapter of Beauvais was in the process of conducting an election of a successor of Pierre de Savoisy, when they were interrupted by the royal Chamberlain, who announced that the King had nominated Bishop Bernard of Amiens and written to the Pope; therefore he required that the Chapter, in conducting its election, might choose none other than Bishop Bernard. The Chapter instead resigned the election to the decision of the Pope. Bernard had previously been Bishop of Agen (1395-1398) by appointment of Benedict XIII, Bishop of Saintes (1398-1411), and then Bishop of Amiens (1411-1413) by appointment of Pope John XXIII. He was transferred to Beauvais by John XXIII on 29 March 1413, and made his formal entry on 17 January 1414. He died on 16 February 1420. Delettre, II, pp. 530-545. Eubel, I, pp. 37, 85, 132, 537.
^Cochon was appointed Bishop of Beauvais 21 August 1420 by Pope Martin V. He presided at the trial of Jeanne d'Arc (died 30 May 1431). Because of his trafficking with the English, especially his participation in the coronation of Henry VI in Paris on 17 December 1431, Cauchon's diocese and its revenues were sequestered by King Charles VII. He was transferred to the diocese of Lisieux on 29 January 1432. He died in 1442. Delettre, III, pp. 1-24. Eubel, I, p. 132; II, p. 136.
^Jean Juvenal was appointed to the diocese of Beauvais on 29 January 1432. He was transferred to the diocese of Laon on 3 April 1444, and on 9 October 1444 to the diocese of Reims. Delettre, III, pp. 25-43. Eubel, III, pp. 104, 173, 222.
^Guillaume de Hellande was the choice of King Charles VII, and he was appointed by Pope Eugene IV on 3 April 1444. The only part played by the Chapter of Beauvais was in registering the documents. Guillaume de Hellande died on 3 April 1462. Delettre, III, pp. 44-56. Eubel, III, p. 104.
^L'Isle-Adam was the last prelate elected by the Chapter of Beauvais. Thereafter the bishops were nominated by the King of France, and approved (preconised) by the pope, in accordance with the terms of the Concordat of Bologna.
^Charles de Bourbon, son of Charles, Duke of Vendôme, fought with the French Holy League against Henri III and then against Henri IV, claiming to be rightful King of France. He was captured, imprisoned, and executed.
^Potier's father had been Chancellor of Queen Catherine. René Potier had been Grand Aumônier of Queen Anne of Austria. At the time of his nomination, he had not yet received even minor holy orders. He was nominated Bishop of Beauvais by King Henri IV, and was preconised (approved) by Pope Clement VIII on 23 September 1596. He was consecrated in Paris at Saint-Geneviève on 24 February by the Bishop of Paris, Pierre de Gondi. His solemn entry into Beauvais took place on 29 October 1598. He participated in the funeral of Henri IV and the coronation of Louis XIII in 1610, and in the Estates General of 1614. He died on 4 October 1616. Delettre, III, pp. 354-376. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 113.
^Augustin Potier, son of the King's state secretary and nephew of Bishop René Potier, his predecessor, had been Grand Aumônier of Queen Anne of Austria, who, on the death of Louis XIII in 1643, named Potier first minister, but the appointment was revoked by the intrigues of Cardinal Mazarin. On 11 May 1650 he received the acceptance of his resignation by the King, due to age and illness, and died on 20 June 1650. Delettre, III, pp. 377-438. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 113.
^Forbin-Janson had previously been Coadjutor and then (1664) Bishop of Digne (1655-1668), and Bishop of Marseille (1668-1679). He was created a cardinal by Pope Alexander VIII on 13 February 1690. He was granted his bulls of transfer in Consistory by Pope Innocent XII on 25 September 1679. He died in Paris on 24 March 1713. Gauchat, IV, p. 174. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, pp. 117 with note 2; 260 with note 2.
^A native of Rennes, Lesquen emigrated during the Revolution and served in the royalist army of Condé from 1795-1797. He was ordained in 1806, and rose to be Canon of Brieuc and then Vicar General of Rennes (1817). He was named Bishop of Beauvais by Louis XVIII on 13 January 1823, and was preconised by Pius VII on 16 May. He was consecrated on 13 July by the Archbishop of Aix. Lesquen reestablished the Chapter of the Cathedral and reopened the Major Seminary. On 12 January 1825 he was named by King Charles X of France to be Bishop of Rennes, and was preconised (approved) by Pope Leo XII on 21 March. He died on 17 July 1855. L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 115, 511-512. Ritzler-Sefrin, VII, p. 109.
^Feutrier was appointed by Charles X on 31 January 1825, and preconised by Leo XII on 21 March. He was consecrated in Paris on 24 April 1825 by Archbishop Hyacinthe Quélen, and made his solemn entry into Beauvais on 22 May. He was named Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs by Charles X on 3 March 1828. On 16 June he signed orders expelling the Jesuits from eight minor seminaries and forbade their being hired by any other educational institutions run by the clergy. His action was protested by 73 archbishops and bishops, forever damaging his reputation. L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 115-116. Ritzler-Sefrin, VII, p. 109.
^Lemercier was the son of a lawyer of Beauvais. At the Revolution he was director of the Collège de Nevers, but he refused the oath to the Constitution and emigrated. Under Napoleon he became Vicar of Rouen, and then returned to Beauvais where he became a parish priest. He was named Bishop of Beauvais on 7 September 1832 at the age of 74 by Louis-Philippe, and preconised by Gregory XVI on 17 December. He was consecrated in Paris on 10 February 1833 by Archbishop Hyacinthe Quélen. Age forced his retirement in 1838, though he survived until 1843. L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 117. Ritzler-Sefrin, VII, p. 109.
^Cottret: L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 117-118. Ritzler-Sefrin, VII, p. 109.
^Gignoux: L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 118-120. Ritzler-Sefrin, VII, p. 109.
^Hasley: L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 120. Ritzler-Sefrin, VIII, p. 135, 145, 176.
^Dennel was later Bishop of Arras. L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 120-121. Ritzler-Sefrin, VIII, pp. 129, 145.
^Peronne: L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 121.
^Fuzet was later Archbishop of Rouen. L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 122.
^Douais: L. Pihan, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 122.