Ben Naphtali
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Ben Naphtali

Ben Naphtali was a rabbi and Masorete who flourished about 890-940, probably in Tiberias. Of his life little is known.

His first name is in dispute. Some medieval authorities called him "Jacob"; two Chufut-Kale manuscripts have "Moses b. David"; a third contains his epigraph, which is incomplete, only "ben David ben Naphtali" remaining. His name is most likely Abu Imr?n, Moshe Ben David Ben Naphtali as preserved in Mishael Ben Uzziel's 11th century treatise and in the Geniza fragment T-S K27.36 in the University Library at Cambridge.

Ben Naphtali and Ben Asher

Ben Naphtali wrote a Bible with vowels, accents, and Masorah, which differed in some respects from that of his contemporary and rival, Aaron ben Moses ben Asher (generally called Ben Asher). This Bible codex has not been preserved, but the differences between it and Ben Asher's version are found in incomplete Masoretic lists found in quotations in David ?im?i, Norzi, and other medieval writers as well as in manuscripts such as British Museum MS. Harley 1528.[1] These lists are printed in the Mikraot Gedolot (rabbinical Bible), in the texts of Baer-Delitzsch and Christian David Ginsburg's Masorah vol. iii.[2] A complete list of these differences can be found in Mishael Ben Uzziel's treatise Kit?b Al-Khilaf, the book of the ?illufim (Differences), which is thought to have been written before 1050.[3]

It was reconstructed from fragments and critically edited by Lazar Lipschütz in 1965. The differences between Ben Naphtali and Ben Asher number about 860,[4] about nine-tenths of which refer to the placing of the accents and ?. The remaining ones have reference to and , to vowels, accents, and consonantal spelling.[5]

Relation to the Received Text

The differences between the two Masoretes do not represent solely personal opinions; the two rivals represent different schools. Like the Ben Ashers there seem to have been several Ben Naphtalis. The statement of Elia Levita[6] that the Westerns[clarification needed] follow Ben Asher, and the Easterns[clarification needed] Ben Naphtali, is not without many exceptions. Thus, for instance, in the difference concerning I Kings iii. 20 [7] the Westerns are said to agree with Ben Naphtali, while the Easterns follow Ben Asher. The rule of Ben Naphtali given under No. 5 is followed in most manuscripts and printed editions, in the words (Ps. xlv. 10)[8] and (Prov. xxx. 17), etc. The Masoretic lists often do not agree on the precise nature of the differences between the two rival authorities; it is, therefore, impossible to define with exactness their differences in every case; and it is probably due to this fact that the received text does not follow uniformly the system of either Ben Asher or Ben Naphtali. The attempt is likewise futile to describe the one codex as Western or Eastern.

Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography

  • Di?du?e ha-?e'amim, ed. Baer and Strack, p. 11; [7]
  • Harris, The Jewish Quarterly Review i. 250; [8]
  • Ginsburg, Introduction to the Masoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible, pp. 241 et seq. [9]


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [starting page 6, [2]
  3. ^ see [3] for the English version, [4], and [5] for the Hebrew versions of Lipschütz's edition of Mishael Ben Uzziel's 11th century treatise.
  4. ^ Lipschütz has some issues counting in the English version and this reference needs to be replaced by a proper count at some point.
  5. ^ For a simple list of differences between Ben Naphtali and Ben Asher, see ben Naphtali at the Jewish Encyclopedia. For the complete list of differences between Ben Naphtali and Ben Asher, see the Kitab al-Khilaf above as it was published by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
  6. ^ Mas. ha-Masoret, ed. Ginsburg, p. 144
  7. ^ see ben Naphtali, No. 7
  8. ^ Examples of following Ben Naphtali can be seen in 1) the Aleppo (Syria) tradition in "Tehillat Yesharim" Tehillim book edited by H Saleh Jacob Mansour (1946) at [6] or "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) and 2) the Constantinople tradition (now Turkey) at File:Tehillim_45_Constantinople_1836.jpg with a sample title page at File:Title_Page_Tehillim_Constantinople_1836.jpg. Examples of following Ben Asher can be seen in 1) the Pisa (Italy) tradition following Chaim Joseph David Azulai at File:Tehillim_45_Pisa_1803.jpg with title page at File:Title_Page_Tehillim_Pisa_1803.jpg, 2) the Djerba (Tunisia) tradition at File:Tehillim_45_Djerba_1951.jpg with title page at File:Title_Page_Tehillim_Djerba_1951.jpg with title page at File:Title_Page_Tehillim_Djerba_1951.jpg and 3) the Casablanca (Morocco) tradition at File:Tehillim_45_Casablanca_1972.jpg with title page at File:Title_Page_Tehillim_Casablanca_1972.jpg.

Other sources

  • Kahle, Paul, Masoreten des Westens I: 1927, repr. 1967 and 2005
  • Kahle, Paul, Masoreten des Westens II: 1930 [10]

External links

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSinger, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901-1906). "article name needed". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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