Bijelo Dugme
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Bijelo Dugme
Bijelo Dugme
Dugme 1974.jpg
The default Bijelo Dugme lineup. Standing: Zoran Red?i?; sitting, from left to right: Vlado Pravdi?, Goran Bregovi?, ?eljko Bebek, Ipe Ivandi?.
Background information
OriginSarajevo, SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia
1974 (1974)-1989 (1989)
(reunions: 2005)
LabelsJugoton, Diskoton, Kamarad, Croatia Records
Kodeksi, Jutro, Indexi, Smak, Formula 4, Te?ka Industrija, Amila, Divlje Jagode, Vatreni Poljubac
Goran Bregovi?
?eljko Bebek
Jadranko Stankovi?
Vlado Pravdi?
Ipe Ivandi?
Zoran Red?i?
Mili? Vuka?inovi?
Laza Ristovski
?i?i Jankeli?
Mladen Voji?i?
Alen Islamovi?

Bijelo Dugme (trans. White Button) was a Yugoslav rock band, based in Sarajevo. Bijelo Dugme is widely considered to have been the most popular band ever to exist in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and one of the most important acts of the Yugoslav rock scene.

Bijelo Dugme was officially formed in 1974, although the members of the default lineup, guitarist Goran Bregovi?, vocalist ?eljko Bebek, drummer Ipe Ivandi?, keyboardist Vlado Pravdi? and bass guitarist Zoran Red?i?, were previously active under the name Jutro. The band's debut album Kad bi bio bijelo dugme, released in 1974, brought them nationwide popularity with its Balkan folk-influenced hard rock sound. The band's future several releases, featuring similar sound, maintained their huge popularity, described by the media as "Dugmemania", and the band's work, especially their symphonic ballads with poetic lyrics, was also widely praised by the critics. In the early 1980s, with the emergence of Yugoslav new wave scene, the band moved towards new wave, managing to remain one of the most popular bands in the country. After the departure of Bebek in 1983, the band was joined by vocalist Mladen Voji?i? "Tifa", with whom the band recorded only one, self-titled album. The band's last vocalist, Alen Islamovi?, joined the band in 1986, and with him Bijelo Dugme recorded two albums, disbanding, with the rising tensions in Yugoslavia, in 1989. In 2005, the band reunited in the lineup that featured most of the musicians that passed through the band, including all three vocalists, for three concerts, in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Zagreb, Croatia and in Belgrade, Serbia.


The beginnings (1969-73)

Kodeksi (1969-71)

The band's history begins in 1969. At the time, the future leader of Bijelo Dugme, Goran Bregovi?, was the bass guitarist in the band Be?tije (trans. The Beasts).[1] He was spotted by Kodeksi (The Codexes) vocalist ?eljko Bebek. As Kodeksi needed a bass guitarist, on Bebek's suggestion, Bregovi? became a member of the band.[1] The band's lineup consisted of Ismeta Dervoz (vocals), Edo Bogelji? (guitar), ?eljko Bebek (rhythm guitar and vocals), Goran Bregovi? (bass guitar), and Luciano Paganotto (drums).[1] At the time, the band Pro Arte was also interested in hiring Bregovi?, but he decided to stay with Kodeksi.[1] After performing in a night club in Dubrovnik, Kodeksi were hired to perform in a club in Naples, Italy.[1] However, the parents of the only female member, Ismeta Dervoz, did not allow her to go to Italy.[2] In Naples, the band initially performed covers of songs by Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience, but were soon asked to perform music more suitable for night clubs.[3] After two months, the band's guitarist Edo Bogelji? returned to Sarajevo to continue his studies, and Bregovi? switched to guitar.[3] Local Italian musician called Fernando Savino was brought in to play the bass,[3] but after he quit too, Bebek called up old friend Zoran Red?i?, formerly of the band ?i?ak (Burdock).[1] Red?i? in turn brought along his bandmate from ?i?ak Mili? Vuka?inovi? as replacement on drums for Paganotto, who also quit in the meantime.[1] Vuka?inovi? brought new musical influences along the lines of what Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath were doing at the time. Additionally, he convinced Bregovi?, Bebek and Red?i? on incorporating the new sound into their set,[1] and within two weeks of his arrival, Kodeksi were fired from all the places they were playing.[1]

The foursome of Bebek, Bregovi?, Red?i? and Vuka?inovi? stayed on the island of Capri and in 1970 relocated back to Naples.[1] At this time, the other three members persuaded Bebek to stop playing the rhythm guitar reasoning that it was not fashionable any more.[1] Bebek also had trouble adapting to the new material vocally. He would sing the intro on most songs and then step back as the other three members improvised for the remainder of songs, with Vuka?inovi? taking the vocal duties more and more often.[1] After being a key band member only several months earlier, Bebek thought his role was gradually being reduced.[1] During the fall of 1970, he left Kodeksi to return to Sarajevo.[1]

Vuka?inovi?, Bregovi?, and Red?i? continued to perform, but had to return to Sarajevo in the spring of 1971, when Bregovi?'s mother and Red?i?'s brother came to Italy to bring them back.[1] Upon returning, the trio had only one concert in Sarajevo, performing under the name Mi?a, Goran i Zoran (Mi?a, Goran and Zoran). At the concert, they performed covers of songs by Cream, Jimi Hendrix Experience, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Ten Years After, Taste, Free, and managed to thrill the audience.[4] Soon after, the trio got the opportunity to appear in a Television Sarajevo show, but under the condition that they record a song of their own.[5] Hastily composed and recorded "Ja i zvezda sjaj" ("Me and the Stars' Glow") was of poor quality and little artistic value,[5] which influenced Vuka?inovi?'s decision to move to London.[5] He left Sarajevo in late summer of 1971, and the trio ended their activity.[1]

Jutro (1971-73)

At the autumn of 1971, guitarist Ismet Arnautali? invited Bregovi? to form Jutro (Morning).[1] The band's lineup featured, alongside Arnautali? and Bregovi?, Red?i? on bass, Gordan Matrak on drums and vocalist Zlatko Hodnik.[1] Bregovi? wrote his first songs as a member of Jutro.[1] The band had made some recordings with Hodnik when Bregovi? decided they needed a vocalist with more aggressive vocal style, so he invited Bebek to become the band's new singer.[6] With Bebek, the band recorded the song "Patim, evo, deset dana" ("I've Been Suffering for Ten Days"), which was, in 1972, released as the B-side of the single "Ostajem tebi" ("I Remain Yours"), which was recorded with Hodnik.[1] After the song recording, Bebek left the band to serve the army, but the rest of the band decided to wait for his return to continue their activity.[1]

During Bebek's short leave from the army, the band recorded four more songs: "Kad bi' bio bijelo dugme" ("If I Were a White Button"), "U subotu, mala" ("On Saturday, Baby"), "Na vrh brda vrba mrda" (the title being a traditional tongue-twister) and "Hop-cup" ("Whoopsie Daisy"), the first two appearing on a 7" single.[1] Dissatisfied with the music direction the band was moving towards, Arnautali? left the band at the end of 1972, convinced that the right to the name Jutro should belong to him.[1] For some time, guitarist Midorag "Bata" Kosti?, a former member of YU Grupa, rehearsed with the band, but this cooperation was soon ended.[6] YU Grupa were one of the pioneers in combining elements of the traditional music of the Balkans with rock, and Bregovi? would later state on number of occasions that this cooperation influenced Bijelo Dugme's folk rock sound.[1] After Matrak left the band, he was replaced by Perica Stojanovi?, who was shortly after replaced by former Pro Arte member Vladimir Borov?anin "?ento".[7] Borov?anin tried to secure a record contract with Jugoton, but lost faith in his new band after he failed.[7] He and Red?i? neglected rehearsals, and both left the band after an argument with Bregovi?.[7]

Red?i? was replaced by Ivica Vinkovi?, who was at the time a regular member of Ambasadori, but was not able to travel with the band on their Soviet Union tour.[8] Borov?anin was replaced by former Mobi Dik (Moby Dick) and Rok (Rock) member Goran "Ipe" Ivandi?.[8] Instead of second guitar, Bregovi? decided to include keyboards in the band's new lineup. Experienced Vlado Pravdi?, a former member of Ambasadori and Indexi, became Jutro's keyboardist.[9] The band prepared several songs for the recording in Radio Sarajevo's studio, but Arnautali? pulled his connections, and Jutro's recording sessions were cancelled.[8] However, the band managed to make an agreement with producer Nikola Borota Radovan, who allowed them to secretly record the songs "Top" ("Cannon") and "Ove ?u no?i na?i blues" ("This Night I'll Find the Blues") in the studio.[8] The intro to "Top" was inspired by traditional ganga music.[10] Soon after, Vinkovi? rejoined Ambasadori, and was replaced by Jadranko Stankovi?, a former member of Sekcija (Section) and Rok.[11]

At this time, the band adopted the name Bijelo Dugme. They decided to change the name because of the conflict with Aranautali?,[11] but also because of the existence of another, Ljubljana-based band with the name Jutro.[1] As the band was already known for the song "Kad bi' bio bijelo dugme", they choose the name Bijelo Dugme.[1] The band officially started working under this name from January 1974.[1]

?eljko Bebek years (1974-84)

"Shepherd rock" years: rise to fame and "Dugmemania" (1974-79)

In January 1974, with Borota, the band finished their work on the "Top" and "Ove ?u no?i na?i blues" recordings.[12] The band and Borota offered these recordings to the Sarajevo-based record label Diskoton. The music editor Slobodan Vujovi? refused them, stating that there was already a great number of signed acts and that Bijelo Dugme would have to wait for at least six months for the single to be released.[1][12] This is widely considered the greatest business mistake in the history of Yugoslav record publishing.[1][12] On the same day the band were refused by Diskoton, they were offered a five-year contract with Zagreb-based Jugoton.[12] On March 29, 1974, "Top" and "Ove ?u no?i na?i blues" were released on a 7" single.[10] Bijelo Dugme's first release would be sold in 30,000 copies.[13]

The band started promoting the single, performing mostly in smaller towns.[1] Stankovi?, unsatisfied with the agreement that only Bregovi? would compose the band's songs and feeling he did not fit in with the rest of the members, continued to perform with Bijelo Dugme, but avoided any deeper relations.[14] Soon after, Bregovi?, Bebek, Ivandi? and Pravdi? decided to exclude him from the band.[15] Red?i? was invited to join the band, which he accpeted, despite his previous conflict with Bregovi?.[15] The following 7" single, featuring songs "Glavni junak jedne knjige" ("The Main Character of a Book"), with lyrics written by poet Du?ko Trifunovi?, and "Bila mama Kukunka, bio tata Taranta" ("There Was Mommy Kukunka, There Was Daddy Taranta"), was almost at the same time released by both Jugoton and Diskoton, as Bregovi? signed contracts with both of the labels.[1] This scandal brought huge press covering and increased the record sale.[1]

The band had their first bigger performance at the 1974 BOOM Festival in Ljubljana, where they were announced as "the new hopes".[1] The live version of "Ove ?u no?i na?i blues" appeared on the double live album Pop Festival Ljubljana '74 - BOOM.[15] This was also Bijelo Dugme's first performance on which the members of the group appeared in their glam rock outfits, which brought them new attention of the media.[15] The band spent the summer performing in Cavtat and preparing songs for their first album.[1] They soon released their third single, with the songs "Da sam pekar" ("If I Was a Baker") and "Selma".[1] "Da sam pekar" was musically inspired by the traditional "deaf kolo", while "Selma", with lyrics written by poet Vlado Dijak, was a hard rock ballad.[16] Some 100,000 copies of the single were sold, becoming Bijelo Dugme's first gold record.[17]

During September, the band performed as the opening band for Tihomir "Pop" Asanovi?'s Jugoslovenska Pop Selekcija, and during the October, in studio Akademik in Ljubljana, they recorded their debut album Kad bi' bio bijelo dugme.[1] Several days before the album release, wanting to appear in the media as much as possible, Bijelo Dugme performed at the Skopje Festival, playing the song "Edna nade?" ("One Hope") by composer Grigor Koprov.[18] Bregovi? later described this event as "the greatest disgrace in Bijelo Dugme's career".[1] Bebek sung in bad Macedonian, and the band did not fit in well in the ambient of a pop festival.[1] On the next evening, the band performed, alongside Pop Ma?ina, Smak and Crni Biseri, in Belgrade's Dom Sindikata, on the Radio Belgrade show Ve?e uz radio (Evening by the Radio) anniversary celebration, and managed to win the audience's attention.[19] At the time, Bijelo Dugme cooperated with manager Vladimir Mihaljek, who managed to arrange the band's performance as an opening band on Korni Grupa's farewell concert in Sarajevo's Skenderija, which won them new fans, as about 15,000 people in the audience were thrilled with Bijelo Dugme's performance.[19]

Kad bi' bio bijelo dugme, featuring a provocative cover designed by Dragan S. Stefanovi? (who would also design covers for the band's future releases), saw huge success.[19] It brought a number of commercial hard rock songs with folk music elements, which were described as "pastirski rok" (shepherd rock) by journalist Dra?en Vrdoljak.[19] This term was (and still is) sometimes used by the Yugoslav critics in order to classify Bijelo Dugme's sound.[20][21] The album featured the new version of "Kad bi' bio bijelo dugme", "Patim, evo, deset dana", "Sve ?u da ti dam samo da zaigram" ("I Will Give Everything to You Only to Dance"), ballad "Selma", blues track "Blues za moju biv?u dragu" ("Blues for My Former Darling") and rock and roll-influenced hit "Ne spavaj, mala moja, muzika dok svira" ("Don't You Sleep, Baby, while the Music Is Playing").[19] Immediately after the release, the album broke the record for the best selling Yugoslav rock album, previously held by YU Grupa's debut album, which was sold in more than 30,000 copies.[19] In February 1975, Bijelo Dugme was awarded a gold record at the Opatija Festival, as they, up to that moment, sold their debut album in more than 40,000 copies. The final number of copies sold was about 141,000.[19]

Bijelo Dugme and collaborators in London's AIR Studios on Oxford Street in November 1975 during the recording of ?ta bi dao da si na mom mjestu; from left to right: sound engineer Peter Henderson, producer Neil Harrison, Ipe Ivandi?, Goran Bregovi?, ?eljko Bebek, Vlado Pravdi?, and Jugoton executive Veljko Despot.

In late February 1975, Mihaljek organized Kongres rock majstora (Congress of Rock Masters), an event conceptualized as a competition between the best Yugoslav guitarists at the time.[19] Although Smak guitarist Radomir Mihajlovi? To?ak left the best impression on the gathered crowd, he was not officially recognized due to his band not being under contract with Jugoton, a record label that financially supported the competition.[19] Instead, Vedran Bo?i? (of Time), Josip Bo?ek (formerly of Korni Grupa), Bata Kosti? (of YU Grupa), and Bregovi? were proclaimed the best.[19] Each of them got to record one side on the Kongres rock majstora double album. While the other three guitarists recorded their songs with members of YU Grupa, Bregovi? decided to work with his own band and Zagreb String Quartet.[19] After the album was released, the four guitarists went on a joint tour, on which they were supported by YU Grupa members.[19] At the time, Bijelo Dugme released the single "Da mi je znati koji joj je vrag" ("If I Could Just Know What the Hell Is Wrong with Her"),[19] after which they started their first big Yugoslav tour.[19] In the spring of 1975, they were already considered the most popular Yugoslav band.[19] Soon after, Bebek took part in an event similar to Kongres rock majstora -- Rock Fest '75, the gathering of the most popular Yugoslav singers of the time; besides Bebek, the event featured Martin ?krgati? (of Grupa Martina ?krgati?a), Mato Do?en (of Hobo), Aki Rahimovski (of Parni Valjak), Seid Memi? "Vajta" (of Te?ka Industrija), Boris Aran?elovi? (of Smak), Hrvoje Marjanovi? (of Grupa 220) Dado Topi? (of Time) and Janez Bon?ina "Ben?" (of September).[22]

Before the recording of their second album, Bijelo Dugme went to the village Borike in Eastern Bosnia in order to work on the songs and prepare for the recording sessions.[19] The album ?ta bi dao da si na mom mjestu (Wouldn't You Like to Be in My Place) was recorded in London during November 1975.[19] It was produced by Neil Harrison[19] who previously worked with Cockney Rebel and Gonzalez.[23] The bass guitar on the album was played by Bebek, as Red?i? injured his middle finger just before the recording sessions started.[19] Nevertheless, Red?i? was credited on the album, as he worked on the bass lines, and directed Bebek during the recording.[24] The lyrics for the title track were written by Du?ko Trifunovi?, while the rest of the lyrics were written by Bregovi?.[19] The main album hits were "Tako ti je, mala moja, kad ljubi Bosanac" ("That's How It Is, Baby, When You Kiss a Bosnian"), "Do?ao sam da ti ka?em da odlazim" ("I've Come to Tell You that I'm Leaving"), "Ne gledaj me tako i ne ljubi me vi?e" ("Don't Look at Me like that and Kiss Me no More") and "Po?urite, konji moji" ("Be Faster, My Horses").[19] The band used the time spent in studio to record an English language song "Playing the Part", released on promo single which was distributed to journalists.[19] "Playing the Part" lyrics were written by Dave Townsend.[25] The album was a huge commercial success,[19] selling more than 200,000 copies.[19] After the first 50,000 records were sold, ?ta bi dao da si na mom mjestu became the first Yugoslav album to be credited as diamond record.[26] After it was sold in more than 100,000 copies, it became the first platinum record in the history of Yugoslav record publishing, and after it was sold in more that 200,000 copies it was branded simply as "2x diamond record".[26] After the album release the band went on a warming-up tour across Kosovo and Metohija. During the tour, injured Red?i? was replaced by former Kamen na Kamen member Mustafa "Mute" Kurtali?.[19] The album's initial promotion was scheduled to take place on the band's New Year's 1976 concert at Belgrade Sports Hall in Belgrade, with Pop Ma?ina, Buldo?er and Cod as the opening bands.[27] However, five days before New Year's, the band canceled the concert due to getting invited to perform for Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito at the Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb, as part of the New Year's celebration being organized for him.[27] Their performance was, however, stopped after only several minutes, reputedly because of the loudness.[19]

The oldest visitors of their concerts, which, like an epidemics, ravened during two months through all Yugoslav cities with more than 30,000 people, are not older than 15. If they are, they are mental coevals of ten-year-olds. Even for than unripe age of man's life, the lyrics: 'I will give my life, 'cause you're mine only, in that love, only love' seemed too moronic. The Buttons, original also when it comes to costumes, on their five inch heels, with earrings and trinkets, colored their 'lyrics' with 'traditional ghenes'. [...]

On their latest LP record there is a posterior with fingers pressed into it. They sold more than 600,000 records, and held 200 concerts during the last 365 days.

Bijelo Dugme is a peak of a wave of youth subculture. In this country there are also the League of Socialist Youth, the Institute for Social Issues, musical experts, serious publicists and press, radio and television. But neither institutions neither individuals had the courage (although they have interest) to establish the counterpoint to roistering advertising through something every society must have - through critical conscience. Not to execute or anathematize, but to knowingly lighten social life. Facing the masquerade, electronic music, vulgar lyrics, society's scientific minds pushed their heads deep into sand.

-Sergije Luka?
March 28, 1976[28]

Energy, as we know, can not be lost, although it often seemed to me that today's youth has lost it. More and more young chairwarmers appeared, ready to ape the older ones [...] In Dom Sportova, that pure energy of youth appeared in a fascinating form, equal to the concrete colossus in which it was, but collectively subjected to rock syntax.

That sort of joy and that sort of spontaneity, that sort of sensitivity and that sort of togetherness are possible only with creative spirits, which do not bargain for their position, but simply share it with the others, the same, the equal. With the sounds that tear to pieces everything that does not subject to them (I myself felt minced), with blinding games of light, in the whirlpool of young bodies uncaring for their small spot, an event which will be remembered was created, an event which, in my opinion, Bijelo Dugme accidentally set in motion.

That event was in the air, as a need of one generation of teenagers pinched between existing tepid culture and imperatives of their young nature. The instruments of Bijelo Dugme were only the electric lighter for those explosive masses, which started the run for their mythology, their culture, their values...

The generation which found its Bijelo Dugme will more likely find its Bach than the generation for which Bach is a social norm, which is dressed in its formal suit and locked in its concert chair.

-Veselko Tend?era
March 28, 1976[29]

As Red?i? had to leave the band due to his army obligations, a bass guitarist for live performances had to be hired.[30] Kurtali? asked for higher fees, so the new temporary bassist became Formula 4 leader Ljubi?a Raci?.[30] This lineup of the band went on a large Yugoslav tour.[19] In Sarajevo the band performed in front of 15,000 people and in Belgrade they held three sold out concerts in Pionir Hall, with approximately 6,000 people per concert.[31] On the concerts, the band for the first time introduced a set of several songs performed unplugged.[31] The press coined the term "Dugmemanija" (Buttonmania) and the socialist public went into an argument over the phenomena.[19]

At the beginning of 1976, the band planned to hold a United States tour, however they gave up the idea after the suspicion that the planned concerts were organized by pro-usta?e emigrants from Yugoslavia.[19] The band did go to United States, but only to record the songs "D?ambo" ("Jumbo") and "Vatra" ("Fire"), which were released as Ivandi?'s solo single,[19] and "Milovan" and "Goodbye, Amerika" ("Goodbye, America"), which were released as Bebek's solo single.[19] The records represented the introduction of funk elements to Bijelo Dugme sound.[32] It was during the band's staying in America that Bregovi? managed to persuade Bebek, Pravdi? and Ivandi? to sign a waiver, with which they relinquished the rights to the name Bijelo Dugme in favor of Bregovi?.[33] In June, the band members went to the youth work action Kozara 76, which was Bregovi?'s response to the claims that the band's members were "pro-Western oriented".[19] At the beginning of autumn, Ivandi? and Pravdi? left the band due to their army obligations.[19] They were replaced by Vuka?inovi? (who, in the meantime, joined Indexi) and Laza Ristovski, whose moving from Smak (at the time Bijelo Dugme's main competitors on the Yugoslav rock scene) saw huge covering in the media.[19]

The band prepared for the recording of their third album in Borike.[19] The album's working title was Sve se dijeli na dvoje, na tvoje i moje (Everything Is Split in Two, Yours and Mine) after Du?ko Trifunovi?'s poem.[19] Bregovi? did not manage to write the music on the lyrics (they were later used for the song recorded by Jadranka Stojakovi?),[19] so he intended to name the album Ho?u bar jednom da budem blesav (For Once I Want to Be Crazy), but Jugoton editors did not like this title.[19] The album was eventually titled Eto! Ba? ho?u! (There! I Will!).[19] The album was once again recorded in London with Harrison as the producer and Bebek playing the bass guitar. It was released on December 20, 1976.[19] The album hits included hard rock-oriented "Izgledala je malo ?udno u kaputu ?utom krojenom bez veze" ("She Looked a Little Bit Weird in a Yellow Sillymade Coat") and "Dede bona, sjeti se, de tako ti svega" ("Come on, Remember, for God's Sake"), folk-oriented "Slatko li je ljubit' tajno" ("It's So Sweet to Kiss Secretly"), simple tune "Ni?ta mudro" ("Nothing Clever", featuring lyrics written by Du?ko Trifunovi?) and two ballads, symphonic-oriented "Sanjao sam no?as da te nemam" ("I Dreamed Last Night that I Didn't Have You") and simpler "Lo?e vino" ("Bad Wine", written by Bregovi? and singer-songwriter Arsen Dedi? and originally recorded by singer Zdravko ?oli?).[19] In the meantime, Raci? asked for higher payment, so he got fired.[19] He was replaced by Sanin Kari?, who was at the time a member of Te?ka Industrija.[19] This lineup of the band went on a Polish tour on which they were announced as "the leading band among young Yugoslav groups". They held nine successful concerts across Poland.[19] After the band's return from Poland, Red?i? and Ivandi? rejoined them.[34] After leaving Bijelo Dugme, Vuka?inovi? would form the hard rock/heavy metal band Vatreni Poljubac.[35]

The band went on a Yugoslav tour, but experienced problems during it. The clashes within the band were becoming more and more frequent,[34] the concerts were followed by technical difficulties and bad reviews in the press,[36] and the audience was not interested in the band's concerts as it was during previous tours.[34] Three concerts in Belgrade's Pionir Hall, on March 3, 4 and 5, were not well attended, and the second one had to be ended too early after the shock wave from the Vrancea earthquake was felt.[37] The Adriatic coast tour was canceled, as well as concerts in Zagreb and Ljubljana for which the recording of a live album was planned.[34] After four years, Bijelo Dugme saw a decline in popularity and rumors about the band's disbandment appeared in the media.[34]

The band wanted to organize some sort of spectacle to help their decreased popularity.[34] On the idea of journalist Peca Popovi?, the band decided to hold a free open-air concert at Belgrade's Hajdu?ka ?esma on August 28, 1977.[34] Jutro had already performed on this location in 1973, on a concert organized by Pop Ma?ina.[34] The concert would also be Bijelo Dugme's last concert before the hiatus due to Bregovi?'s army duty.[34] The whole event was organized in only five days.[38] Between 70,000 and 100,000 spectators attended the concert, which was the biggest number of spectators on a rock concert in Yugoslavia until then.[34] After the opening acts -- Sla?ana Milo?evi?, Tako, Zdravo, D?ad?o, Suncokret, Ibn Tup and Leb i Sol[38] -- Bijelo Dugme played a very successful concert.[34] Despite the fact that the concert was secured by only twelve police officers,[39] there were no larger incidents.[40] Video recordings from the concert appeared in Mi?a Milo?evi?'s film Tit for Tat.[34] Eventually, it was discovered that the recordings could not be used for the live album, as the sound was bad due to technical limitations and the wide open space, so the band, on October 25 of the same year, played a concert in ?uro Jankovi? Hall in Sarajevo, the recording of which was used for the live album Koncert kod Hajdu?ke ?esme (The Concert at Hajdu?ka ?esma).[34] The only part of the Hajdu?ka ?esma concert that appeared on the album were the recordings of the audience's reactions.[34]

After Koncert kod Hajdu?ke ?esme was mixed, Bregovi? went to serve the army in Ni? and the band went on hiatus;[34]Melody Maker wrote about Bijelo Dugme's hiatus as about an event "on the edge of national tragedy".[26] Red?i? continued to work on the Koncert kod hajdu?ke ?esme recordings, and a live version of "Dede, bona, sjeti se, de tako ti svega" was later used as a B-side for the single "Bitanga i princeza" ("The Brute and the Princess"), released in 1979.[34] In June 1978, Bebek released his first solo album, symphonic rock-oriented Skoro da smo isti (We're almost the Same),[34] which saw mostly negative reactions by the critics.[41] During the same year, Ristovski and Ivandi? recorded the album Sti?emo (Here We Come). The album, featuring lyrics by Ranko Boban, was recorded in London with Leb i Sol leader Vlatko Stefanovski on guitar, Zlatko Hold on bass guitar, and Goran Kova?evi? and Ivandi?'s sister Gordana on vocals.[34] They met Bregovi? during his leave and played him the recordings, believing they could persuade him to let them compose for Bijelo Dugme.[41] After he refused, the two, encouraged by the positive reactions of the critics which had the opportunity to listen to the material, decided to leave Bijelo Dugme.[34][41] However, on September 10, the same day for which the beginning of the promotional tour was scheduled, Ivandi?, alongside Goran Kova?evi? and Ranko Boban, was arrested for owning hashish.[42] Ivandi? was sentenced to spend three years in jail (Kova?evi? was sentenced to year and a half, and Boban to a year).[42] Before he went to serve the sentence, Ivandi? went to psychiatric sessions in order to prepare for the life in jail. The psychiatrist he went to see was Radovan Karad?i?.[43]

In June 1978, Bregovi? went to Sarajevo to receive a plaque from the League of Communist Youth of Bosnia and Herzegovina on the behalf of the band.[34] In the autumn of 1978, drummer ?i?i Jankeli?, who participated in the recording of Bebek's solo album, became Bijelo Dugme's new drummer, and Pravdi? returned to the band.[34] Jankeli? was previously a member of Formula 4 -- the lineup in which he played included both Ljubi?a Raci? and Jadranko Stankovi? -- Rok, ?isti Zrak and Rezonansa.[44] The band started preparing their new album in Ni?ka Banja, but, as Bregovi? was still serving the army, they definitely reunited in Sarajevo on November 1.[34] The new lineup of the band had their first performance in Skenderija on December 4, 1978.[45]

The band's fourth studio album was recorded in Belgrade and produced by Neil Harrison.[45] Several songs featured symphonic orchestra.[34] The making of the album was followed by censorship. The original cover, designed by Dragan Stefanovi? and featuring female leg kicking male's genital area, was refused by Jugoton as "vulgar"; instead, the album ended up featuring a cover designed by Jugoton's designer Ivan Ivezi?.[34] The verse "Koji mi je moj" ("What the fuck is wrong with me") was excluded from the song "Ala je glupo zaboravit njen broj" ("It's so Stupid to Forget Her Number"), and the verse "A Hrist je bio kopile i jad" ("And Christ was bastard and misery") from the song "Sve ?e to, mila moja, prekriti ruzmarin, snjegovi i ?a?" ("All of That, My Dear, Will Be Covered by Rosemary, Snow and Reed") was replaced with "A on je bio kopile i jad" ("And he was bastard and misery").[34] The album Bitanga i princeza (The Brute and the Princess) was released in March 1979 and praised by the critics as Bijelo Dugme's finest work until then.[34][46] The album did not feature any folk music elements, and brought songs "Bitanga i princeza", "Ala je glupo zaboravit njen broj", "Na zadnjem sjedi?tu mog auta" ("On the Back Seat of My Car"), "A koliko si ih imala do sad" ("And how Many of Them Have You Had Till Now"), and emotional ballads "Ipak po?elim neko pismo" ("Still, I Wish for a Letter"), "Kad zaboravi? juli" ("When You Forget July") and "Sve ?e to, mila moja, prekriti ruzmarin, snjegovi i ?a?", all becoming hits.[34] The album broke all the records held by their previous releases.[34] Twelve days before the promotional tour, Pravdi? had a car accident in which he broke his clavicle, so he performed on the initial several concerts using only one hand.[47] The tour, however, was highly successful.[34] The band managed to sell out Pionir Hall five times, dedicating all the money earned from these concerts (about 100,000 dollars) to the victims of the 1979 Montenegro earthquake.[48] On some of the concerts they were followed by Branko Krsmanovi? Choir and a symphonic orchestra.[34] On September 22, the band organized a concert under the name Rock spektakl '79. (Rock Spectacle 79) on JNA Stadium, with themselves as the headliners. The concert featured numerous opening acts: Crni Petak, Kilo i Po, Rok Apoteka, Galija, Kako, Mama Rock, Formula 4, Peta Rijeka, ?isti Zrak, Aerodrom, Opus, Senad od Bosne, Boomerang, Prva Ljubav, Revolver, Prljavo Kazali?te, Toma? Domicelj, Metak, Obe?anje Prolje?a, Suncokret, Parni Valjak, Generacija 5 and Siluete.[49] More than 70,000 people attended the concert.[34]

At the time, Bregovi? wrote film music for the first time, for Aleksandar Mandi?'s film Personal Affairs, and the songs "Pristao sam bi?u sve ?to ho?e" ("I Accepted to Be Anything They Want", with lyrics written by Du?ko Trifunovi?) and "?ta je tu je" ("Is What It Is") were recorded by Bijelo Dugme and released on a single record.[34] During 1980, Bregovi? spent some time in Paris, and the band was on hiatus.[34]

Do?ivjeti stotu: Switch to new wave (1980-82)

At the end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s, the Yugoslav rock scene saw the emergence of the great number of new wave bands, closely associated to the Yugoslav punk rock scene. Bregovi? was fascinated with the new scene, especially by the works of Azra and Prljavo Kazali?te.[50] During 1980, Bijelo Dugme decided to move towards new sound.[51]

In December 1980, Bijelo Dugme released new wave-influenced album Do?ivjeti stotu (Live to Be 100).[34] This was the first Bijelo Dugme album produced by Bregovi?.[34] Unlike the songs from the band's previous albums, which were prepared much before the album recording, most of the songs from Do?ivjeti stotu were created during the recording sessions.[52] As the recordings had to be finished before the scheduled mastering in London, Bregovi? had to use cocaine to stay awake, writing the lyrics in the nick of time.[53] The saxophone on the recording was played by jazz musician Jovan Maljokovi? and avant-garde musician Paul Pignon.[54] From the songs on Do?ivjeti stotu, only the new version of "Pristao sam bi?u sve ?to ho?e" and "Pjesma mom mla?em bratu" ("The Song for My Little Brother") resembled Bijelo Dugme's old sound.[34] The songs "Ha ha ha" and "Tramvaj kre?e (ili kako biti heroj u ova ?ugava vremena)" ("Streetcar Is Leaving (or How to Be a Hero in These Lousy Times)") were the first Bijelo Dugme songs to feature political-related lyrics.[34] The provocative cover designed by Mirko Ili?, an artist closely associated with Yugoslav new wave scene, appeared in three versions.[34] In accordance with their shift towards new wave, the band changed their hard rock style: the members cut their hair short, and the frontman ?eljko Bebek shaved his trademark mustache.[55] Due to new sound, the album was met with a lot of skepticism, but most of the critics ended up praising the album.[55] At the end of 1980, the readers of D?uboks magazine polled Bijelo Dugme the Band of the Year, Bebek the Singer of the Year, the Pravdi? the Keyboardist of the Year, Jankeli? the Drummer of the Year, Red?i? the Bass Guitarist of the Year, Bregovi? the Composer, the Lyricist, the Producer and the Arranger of the Year, Do?ivjeti stotu the Album of the Year, and Do?ivjeti stotu cover the Album Cover of the Year.[55]

The band started their Yugoslav tour on February 24, 1981 of the following year, with a concert in Sarajevo, and ended it with a concert in the club Kulu?i? in Zagreb, on which they recorded their second live album, 5. april '81 (April 5, 1981).[34] The album, featuring a cover of Indexi song "Sve ove godine" ("All These Years"), was released in a limited number of 20,000 copies.[34] Bijelo Dugme performed in Belgrade several times during the tour: after two concerts in Pionir Hall, they performed, alongside British band Iron Maiden and Yugoslav acts Atomsko Skloni?te, Divlje Jagode, Film, Aerodrom, Sla?ana Milo?evi?, Siluete, Haustor, Kontraritam and other acts, on the two-day festival Svi mar? na ples! (Everybody Dance Now!) held at Belgrade Hippodrome,[34] and during the New Year holidays they held three concerts in Hala Pinki together with Indexi.[56] In early 1982, Bijelo Dugme performed in Innsbruck, Austria, at a manifestation conceptualized as a symbolic passing of the torch whereby the Winter Olympic Games last host city (Innsbruck) makes a handover to the next one (Sarajevo).[34] On their return to Yugoslavia, the band's equipment was seized by the customs, as it was discovered that they had put new equipment into old boxes.[34] The band's record label, Jugoton decided to lend 150,000,000 Yugoslav dinars to Bijelo Dugme, in order to pay the penalty.[34] In order to regain part of the money as soon as possible, Jugoton decided to release two compilation albums, Singl plo?e (1974-1975) and Singl plo?e (1976-1980).[34] To recover financially, during July and August 1982, the band went on a Bulgarian tour, during which they held forty one concerts.[57] As Jankeli? went to serve the army in April, on this tour the drums were played by former Leb i Sol drummer Garabet Tavitjan.[57] At the end of 1982, the media published that Bregovi? was excluded from the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, with the explanation that he did not attend the meetings of the League in his local community.[56] However, due to the growing liberalization, this event did not affect Bregovi?'s and the band's career.[57]

At the end of 1982, Ivandi? was released from prison and was approached to rejoin the band. With his return to the band, Bijelo Dugme's default lineup reunited.[58]

After Do?ivjeti stotu, Bebek's departure (1983-84)

At the beginning of 1983, Bijelo Dugme recorded a children's music album ...a milicija trenira strogo?u! (i druge pjesmice za djecu) (...and Police Trains Strictness! (and Other Songs for Children)). The lyrics for the album were written by Du?ko Trifunovi?.[57] It was initially planned Seid Memi? "Vajta" to sing, but eventually, vocals were recorded by the eleven-year-old Ratimir Bor?i? Ra?a, and the album was released under Ratimir Bor?i? Ra?a & Bijelo Dugme moniker.[57]

In February 1983, the band released the album Uspavanka za Radmilu M. (Lullaby for Radmila M.).[57] Bregovi? intended to release Uspavanka za Radmilu M. as Bijelo Dugme's farewell album and to dismiss the band after the tour.[57] The album was recorded in Skopje and featured Vlatko Stefanovski (guitar), Blagoje Morotov (double bass) and Arsen Ere? (saxophone) as guest musicians.[57] The songs "Ako mo?e? zaboravi" ("Forget, if You Can"), "U vrijeme otkazanih letova" ("In the Time of Canceled Flights"), "Polubauk polukru?i poluevropom" ("Half-Spectre is Half-Haunting Half-Europe", the title referring to the first sentence of The Communist Manifesto) and "Ovaj ples dame biraju" ("Ladies' Choice") featured diverse sound, illustrating various fazes in the band's career.[57] The album's title track is the only instrumental track Bijelo Dugme ever recorded.[57] Unlike the band's previous album, Uspavanka za Radmilu M. was not followed by a large promotion in the media.[59] The release of the album was followed by the release of the videotape cassette Uspavanka za Radmilu M., which featured videos for all the songs from the album. It was the first project of the kind in the history of Yugoslav rock music.[60] The videos were directed by Boris Miljkovi? and Branimir Dimitrijevi? "Tucko".[61] The video for the song "Ovaj ples dame biraju" was the first gay-themed video in Yugoslavia.[61]

The song "Kosovska" ("Kosovo Song") featured Albanian language lyrics.[57] Written during delicate political situation in Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, the song represented Bregovi?'s effort to integrate the culture of Kosovo Albanians into Yugoslav rock music.[62] Although lyrics were simple, dealing with rock music, the song caused certain controversies.[57][62]

Uspavanka za Radmilu M. did not bring numerous hits as the band's previous releases, however, the tour was very successful, and the audience's response made Bregovi? change his mind about dismissing the band.[57] After the tour, Bijelo Dugme went on a hiatus and Bebek recorded his second solo album, Mene tjera neki vrag (Something Wicked Makes Me Do It).[57] His last concert with Bijelo Dugme was on February 13, 1984, in Sarajevo Olympic Village.[57] Unsatisfied with his share of the profit in Bijelo Dugme, he decided to leave the band and dedicate himself to his solo career.[63] He left Bijelo Dugme in April 1984.[57] For a certain period of time, Bebek's backing band would feature Jankeli? on drums.[64]

Mladen Voji?i? "Tifa" years (1984-86)

Members of Bijelo Dugme and Bajaga i Instruktori together in Moscow in July 1985.

After Bebek's departure, Alen Islamovi?, vocalist for the heavy metal band Divlje Jagode, was approached to join the band, but he refused fearing that Bebek might decide to return.[57] Eventually, the new Bijelo Dugme singer became then relatively unknown Mladen Voji?i? "Tifa", a former Top and Te?ka Industrija member.[57] The band spent summer in Rovinj, where they held small performances in Monvi tourist centre, preparing for the upcoming album recording.[65] At the time, Ivandi? started working with the synthpop band Amila, whose frontess Amila Sulejmanovi? often performed as a backing vocalist on Bijelo Dugme concerts.[57]

At the time Bregovi?, with singer Zdravko ?oli?, formed Slovenia-based record label Kamarad, which co-released Bijelo Dugme's new album with Diskoton.[57] The album was released in December 1984, entitled simply Bijelo Dugme, but is, as the cover featured Uro? Predi?'s painting Kosovo Maiden, also unofficially known as Kosovka djevojka (Kosovo Maiden).[57] The album featured both Ristovski and Pravdi? on keyboards, and, after the album recording, Ristovski became an official member of the band once again.[57]Bijelo Dugme featured folk-oriented pop rock sound which had, alongside a cover of Yugoslav anthem "Hej, Sloveni" featured on the album, influenced a great number of bands from Sarajevo, labeled as New Partisans.[57] The album featured a new version of "?ta ?u nano dragi mi je ljut" ("What Can I Do, Mom, My Darling Is Angry"), written by Bregovi? and originally recorded by Bisera Veletanli?, Bijelo Dugme version entitled "Lipe cvatu, sve je isto k'o i lani" ("Linden Trees Are in Bloom, Everything's just like It Used to Be"), which became the album's biggest hit.[57] Other hits included "Padaju zvijezde" ("The Stars Are Falling"), "La?e?" ("You're Lying"), "Da te bogdo ne volim" ("If I Could Only Not Love You") and "Jer kad ostari?" ("Because, When You Grow Old").[57] The song "Pediculis pubis" (misspelling of "Pediculosis pubis") featured Bora ?or?evi?, the leader of Bijelo Dugme's main competitors at the time, Riblja ?orba, on vocals; he co-wrote the song with Bregovi? and sung it with Bregovi? and Voji?i?.[57] The album also featured Radio Television of Skopje Folk Instruments Orchestra, folk group Ladarice on backing vocals, Pece Atanasovski on gaida and Sonja Beran-Leskov?ek on harp.[66]

The album was sold in more that 420,000 copies.[67] The tour was also very successful.[57] The band held a successful concert at Belgrade Fair in front of some 27,000 people (which was, up to that point, the biggest number of spectators in an indoor concert in Belgrade),[68] but also performed in clubs on several occasions.[57] The stylized army uniform in whIch the members of the band appeared on stage and the large red star from Kamarad logo were partially inspired by the works of Laibach.[69] In the summer of 1985, Bijelo Dugme, alongside Bajaga i Instruktori, represented Yugoslavia at the 12th World Festival of Youth and Students held in Moscow.[57] The two bands should have held their first concert on July 28 in Gorky Park.[70] The soundcheck, during which Yugoslav technicians played Bruce Springsteen and Pink Floyd songs, attracted some 100,000 people to the location.[71] Bajaga i Instruktori opened the concert, however, after some time, the police started to beat the ecstatic audience, and the concert was interrupted by the Soviet officials, so Bijelo Dugme did not have to opportunity to go out on the stage.[72] Fearing new riots, the Moscow authorities scheduled the second concert in Dinamo Hall, and the third one in the Moscow Green Theatre. The first one, held on July 30, was attended by about 2,000 uninterested factory workers, and the second one, held on August 2, by about 10,000 young activists with special passes.[72]

The concerts in Moscow were Voji?i?'s last performances with the band. Under the pressure of professional obligations, sudden fame and media scandal in which it was discovered that he uses LSD, he decided to leave the band.[57] After leaving Bijelo Dugme, Voji?i? would first go on a tour with ?eljko Bebek and the band Armija B, then he would join Vuka?inovi?'s band Vatreni Poljubac, then heavy metal band Divlje Jagode (whose singer Alen Islamovi? replaced him in Bijelo Dugme), and eventually start a solo career.[57]

Alen Islamovi? years and disbandment (1986-89)

The last Bijelo Dugme lineup, from left to right: Vlado Pravdi?, Ipe Ivandi?, Goran Bregovi?, Alen Islamovi?, Zoran Red?i? and Laza Ristovski

After Voji?i?'s departure, Alen Islamovi? was once again approached to join the band. At the time, Islamovi?'s band Divlje Jagode were based in London, working on their international career. Doubting the success of their efforts, Islamovi? left them and joined Bijelo Dugme.[57]

The new album, Pljuni i zapjevaj moja Jugoslavijo (Spit and Sing, My Yugoslavia), was released in 1986. Inspired by Yugoslavism, with numerous references to Yugoslav unity and the lyrics on the inner sleeve printed in both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets, the album featured the familiar folk-oriented pop rock sound.[57] Bregovi? originally wanted the album to contain contributions from individuals known for holding political views outside of the official League of Communists ideology. To that end he and the band's manager Raka Mari? approached three such individuals who were effectively proscribed from public discourse in Yugoslavia: pop singer Vice Vukov, who represented SFR Yugoslavia at the 1963 Eurovision Song Contest before seeing his career prospects marginalized after being branded a Croatian nationalist due to his association with the Croatian Spring political movement, painter and experimental filmmaker Mi?a Popovi?, associated with Yugoslav Black Wave film movement, who got a dissident reputation due to his paintings, and politician and diplomat Ko?a Popovi? who, despite a prominent World War II engagement on the Partisan side as the First Proletarian Brigade commander that earned him the Order of the People's Hero medal, followed by high political and diplomatic appointments in the post-war period, nevertheless got silently removed from public life in 1972 after supporting a liberal faction within the Yugoslav Communist League's Serbian branch.[73] Bregovi?'s idea was to have Vukov sing the "Ru?ica si bila, sada vi?e nisi" ("You Were Once a Little Rose") ballad. However, despite Vukov accepting, the plan never got implemented after the band's manager Mari? got arrested and interrogated by the police at the Sarajevo Airport upon returning from Zagreb where he met Vukov.[73] Mi?a Popovi?'s contribution to the album was to be his Dve godine garancije (A Two-Year Warranty) painting featuring a pensioner sleeping on a park bench while using pages of Politika newspaper as blanket to warm himself, which Bregovi? wanted to use as the album cover. When approached, Mi?a Popovi? also accepted though warning Bregovi? of possible problems the musician would likely face.[73] Ko?a Popovi? was reportedly somewhat receptive to the idea of participating on the album, but still turned the offer down.[73] Eventually, under pressure from Diskoton, Bregovi? gave up on his original ideas.[74] A World War II holder of the Order of the People's Hero still appeared on the record, however, instead of Ko?a Popovi?, it was Svetozar Vukmanovi? Tempo. He, together with Bregovi? and children from the Ljubica Ivezi? orphanage in Sarajevo, sang a cover of "Padaj silo i nepravdo" ("Fall, (Oh) Force and Injustice"), an old revolutionary song.[57] The album cover featured a photograph of Chinese social realist ballet.[74] Vukmanovi?'s appearance on the album was described by The Guardian as "some sort of Bregovi?'s coup d'état".[57] The album's main hits were pop song "Hajdemo u planine" ("Let's Go to the Mountains"), "No?as je k'o lubenica pun mjesec iznad Bosne" ("Tonight a Moon Full like a Watermelon Is over Bosnia"), ballads "Te no?i kad umrem, kad odem, kad me ne bude" ("That Night, When I Die, When I Leave, When I'm Gone") and "Ru?ica si bila, sada vi?e nisi".[57] In 1987, Belgrade rock journalist Dragan Kremer, in the show Mit mjeseca (Myth of the Month) on the RTV Sarajevo, expressing his opinion about the band's new direction, tore the album cover, and made Bregovi?, who appeared in the following edition of the show, very angry, which was one of the larger media scandals of the time.[57] The incident however, did not affect the album sales. The tour was also very successful, and the concert at Belgrade Fair featured opera singer Dubravka Zubovi? as guest.[57]

Backing vocalists Zumreta Mid?i? and Amila Sulejmanovi?, Bregovi? and Islamovi? at a concert in Belgrade in 1987 during the Pljuni i zapjevaj moja Jugoslavijo tour

The double live album Mramor, kamen i ?eljezo (Marble, Stone and Iron), recorded on the tour and produced by Red?i?, was released in 1987.[57] The title song was a cover of an old hit by the Yugoslav beat band Roboti.[57] The album offered a retrospective of the band's work, featuring songs from their first singles to their latest album.[57] The album featured similar Yugoslavist iconography as the bands' previous two releases: the track "A milicija trenira strogo?u" begins with "The Internationale" melody, during the intro to "Svi mar? na ples" Islamovi? shouts "Bratsvo! Jedinstvo!" ("Brotherhood! Unity!"),[57] and the album cover features a photograph from the 5th Congress of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia.[75]Mramor, kamen i ?eljezo was the band's last album to feature Vlado Pravdi?. He left the band after the album release, dedicating himself to business with computers.[76] However, he continued to occasionally perform with the band, on larger concerts,[76] and was, until the end of the band's activity, still considered an official member.[55][77]

At the end of 1988, the album ?iribiribela was released.[76] Recorded during the political crisis in Yugoslavia, the album was marked by Bregovi?'s pacifist efforts: the album cover featured Edward Hicks' painting Noah's Ark on the cover, the song "Lijepa na?a" ("Our Beautiful") featured the national anthem of Croatia "Lijepa na?a domovino" ("Our Beautiful Homeland") combined with the Serbian traditional World War I song "Tamo daleko" ("There, Far Away"),[76] and the title track featured lyrics about a love couple which decides to "stay at home and kiss" if the war starts.[78] The album's biggest hit was "?ur?evdan je, a ja nisam s onom koju volim" ("It's St. George's Day, and I'm Not with the One I Love'"), based on traditional Romani song "Ederlezi" and featuring Fejat Sejdi? Trumpet Orchestra.[76] Other hits included "Evo zakle?u se" ("Here, I'll Make A Vow"), "Ako ima Boga" ("If There Is God"), "?ta ima novo" ("What's New"), "Nakon svih ovih godina" ("After All These Years"), pop-influenced "Napile se ulice" ("The Streets Are Drunk") and Dalmatian folk music-inspired "?irbiribela".[76] After the album release, Radio-Television Belgrade wanted to make a video for the song "?ur?evdan je, a ja nisam s onom koju volim". The original idea was for the video to feature iconography inspired by the Serbian Army in World War I.[79] The video was recorded in the village Kora?ica in Central Serbia.[79] The band came to the recording not knowing anything about the video concept.[80] They should have worn uniforms (without any insignia) and old weapons, but Islamovi? thought the idea was too "pro-war", so refused to wear a uniform.[80] Eventually, the band and the director reached an agreement: everyone, except Islamovi?, wore Serbian traditional costumes, with only several of the original props used.[81] However, after the video was recorded, the Radio-Television Belgrade editors themselves decided not to emit it, fearing it might remind of the Chetnik movement.[81]

At the beginning of 1989, the band went on a tour which should have lasted until April 1.[76] The concert in Belgrade, held in Belgrade Fair on February 4, was attended by about 13,000 people.[82] The concert featured Dubravka Zubovi?, the First Singing Society of Belgrade, the Fejat Sejdi? Trumpet Orchestra and klapa Trogir.[82] The concert in Sarajevo's Zetra, held on February 11, was also very successful; it was attended by more than 20,000 people.[82] However, on some concerts in Croatia, the audience booed and threw various objects on stage when the band performed their pro-Yugoslav songs.[82]

After the concert in Modri?a, held on March 15, with four concerts left until the end of the tour, Islamovi? checked into a hospital with kidney pains.[83] This event revealed the existing conflicts inside the band: Bregovi? claimed that Islamovi? had no problems during the tour,[83] while the band's manager, Raka Mari?, stated that Bijelo Dugme would search for a new singer for the planned concerts in China and Soviet Union.[84] Bregovi? went to Paris, leaving Bijelo Dugme's status opened for speculations.[76] In 1990, the compilation album Nakon svih ovih godina, which featured recordings made between 1984 and 1989, was released.[76] As Yugoslav Wars broke out in 1991, it became clear that Bijelo Dugme would not continue their activity.[76]


Bregovi? continued his career as a film music composer, cooperating mostly with Emir Kusturica.[76] Red?i? moved to Finland, where he worked as a producer, and after the Bosnian War ended, he returned to Sarajevo, where he opened a rock club.[76] After the war broke out, Ivandi? went to Belgrade, where he, in 1994, died after falling from the sixth floor of the building in which he lived; the death was believed to be a suicide.[85] Ristovski continued to record solo albums, work as a studio musician, and during the 1990s he performed with Osvaja?i and Smak.[76] Islamovi?, who recorded his first solo album Haj, nek se ?uje, haj nek se zna in 1989, started a semi-successful solo career.[76]

In 1994, the double compilation album Ima neka tajna veza (There's Some Secret Connection), featuring Dragan Male?evi? Tapi's painting Radost bankrota (The Joy of Bankruptcy) on the cover, was released.[76]

2005 reunion

Bregovi?, who during the 1990s became one of the most internationally known modern composers of the Balkans, on numerous occasions stated that he will not reunite Bijelo Dugme.[76] However, in 2005, Bijelo Dugme reunited, with Goran Bregovi? on guitar, ?eljko Bebek, Mladen Voji?i? and Alen Islamovi? on vocals, Zoran Red?i? on bass guitar, Mili? Vuka?inovi? and ?i?i Jankeli? on drums and Vlado Pravdi? and Laza Ristovski on keyboards.[76] The reunion saw huge media attention in all former Yugoslav republics,[86] followed by various forms of yugonostalgia.[87]

The band held only three concerts: in Sarajevo, at Ko?evo stadium, Zagreb, at Maksimir stadium, and Belgrade, at Belgrade Hippodrome.[76] The concerts featured a string orchestra, a brass band, klapa group Nostalgija and two female singers from Bregov?'s Weddings and Funerals Orchestra.[88] During the concerts, Bregovi?, Red?i?, Pravdi? and Ristovski performed for the whole time, Vuka?inovi? played the drums during the entire Zagreb and Belgrade concerts, and during Bebek's part of the Sarajevo concert, while Jankeli? played during Voji?i?'s and Islamovi?'s parts in Sarajevo.[89] Islamovi? opened the concerts in Sarajevo and Zagreb, and Voji?i? opened the concert in Belgrade. Bebek sung third on all three concerts.[89] The concerts also featured an unplugged section, during which Bregovi? and Bebek played guitars and all three singers performed.[89] The concert in Sarajevo attracted about 60,000 people,[90] and the concert in Zagreb was attended by more than 70,000 people.[91] For the concert in Belgrade, more than 220,000 tickets were sold, but it was later estimated that it was attended by more than 250,000 people.[90] However, the concert in Belgrade was much criticized because of the bad sound.[76][90] The live album Turneja 2005: Sarajevo, Zagreb, Beograd (2005 Tour - Sarajevo, Zagreb, Belgrade) recorded on the tour was released.[76]


Ristovski died in Belgrade on October 6, 2007, following years of battle with multiple sclerosis.[92]

In 2014, Raka Mari? made an attempt to reunite Bijelo Dugme once again in order to mark the band's 40th anniversary, but the agreement could not be reached, despite the fact the members were interested in a new reunion.[93] Eventually, Bregovi? marked 40 years since the formation of the band and the release of their debut album with a series of concerts with his Weddings and Funerals Orchestra, featuring Islamovi? as vocalist.[93] In order to mark the anniversary, Croatia Records released a box set entitled Box Set Deluxe. The box set, released in a limited number of 1,000 copies, features remastered vinyl editions of all studio albums, and the reissue of the band's first 7" single as bonus.[94]

Influence and legacy

Bijelo Dugme is the most important phenomenon in the last quarter of the 20th century in Yugoslav culture. In a socialist culture, which shyly searched for its path outside of determined framework of values, they were a phenomenon of overturning importance. They promoted the necessity of talent, the exigency of authenticity, the importance of attitude, the need for complete dedication, the high level of professionalism and the modern package. They were the biggest mass concept of Yugoslavia and the first mass concept not financed by the state. During their entire career, they had the endless love of the audience, the constant envy of their colleagues and divided sympathy of the establishment. They defined rock culture and defined teenagers as an organised category. They fought for the freedom of taste, by then unimaginable in socialism, and won. They were one of the rare capitalist establishments in former Yugoslavia and the best advertiser of freedoms in Yugoslavia. They lived and worked in accordance to all the attributes of the Western rock culture. There was everything present in all big biographies of rock: big numbers, the euphoria of fans, all the vices (especially sex) except gambling, the inexplicable circumstances and tragic deaths. It is believed that they are the only ones in Yugoslavia who made big money from rock music. They set new standards in the entertainment industry and kept lifting them up. They fulfilled all the dreams of Yugoslav scene -- except one: they did not step out on the world stage side by side with the biggest stars of the time, although they had the capacity to do that. Bijelo Dugme was maybe the biggest collateral damage of the Cold War when it comes to music: they couldn't go neither to the East, neither to the West. Then again, Bijelo Dugme is the only proof that the classic rock 'n' roll career is possible outside of English language.

-Du?an Vesi? in 2014[95]

Bijelo Dugme is generally considered to have been the most popular act ever to appear in SFR Yugoslavia and its successor countries, inspiring many artists from different musical genres. The musicians that were, in their own words, influenced by Bijelo Dugme include guitarist and leader of Prljavo Kazali?te Jasenko Houra,[96] singer and former Bulevar and Bajaga i Instruktori member Dejan Cuki?,[97] guitarist and former leader of KUD Idijoti Aleksandar "Sale Veruda" Milovanovi?,[98] singer and former Merlin leader Dino Merlin,[99] and others. The acts that recorded covers of Bijelo Dugme songs include Aska,[100]Sr?an Marjanovi?,[101]Regina,[102]Revolveri,[103]Prljavi Inspektor Bla?a i Kljunovi,[104]Viktorija,[105]Sokoli,[76]Massimo Savi?,[106]Vasko Serafimov,[107]Zoran Predin and Matija Dedi?,[108]Branimir "D?oni" ?tuli?,[109]Te?ka Industrija[110] and others. The song "Ima neka tajna veza" was performed by Joan Baez on her 2014 concerts in Belgrade and Zagreb.[111] The band's work has been parodied by Paraf,[112]Gustafi,[113]Rambo Amadeus,[114]S.A.R.S., and others.

There were several books written about the band: Istina o Bijelom dugmetu (The Truth about Bijelo Dugme, 1977) by Danilo ?trbac, Bijelo Dugme (1980) by Du?ko Pavlovi?, Ni?ta mudro (1981) by Darko Glavan and Dra?en Vrdoljak, Lopu?e koje nisu uhvatili (Rascals That Weren't Caught, 1985) by Du?an Vesi?, Bijelo Dugme (2005) by Asir Misirli?, Bijelo Dugme - Do?ivjeti stotu (2005) by Zvonimir Krstulovi?, Kad bi bio bijelo dugme (2005) by Nenad Stevovi?, Kad sam bio bijelo dugme (When I Was a White Button, 2005) by Ljubi?a Stavri? and Vladimir Sudar[76] and ?ta bi dao da si na mom mjestu (2014) by Du?an Vesi?.[115]

In 1994, Radio Television of Serbia aired a four-part documentary about the band entitled Nakon svih ovih godina.[76] In 2010, Igor Stoimenov directed a documentary about the band, entitled simply Bijelo Dugme.[116]

The book YU 100: najbolji albumi jugoslovenske rok i pop muzike (YU 100: The Best albums of Yugoslav pop and rock music), published in 1998, features eight Bijelo Dugme albums: Bitanga i princeza (polled No. 10), Kad bi bio bijelo dugme (polled No. 14), ?ta bi dao da si na mom mjestu (polled No. 17), Bijelo Dugme (polled No. 28), Eto! Ba? ho?u! (polled No. 31), Do?ivjeti stotu (polled No. 35), Pljuni i zapjevaj moja Jugoslavijo (polled No. 53), and Koncert kod Hajdu?ke ?esme (polled No. 74).[117] The list of 100 greatest Yugoslav album, published by Croatian edition of Rolling Stone in 2015, features three Bijelo Dugme albums, Bitanga i princeza (ranked No. 15),[118]Eto! Ba? ho?u! (ranked No. 36)[119] and ?ta bi dao da si na mom mjestu (ranked No. 42).[120] In 1987, in YU legende u?ivo (YU Legends Live), a special publication by Rock magazine, 5. april '81 was pronounced one of 12 best Yugoslav live albums.[121]

The Rock Express Top 100 Yugoslav Rock Songs of All Times list features eight songs by Bijelo Dugme: "Lipe cvatu" (polled No.10), "Bitanga i princeza" (polled No.14), "Sve ?e to, mila moja, prekriti ruzmarin, snjegovi i ?a?" (polled No.17), "Sanjao sam no?as da te nemam" (polled No.31), "Ima neka tajna veza" (No.38), "?ta bi dao da si na mom mjestu" (polled No.68), "Za Esmu" ("For Esma", polled No.78) and "Kad bi' bio bijelo dugme" (polled No.97).[122] The B92 Top 100 Yugoslav songs list features three songs by Bijelo Dugme: "Sve ?e to, mila moja, prekriti ruzmarin, snjegovi i ?a?" (polled No. 14), "Lo?e vino" (polled No. 32) and "Ako mo?e? zaboravi (polled No. 51).[123] In 2011, the song "Meni se ne spava" ("I Don't Feel like Sleeping") was voted, by the listeners of Radio 202, one of 60 greatest songs released by PGP-RTB/PGP-RTS during the sixty years of the label's existence.[124]

The lyrics of 10 songs by the band (8 written by Bregovi? and 2 witten by Trifunovi?) were featured in Petar Janjatovi?'s book Pesme bratstva, detinjstva & potomstva: Antologija ex YU rok poezije 1967 - 2007 (Songs of Brotherhood, Childhood & Offspring: Anthology of Ex YU Rock Poetry 1967 - 2007).[125]

In 2016, Serbian weekly news magazine Nedeljnik pronounced Goran Bregovi? one of 100 People Who Changed Serbia.[126] In 2017, the same magazine pronounced Bijelo Dugme's concert at Hadju?ka ?esma one of 100 Events that Changed Serbia.[127]


Touring musician

  • Mustafa "Mute" Kurtali? - bass guitar (1975)
  • Ljubi?a Raci? - bass guitar (1975-1977)
  • Sanin Kari? - bass guitar (1977)
  • Garabet Tavitjan - drums (1982)




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External links

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Music Scenes