Beaver Stadium
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Beaver Stadium
Beaver Stadium
"The House That Joe Built"
"The White House"
Beaver Stadium Kent State 2018.png
Penn State vs. Kent State 2018
Beaver Stadium is located in Pennsylvania
Beaver Stadium
Beaver Stadium
Location in Pennsylvania
Beaver Stadium is located in the United States
Beaver Stadium
Beaver Stadium
Location in the United States
LocationPennsylvania State University
127 Bryce Jordan Center
University Park, PA 16802
Coordinates40°48?44?N 77°51?22?W / 40.81222°N 77.85611°W / 40.81222; -77.85611Coordinates: 40°48?44?N 77°51?22?W / 40.81222°N 77.85611°W / 40.81222; -77.85611
OperatorPennsylvania State University
Capacity106,572
Record attendance110,889 (2018 vs. Ohio State)
SurfaceNatural grass
Construction
Broke ground1959
OpenedSeptember 17, 1960
Capacity 46,284
Renovated2014 Scoreboards changed
2008 Marquee boards added
2001
1985 Walkways and ramps added
1984 Lights added
Expanded2011 Capacity 106,572
2001 Capacity 107,282
1991 Capacity 93,967
1985 Capacity 83,370
1980 Capacity 83,770
1978 Capacity 76,639
1976 Capacity 60,203
1972 Capacity 57,538
1969 Capacity 46,284
1907 Capacity Unlimited
Construction cost$1.6 million[1]
($13.6 million in 2018 dollars[2])
$93 million (2001 expansion)
ArchitectMichael Baker Jr., Inc.[3]
HOK Sport (2001 expansion)
Tenants
Penn State Nittany Lions (NCAA; 1960-present)

Beaver Stadium is an outdoor college football stadium in University Park, Pennsylvania, United States, on the campus of Pennsylvania State University. It has been home to the Penn State Nittany Lions of the Big Ten Conference since 1960, though some parts of the stadium date back to 1909. It was also the site of university commencements until 1984.[4] The stadium, as well as its predecessors, is named after James A. Beaver who was a former governor of Pennsylvania (1887-91), president of the university's board of trustees[5], and native of nearby Millerstown, Pennsylvania.

Beaver Stadium has an official seating capacity of 106,572,[6] making it currently the second largest stadium in the Western Hemisphere and the third largest in the world.

Beaver Stadium is widely known as one of the toughest venues for opposing teams in collegiate athletics. In 2008, Beaver Stadium was recognized as having the best student section in the country for the second consecutive year.[7]

In 2016, Beaver Stadium was voted the number-one football stadium in college football in a USA Today poll, garnering over 41 percent of the vote.[8] In March 2019, USA Today conducted another poll asking voters to decide the best stadium in the United States during "Bracket Madness", which coincided with the 2019 NCAA Basketball Tournament. Hundreds of thousands of fans voted for their favorites throughout the week. In the championship match-up, Beaver Stadium beat Kansas' Allen Fieldhouse to claim the title of Ultimate Stadium.[9]

Beaver Stadium was the first to have its interior included in Google Street View.[10]

History

Predecessors

Until 1893, Penn State teams participated in sporting events on Old Main lawn, a large grassy area in front of the primary classroom building of the time. Beaver Field, a 500-seat structure located behind the current site of the Osmond Building, was the first permanent home for Penn State's football team, and the first game played there was a Penn State victory over Western University of Pennsylvania (now the University of Pittsburgh) on November 6, 1893. In 1909, New Beaver Field opened just northeast of Rec Hall, roughly in the current location of the Nittany Parking deck. It served as Penn State's stadium until 1960, when the entire 30,000 seat stadium was dismantled and moved to the east end of campus, reassembled and expanded to 46,284 seats--the lower half of the current facility--and dubbed Beaver Stadium.[4]

Expansions

Endzone Club and Upper Concourse expansion, Summer 2001

The stadium has been expanded six times, reflecting Penn State's rise to national prominence under Joe Paterno--more than doubling in size in the process. Expansions in 1972 brought capacity to 57,538. Another expansion in 1976 increased capacity to 60,203. In 1978, 16,000 seats were added when the stadium was cut into sections and raised on hydraulic lifts, allowing the insertion of seating along the inner ring of the stadium where the track had previously been located, raising capacity to 76,639. In 1980, maximum capacity increased to 83,770. In 1985, walkways were added around the tops of the end zones and entry ramps at the stadium's corners resulted in lowering the capacity to 83,370. An expansion was completed for the 1991 football season, placing an upper deck addition over the north end zone and raising capacity to 93,967.

A major and somewhat controversial construction project took place in 2001, raising the stadium's total capacity to 107,282. An upper deck was added to the south end of the stadium, blocking the view of neighboring Nittany Mountain (which had sentimental value for some fans), but making Beaver Stadium the second largest stadium in the nation, behind Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor, MI.

In 2006, the stadium underwent major structural and aesthetic upgrades. Old steel beams supporting the upper seats in the east, north and west were replaced and strengthened, and new railing was installed, stronger than the old railing which collapsed following the 2005 Ohio State game.

In 2007, over 22,000 student tickets sold out in 59 minutes. In 2008, when tickets were sold by grade, tickets allotted for junior students sold out in 90 seconds, and those for sophomores and freshmen sold out in under three minutes each.

In 2011, the stadium capacity was reduced from 107,282 seats to 106,572 to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act.[11]

A view of the lettering and years added to the suites in 2006. Each year is a significant Penn State season

The appearance of the stadium has been enhanced with the addition of large blue letters spelling out "The Pennsylvania State University" on the west-facing suites, and a list of Penn State's undefeated, national championship, and Big Ten championship years underneath. 2012 is the exception, which was added to this list during the November 24, 2012 game against Wisconsin to honor the team that played after sanctions were passed down during the aftermath of the Jerry Sandusky scandal. On the opposite side of the stadium, letters spelling, "Penn State Nittany Lions" have been added to the press box, with "Beaver Stadium" running below. Nine markers depicting the various traditions of Beaver Stadium, including the Blue Band, the student section, and the blue buses which bring the team to the stadium, have been placed around the stadium as well. In late October, the walls surrounding the field were refaced with Pennsylvania limestone. An iron gate has replaced the old chain-link face at the players' entrance into the stadium. On the new gate the words "PENN STATE" appear in blue.

The Penn State Office of Physical Plant and Athletic Department expanded the North and South Video Boards to make them high definition and because parts were no longer available for the old boards. The area of the new video screens dedicated to game replays and game-related video is much larger than the screens they replaced. The two video boards together are some of the largest in college football. The renovation expanded the size of the video boards by eliminating the current game clock and lamp matrix display. The boards are only the second of their kind made and are 4k UHD. The project was completed prior to the first home game of the 2014 season. The boards cost approx. $10 million. Also on the back of both boards is a nittany lion logo that lights at night and was added to promote the "Penn State Brand". Starting with the 2015 season fireworks are shot off from the top of each scoreboard when the team takes the field.

In the fall semester of 2015, university officials stated that they are seeking options to renovate or replace Beaver Stadium in the next 10 years.[12] Officials state that there is a recognized need in an upgrade in the facilities. The stadium remains antiquated, despite multiple expansions and the additions of luxury boxes and high-definition scoreboards. Outdated plumbing requires complete winterization each November. Elevators are small and sluggish while concourses are narrow. The stadium lacks concession options and still uses bleachers. The limitations prevent wider use of the venue; the university would like to expand the number of events held at Beaver Stadium, such as major concerts and a long-discussed potential hosting of the NHL Winter Classic. Many fans are opposed to replacing Beaver Stadium due to the history and tradition but many agree that there is a need for renovation.

Attendance records

Beaver Stadium Whiteout 2018 - Pregame

A record crowd of 110,889 witnessed Penn State's 27-26 loss to Ohio State on September 29, 2018.[13]

109,839 people were in attendance when the Nittany Lions defeated the Ohio State Buckeyes in 2005.[14]

In 2002, Penn State set an NCAA record for most fans to ever watch a college football team over the course of a single season at home. Beaver Stadium hosted 8 games in 2002, and averaged 107,239 per game totaling what was at the time an NCAA record of 857,911 in total home attendance. Penn State averaged 95,977 fans in attendance both home and away over the 13 game schedule which broke the all time full season attendance NCAA record at 1,247,707 spectators over the course of the 2002 campaign.[15]

All-time Beaver Stadium records[16]

Rank Attendance Date Game result
1 110,889 Sept. 29, 2018 Penn State 26, Ohio State 27
2 110,823 Oct. 21, 2017 Penn State 42, Michigan 13
3 110,753 Sept. 14, 2002 Penn State 40, Nebraska 7
4 110,669 Oct. 19, 2019 Penn State 28, Michigan 21
5 110,134 Oct. 27, 2007 Penn State 17, Ohio State 37
6 110,078 Sept. 8, 2007 Penn State 31, Notre Dame 10
7 110,033 Nov. 7, 2009 Penn State 7, Ohio State 24
8 110,017 Oct. 18, 2008 Penn State 46, Michigan 17
9 110,007 Oct. 14, 2006 Penn State 10, Michigan 17
10 109,898 Sept. 9, 2017 Penn State 33, Pittsburgh 14
11 109,865 Nov. 5, 2005 Penn State 35, Wisconsin 14
12 109,845 Nov. 22, 2008 Penn State 49, Michigan State 18
13 109,839 Oct. 8, 2005 Penn State 17, Ohio State 10
14 109,754 Oct. 13, 2007 Penn State 38, Wisconsin 7

Attendance record by Beaver Stadium capacity[17]

Capacity Record Broken Date Game result
46,284 50,144 Nov. 21, 1964 Pittsburgh 0, Penn State 28
48,284 52,713 Oct. 11, 1969 West Virginia 0, Penn State 20
57,723 61,325 Sept. 13, 1975 Stanford 14, Penn State 34
60,203 62,554 Sept. 17, 1977 Houston 14, Penn State 31
76,639 78,019 Nov. 4, 1978 Maryland 3, Penn State 27
83,370 86,309 Oct. 22, 1983 West Virginia 23, Penn State 41
93,967 97,498 Nov. 9, 1997 Michigan 34, Penn State 8
107,282 110,753 Sept. 14, 2002 Nebraska 7, Penn State 40
106,572 110,889 Sept. 29, 2018 Ohio State 27, Penn State 26

Traditions

Tailgating

Tailgating is very popular outside Beaver Stadium. Alcohol is permitted in all areas around Beaver Stadium on home football games, except inside Beaver Stadium and the Bryce Jordan Center. In August of 2019, Penn State was ranked #15[18] by tailgater magazine for the "tailgate culture" that surrounds Beaver Stadium on gameday. The magazine stated that "win or lose, the university offers an incredible tailgate environment" for over 100,000 fans, referencing traditions related to Penn State football such as camping outside Beaver Stadium for Nittanyville to making ice cream stops at Berkey Creamery."

Student section "S-Zone"

The "S-Zone", dressed to form the letter "S"

The "S-Zone" within the student section is another tradition at Beaver Stadium.[19][20] A small section behind the end zone are all given white and blue shirts supplied by the Pennsylvania State University Lion Ambassadors to create an "S" in the student section. The "S-zone" was moved from the 20 yard line to its current location at the beginning of the 2011 football season, as the student section was shifted over to between the 10 yard lines. For the 2008, 2011, 2013, and 2018 Homecoming Games, the "S-zone" was black and pink, in honor of the original Penn State colors. On April 21, 2007, for the Annual Blue and White Game (Spring Scrimmage), the "S" zone was converted to a "VT" zone, in honor of the victims of the massacre that took place on April 16, 2007, at Virginia Tech.

Nittanyville

Starting with the October 2005 game against Ohio State, students have camped out outside Gate A to obtain good seats for home games; "Nittanyville" is a recognized university club with rules of conduct.[4] It was originally known as "Paternoville."

Whiteout games

After failed experiments with "Code Blue" during the down year of 2004, a localized version of the "Winnipeg White Out" made national headlines during the 2005 game versus Ohio State. In this game, despite 40 °F (4 °C) temperatures and a misty rain, nearly every student, along with many other fans, wore a white shirt to the game, creating a sea of white.[21] This was deemed a success, as the student section was declared "the best in the country" by ESPN analyst Kirk Herbstreit, and the Nittany Lions won the game in an intense defensive battle, 17-10. The student section was widely credited with aiding the defense, which kept the Buckeyes' future Heisman Trophy winning quarterback, Troy Smith, in check by intercepting a pass and recovering a decisive fumble in the final minutes. Smith was forced to call several timeouts during the game due to inability to communicate with his offense on the field. Former Ohio State Center Nick Mangold has openly admitted that Beaver Stadium was the toughest stadium he had ever played in[].

In 2007, for the Notre Dame game, a full-stadium "White House" was declared. While it is widely believed that this change was a result of the National Hockey League's Phoenix Coyotes notifying the university that the phrase "White Out" was trademarked by the franchise during their time as the Winnipeg Jets,[22] the "White House" moniker was invented to remind the crowd that everyone, and not just the student section, was to wear white.[21] The newly christened "White House" was also deemed a success, as nearly every Penn State fan in attendance wore white, and the Lions won, 31-10. In 2008, the White House was met with similar success, a 38-24 win over Illinois. Since 2012, the "full stadium" Whiteout games have been against either Ohio State or Michigan.


Penn State Whiteout History
Date Kickoff Opponent Rank Type TV Result Attendance ATS[23]
October 9, 2004 4:30 p.m. No. 9 Purdue N/R Student[24] ESPN L 13-20 108,183 +8.5 W (Lost by 7)
October 23, 2004 12:00 p.m. No. 25 Iowa N/R Student[25] ESPN2 L 4-6 108,062 -3.0 L (Lost by 2)
October 8, 2005 7:45 p.m. No. 6 Ohio State No. 16 Student[26] ESPN W 17-10 109,839 +3.5 W (Won by 7)
November 5, 2005 3:30 p.m. No. 14 Wisconsin No. 10 Student[27] ABC W 35-14 109.865 -12.5 W (Won by 21)
October 14, 2006 8:00 p.m. No. 4 Michigan N/R Student[28] ABC L 10-17 110.007 +5.0 L (Lost by 7)
September 8, 2007 6:00 p.m. N/R Notre Dame No. 14 Full[29] ESPN W 31-10 110,078 -18.0 W (Won by 21)
October 27, 2007 8:00 p.m. No. 1 Ohio State No. 25 Student[30] ESPN L 37-17 110,134 +3.0 L (Lost by 20)
September 27, 2008 8:00 p.m. No. 22 Illinois No. 12 Full[31] ABC W 38-24 109,626 -15.0 L (Won by 14)
October 18, 2008 4:30 p.m. N/R Michigan No. 3 Student[32] ABC W 46-17 110,017 -24.5 W (Won by 29)
September 26, 2009 8:00 p.m. R/V Iowa No. 5 Full[33] ABC L 21-10 109,316 -9.5 L (Lost by 11)
November 7, 2009 3:30 p.m. No. 12 Ohio State No. 11 Student[34] ABC L 7-24 110,033 -4.5 L (Lost by 17)
October 30, 2010 8:00 p.m. N/R Michigan N/R Student[35] ABC W 41-31 108,539 +3.0 W (Won by 10)
September 10, 2011 3:30 p.m. No. 3 Alabama No. 23 Full[36] ABC L 11-27 107,846 +10.0 L (Lost by 16)
October 6, 2012 12:00 p.m. No. 24 Northwestern N/R Student[37] ESPN W 39-28 95,769 -3.0 W (Won by 11)
October 27, 2012 5:30 p.m. No. 9 Ohio State N/R Full[38] ESPN L 35-23 107,818 +1.0 L (Lost by 12)
September 14, 2013 6:00 p.m. R/V UCF N/R Student[39] BTN L 31-34 92,855 -4.5 L (Lost by 3)
October 12, 2013 5:00 p.m. No. 18 Michigan N/R Full[40] ESPN W 43-40 4OT 107,884 +1.5 W (Won by 3)
October 25, 2014 8:00 p.m. No. 12 Ohio State N/R Full[41] ABC L 24-31 2OT 107,895 +13.5 W (Lost by 7)
October 21, 2015 12:00 p.m. No. 14 Michigan N/R Full[42] ABC L 16-28 107,418 +3.5 L (Lost by 12)
October 22, 2016 8:00 p.m. No. 2 Ohio State N/R Full[43] ABC W 24-21 107,280 +17.5 L (Won by 3)
September 9, 2017 3:30 p.m. N/R Pittsburgh No. 4 Student[44] ABC W 33-14 109,898 -19.0 W (Won by 19)
October 21, 2017 7:30 p.m. No. 19 Michigan No. 2 Full[45] ABC W 42-13 110,823 -7.5 W (Won by 29)
September 29, 2018 7:30 p.m. No. 4 Ohio State No. 9 Full[46] ABC L 26-27 110,889 +3.5 W (Lost by 1)
October 16, 2019 7:30 p.m. No. 16 Michigan No. 7 Full[47] ABC W 28-21 110,669 -7.5 L (Won by 7)


Zombie Nation

Zombie Nation is a tradition that was started during the 2004 football season. [48] After the Nittany Lions make a big play, (typically on defense) the stadium blasts the song "Kernkraft 400" by Zombie Nation which ignites 107,000 into a frenzied blur all bouncing up and down in unison, waving towels and shakers wildly chanting "WE ARE PENN STATE" during the break in the melody of the song.[49] The tradition gained national attention in 2005, after Penn State's thrilling 17-10 victory over Ohio State, which at the time, delivered the second highest audience for a regular season college football game ever on ESPN.[50] Zombie Nation along with the Penn State Whiteout, have been direct influencers of Beaver Stadium being home to what many consider the best student section in college football.[51] SInce the tradition began, both Zombie Nation and the Whiteout have since spread to encompass the entire stadium.

Tunnel entrance

The tunnel entrance is a Nittany Lions tradition in which the head coach leads the team from the locker room under the South side of the stadium to the tunnel to a closed metal gate reading "PENN STATE" in bold Arial font. When the team arrives at the gate, the Nittany Lion opens the gate and motion for the team to walk through it, as if welcoming the team to the field. The team then lingers until four minutes were left on the pregame clock, and then the head coach leads the team through the tunnel created by the Blue Band.[]

Fast and slow wave

The Penn State Student Section initiates a wave during sporting events. After the wave passes around the stadium twice, the student section slows down the wave to about a fourth the speed of the normal wave. After the slow wave passes, the wave speeds up to over twice the speed of the normal wave. The wave has, on occasion, been reversed in direction following the fast wave.[]

Blue Band traditions

The Flip

After the Penn State Blue Band has entered the field and played the first 8 bars of "Hail to the Lion", the Blue Band's Drum Major does a high-stepping, stiff-legged sprint in between rows of band members from the goal line to the 50 yard line, where he does a front flip. Legend states that if the drum major lands the flip, the team will win that afternoon. He then performs another flip while running towards the end zone. After he stands back up, he and the Nittany Lion, who is holding his baton, take 5 high-steps toward each other, meeting 5 yards deep in the end zone. The Lion and Drum Major both place both hands on the baton in alternating order (in the same manner children choosing teams with a baseball bat would) and then throw the baton into the ground. They then salute each other, embrace arms, and then both excitedly run towards the student section, where they are cheered enthusiastically.

Floating Lions

The Blue Band performs "Hail to the Lion" and makes its way from its "PSU" formation to roll into spelling "LIONS" as it marches across the field. Once reaching the other side, the band reverses the "LIONS" to be readable to the east side of the stadium, while playing "Fight On, State". This is known as the "trademark drill" of the Blue Band.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Beaver Stadium History Essay". Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800-". Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ "Baker Firm designed New Grid Stadium". The Beaver County Times. September 26, 1961. Retrieved 2011.
  4. ^ a b c Rushton, Geoff (September 12, 2011) [June 13, 2011]. "Beaver Stadium: The Home of Penn State Football". Penn State News. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ Musselman, Ron (September 16, 2008). "Why Is It Called Beaver Stadium?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2008.
  6. ^ "Facilities". Retrieved 2016.
  7. ^ Herbstreit, Kirk (August 25, 2008). "The Nation's Best: Eighth Annual Herbie Awards". ESPN.
  8. ^ Best college football stadiums
  9. ^ Nick Schwartz (March 30, 2019). "Penn State's Beaver Stadium wins the 2019 Ultimate Stadium Bracket". For the Win!. USA Today.
  10. ^ "Google Maps' Street View captures University Park, including stadium". Penn State Live. January 21, 2010.
  11. ^ Rovell, Darren (November 25, 2012). "Penn State's Attendance Down Again". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2012.
  12. ^ "Penn St. officials looking to renovate or replace stadium in near future". ESPN.com. October 1, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ Drey, Abby. "New Beaver Stadium attendance record set in Penn State-Ohio State game". centredaily. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "Penn State-Ohio State Clash Delivers ESPN's Second Largest College Football Audience". Penn State Intercollegiate Athletics. October 12, 2005. Retrieved 2006.
  15. ^ "Penn State Fans Earn Top Four Finish in NCAA Football Attendance For 15th Consecutive Year". Penn State Intercollegiate Athletics. February 27, 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ Gleiter, Sue (2019-08-12). "Penn State ranked as one of top 25 tailgate colleges". pennlive. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "S-Zone". Lion Ambassadors - Penn State Student Alumnai Corps. Retrieved 2015.
  20. ^ Fogarty, Ali (2013-11-07). "What Goes Into Creating the S-Zone?". Onward State. Retrieved 2015.
  21. ^ a b Cary, Lee. "Evolution of Penn State's 'Whiteout'". The Daily Collegian. Retrieved 2015.
  22. ^ Lauren Boyer (6 September 2007). "NHL wants trademark 'White Out' faded out". The Daily Collegian. Retrieved 2016.
  23. ^ "NCAAF Football Odds & Handicapping Database". Odds Shark. Retrieved .
  24. ^ Johnson, Richard (2017-10-21). "Penn State's White Out is one of the best atmospheres in football". SBNation.com. Retrieved .
  25. ^ ""White Out" Declared for Iowa Football Clash; Student to Win Two Roundtrip Spring Break Tickets to Florida". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  26. ^ "Unbeaten Nittany Lions White Out Buckeyes 17-10". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  27. ^ "Football Pep Rally Set For Friday in Rec Hall; Fans Encouraged to "White Out" Wisconsin". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  28. ^ "Pep Rally Set for Friday in Rec Hall; All Fans Encouraged to Wear White for Michigan Clash". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  29. ^ "All-Stadium White Out Declared; Pep Rally Set for Friday". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  30. ^ "Nittany Lions Host Ohio State For Primetime Showdown". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  31. ^ 2008 Illinois at #12 Penn State (HD), retrieved
  32. ^ Michigan vs. Penn State 2008, retrieved
  33. ^ Jones, David (2009-09-27). "Iowa Hawkeyes' machine unfazed by Beaver Stadium Whiteout". pennlive. Retrieved .
  34. ^ "Rally in the Valley Set for Friday in Jordan Center After Nittany Lion Basketball Game". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  35. ^ "Penn State Pushes Past Michigan, 41-31". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  36. ^ "State College, PA - Penn State Announces Parking Changes for Saturday's Alabama Game -". www.statecollege.com. Retrieved .
  37. ^ "The Anatomy of a Whiteout Declaration". Onward State. 2012-10-02. Retrieved .
  38. ^ "Sea of White: The Top Five Plays in Penn State's Whiteout Game". Roar Lions Roar. 2019-10-17. Retrieved .
  39. ^ "Series of Themed Gamedays Set for Nittany Lion Contests in Beaver Stadium". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  40. ^ "BTN To Air 'Enhanced' Replay Of 2013 Penn State White Out August 10". Onward State. 2019-08-07. Retrieved .
  41. ^ Hockensmith, Dustin (2014-06-19). "Penn State announces 'White Out' for Ohio State game, other 2014 gameday themes". pennlive. Retrieved .
  42. ^ Flounders, Bob (2015-05-12). "A Penn State-Michigan 2015 White Out: A look back at the 10 most memorable games between the teams". pennlive. Retrieved .
  43. ^ "Franklin Wants Beaver Stadium To Be 'Most Difficult Environment in History of College Football'". Roar Lions Roar. 2016-10-19. Retrieved .
  44. ^ Koerbler, Patrick (2017-09-04). "Nittanyville Calling For Whiteout Against Pitt". Black Shoe Diaries. Retrieved .
  45. ^ "PHOTOS: Penn State football blows out rival Michigan in 2017 white out game". The Daily Collegian. Retrieved .
  46. ^ Wogenrich, Mark. "Penn State vs. Ohio State 2018: Beaver Stadium's priciest ticket ever". mcall.com. Retrieved .
  47. ^ Zuke, Ryan (2019-10-15). "Michigan bracing for another 'crazy' atmosphere at Penn State". mlive. Retrieved .
  48. ^ "Zombie Nation - Penn State football blog". Retrieved .
  49. ^ "How Penn State's White Out became the in thing". ESPN.com. 2016-10-21. Retrieved .
  50. ^ "Penn State-Ohio State Clash Delivers ESPN's Second Largest College Football Audience". Penn State University Athletics. Retrieved .
  51. ^ Carr, Aaron (2017-08-24). "ESPN's Kirk Herbstreit ranks Penn State's student section as college football's best". pennlive.com. Retrieved .

External links

Media related to Beaver Stadium at Wikimedia Commons


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