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Born in a Deshastha Brahmin family of scholars, mathematicians and astronomers, Bhaskara was the leader of a cosmic observatory at Ujjain, the main mathematical centre of ancient India. Bh?skara and his works represent a significant contribution to mathematical and astronomical knowledge in the 12th century. He has been called the greatest mathematician of medieval India. His main work Siddh?nta-?iromani, (Sanskrit for "Crown of Treatises") is divided into four parts called L?l?vat?, B?jaga?ita, Grahaga?ita and Gol?dhy?ya, which are also sometimes considered four independent works. These four sections deal with arithmetic, algebra, mathematics of the planets, and spheres respectively. He also wrote another treatise named Kara Kaut?hala.
Bh?skara's work on calculus predates Newton and Leibniz by over half a millennium. He is particularly known in the discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations. While Newton and Leibniz have been credited with differential and integral calculus, there is strong evidence to suggest that Bh?skara was a pioneer in some of the principles of differential calculus. He was perhaps the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus.
This reveals that he was born in 1036 of the Shaka era (1114 CE), and that he composed the Siddh?nta-?iroma when he was 36 years old. He also wrote another work called the Kara?a-kut?hala when he was 69 (in 1183). His works show the influence of Brahmagupta, ?r?dhara, Mah?v?ra, Padman?bha and other predecessors.
History records his great-great-great-grandfather holding a hereditary post as a court scholar, as did his son and other descendants. His father Mahe?vara (Mahe?varop?dhy?ya) was a mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, who taught him mathematics, which he later passed on to his son Loksamudra. Loksamudra's son helped to set up a school in 1207 for the study of Bh?skara's writings. He died in 1185 CE.
The first section L?l?vat? (also known as pga?ita or a?kaga?ita), named after his daughter, consists of 277 verses. It covers calculations, progressions, measurement, permutations, and other topics.
The second section B?jaga?ita(Algebra) has 213 verses. It discusses zero, infinity, positive and negative numbers, and indeterminate equations including (the now called) Pell's equation, solving it using a kuaka method. In particular, he also solved the case that was to elude Fermat and his European contemporaries centuries later.
In the third section Grahaga?ita, while treating the motion of planets, he considered their instantaneous speeds. He arrived at the approximation: It consists of 451 verses
Solutions of indeterminate quadratic equations (of the type ax2 + b = y2).
Integer solutions of linear and quadratic indeterminate equations (Kuaka). The rules he gives are (in effect) the same as those given by the Renaissance European mathematicians of the 17th century
A cyclic Chakravala method for solving indeterminate equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = y. The solution to this equation was traditionally attributed to William Brouncker in 1657, though his method was more difficult than the chakravala method.
The first general method for finding the solutions of the problem x2 - ny2 = 1 (so-called "Pell's equation") was given by Bhaskara II.
Solutions of Diophantine equations of the second order, such as 61x2 + 1 = y2. This very equation was posed as a problem in 1657 by the French mathematician Pierre de Fermat, but its solution was unknown in Europe until the time of Euler in the 18th century.
Solved quadratic equations with more than one unknown, and found negative and irrational solutions.
Problems involving interest and interest computation.
Indeterminate equations (Kuaka), integer solutions (first and second order). His contributions to this topic are particularly important, since the rules he gives are (in effect) the same as those given by the renaissance European mathematicians of the 17th century, yet his work was of the 12th century. Bhaskara's method of solving was an improvement of the methods found in the work of Aryabhata and subsequent mathematicians.
His work is outstanding for its systematisation, improved methods and the new topics that he introduced. Furthermore, the Lilavati contained excellent problems and it is thought that Bhaskara's intention may have been that a student of 'Lilavati' should concern himself with the mechanical application of the method.
His B?jaganita ("Algebra") was a work in twelve chapters. It was the first text to recognize that a positive number has two square roots (a positive and negative square root). His work B?jaganita is effectively a treatise on algebra and contains the following topics:
Solutions of indeterminate equations of the second, third and fourth degree.
Quadratic equations with more than one unknown.
Operations with products of several unknowns.
Bhaskara derived a cyclic, chakravala method for solving indeterminate quadratic equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = y. Bhaskara's method for finding the solutions of the problem Nx2 + 1 = y2 (the so-called "Pell's equation") is of considerable importance.
The Siddh?nta Shiromani (written in 1150) demonstrates Bhaskara's knowledge of trigonometry, including the sine table and relationships between different trigonometric functions. He also developed spherical trigonometry, along with other interesting trigonometrical results. In particular Bhaskara seemed more interested in trigonometry for its own sake than his predecessors who saw it only as a tool for calculation. Among the many interesting results given by Bhaskara, results found in his works include computation of sines of angles of 18 and 36 degrees, and the now well known formulae for and .
Evidence suggests Bhaskara was acquainted with some ideas of differential calculus. Bhaskara also goes deeper into the 'differential calculus' and suggests the differential coefficient vanishes at an extremum value of the function, indicating knowledge of the concept of 'infinitesimals'.
He gave the result that if then , thereby finding the derivative of sine, although he never developed the notion of derivatives.
Bhaskara uses this result to work out the position angle of the ecliptic, a quantity required for accurately predicting the time of an eclipse.
In computing the instantaneous motion of a planet, the time interval between successive positions of the planets was no greater than a truti, or a of a second, and his measure of velocity was expressed in this infinitesimal unit of time.
He was aware that when a variable attains the maximum value, its differential vanishes.
He also showed that when a planet is at its farthest from the earth, or at its closest, the equation of the centre (measure of how far a planet is from the position in which it is predicted to be, by assuming it is to move uniformly) vanishes. He therefore concluded that for some intermediate position the differential of the equation of the centre is equal to zero. In this result, there are traces of the general mean value theorem, one of the most important theorems in analysis, which today is usually derived from Rolle's theorem. The mean value theorem was later found by Parameshvara in the 15th century in the Lilavati Bhasya, a commentary on Bhaskara's Lilavati.
Madhava (1340-1425) and the Kerala School mathematicians (including Parameshvara) from the 14th century to the 16th century expanded on Bhaskara's work and further advanced the development of calculus in India.
Using an astronomical model developed by Brahmagupta in the 7th century, Bh?skara accurately defined many astronomical quantities, including, for example, the length of the sidereal year, the time that is required for the Earth to orbit the Sun, as approximately 365.2588 days which is the same as in Suryasiddhanta. The modern accepted measurement is 365.25636 days, a difference of just 3.5 minutes.
His mathematical astronomy text Siddhanta Shiromani is written in two parts: the first part on mathematical astronomy and the second part on the sphere.
The twelve chapters of the first part cover topics such as:
The three problems of diurnal rotation.(Diurnal motion is an astronomical term referring to the apparent daily motion of stars around the Earth, or more precisely around the two celestial poles. It is caused by the Earth's rotation on its axis, so every star apparently moves on a circle, that is called the diurnal circle.)
The earliest reference to a perpetual motion machine date back to 1150, when Bh?skara II described a wheel that he claimed would run forever.
Bh?skara II used a measuring device known as Yai-yantra. This device could vary from a simple stick to V-shaped staffs designed specifically for determining angles with the help of a calibrated scale.
In his book Lilavati, he reasons: "In this quantity also which has zero as its divisor there is no change even when many quantities have entered into it or come out [of it], just as at the time of destruction and creation when throngs of creatures enter into and come out of [him, there is no change in] the infinite and unchanging [Vishnu]".
It has been stated, by several authors, that Bhaskara II proved the Pythagorean theorem by drawing a diagram and providing the single word "Behold!". Sometimes Bhaskara's name is omitted and this is referred to as the Hindu proof, well known by schoolchildren.
However, as mathematics historian Kim Plofker points out, after presenting a worked out example, Bhaskara II states the Pythagorean theorem:
Hence, for the sake of brevity, the square root of the sum of the squares of the arm and upright is the hypotenuse: thus it is demonstrated.
This is followed by:
And otherwise, when one has set down those parts of the figure there [merely] seeing [it is sufficient].
Plofker suggests that this additional statement may be the ultimate source of the widespread "Behold!" legend.
^The Illustrated Weekly of India, Volume 95. Bennett, Coleman & Company, Limited, at the Times of India Press. 1974. p. 30. Deshasthas have contributed to mathematics and literature as well as to the cultural and religious heritage of India. Bhaskaracharaya was one of the greatest mathematicians of ancient India.
^IERS EOP PC Useful constants.
An SI day or mean solar day equals 86400 SIseconds.
From the mean longitude referred to the mean ecliptic and the equinox J2000 given in Simon, J. L., et al., "Numerical Expressions for Precession Formulae and Mean Elements for the Moon and the Planets" Astronomy and Astrophysics 282 (1994), 663–683.
Selin, Helaine, ed. (2008), "Astronomical Instruments in India", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition), Springer Verlag Ny, ISBN978-1-4020-4559-2
Shukla, Kripa Shankar (1984), "Use of Calculus in Hindu Mathematics", Indian Journal of History of Science, 19: 95-104