Bay Area Rapid Transit Rolling Stock
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Bay Area Rapid Transit Rolling Stock

The rolling stock of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system's heavy rail component consists of 782 self-propelled electric multiple units, built from four separate orders.[1] To run a typical peak morning commute, BART requires 579 cars. Of those, 535 are scheduled to be in active service; the others are used to build up four spare trains (essential for maintaining on-time service).[1][2] At any one time, the remaining 90 cars are in for repair, maintenance, or some type of planned modification work.[3] All trains on the separate automated guideway transit line are in regular use without spares. Bombardier Transportation is manufacturing a complete replacement of the mainline fleet, due to be delivered in batches by Fall 2021. The first ten cars of this replacement fleet entered service in 2018, with all expected to enter service by 2022. With the withdrawal and retirement of the older fleet, there will be 775 vehicles in total, with long-term goals of eventually increasing this to 1,200 cars. Eight light rail diesel multiple units are being used on a recent spur line.

The mainline track gauge is , significantly wider than the near-universal used on freight railroads and most rapid transit systems. It also uses flat-edge rail, rather than typical rail that angles slightly inward. These factors have complicated maintenance of the system, as it requires custom wheelsets, brake systems, and track maintenance vehicles.[4] Stations have a platform height of 39 inches (991 mm).[5] A full consist, which will fill the system's platforms, is limited to ten units, equaling 710 feet (216 m) (assuming A cars on the ends). The automated guideway transit line utilizes off-the-shelf cable car technology developed by DCC Doppelmayr Cable Car: the Cable Liner. The eBART extension was constructed to more traditional specifications and uses Stadler GTW articulated multiple units previously utilized in other systems.

Original fleet

A and B series

A Car
Bart A car Oakland Coliseum Station.jpg
In service1972-present
ManufacturerRohr Industries
Constructed1968-1975
Entered service1972
Refurbished1998-2002
2014
Number built59
Number in service59
Fleet numbers1164-1276
Capacity60 (seated)
200 (crush load)
Operator(s)1
Depot(s)Colma Yard
Concord Yard
Hayward Complex
Richmond Yard
Specifications
Car length75 ft (23 m)
Floor height39 in (990 mm)
Entrylevel
Doors4
Maximum speed80 mph (130 km/h)
Traction motorsWestinghouse 1463 (original)
ADtranz 1507C (refurbish)
Acceleration3.0 mph/s (4.8 km/(h?s))
Train heatingThermo King (original)
Westcode (refurbish)
Electric system(s)1,000 V DC third rail
Current collection methodcontact shoe
Minimum turning radius120 m (390 ft)
Coupling systemWABCO N -3
Track gauge
B Car
BART B interior.jpg
ManufacturerRohr Industries
Constructed1971-1975
Refurbished1998-2002
Scrapped2019-
Number built380
Number in service377
Number scrapped3
Fleet numbers1501-1913
Specifications
Car length70 ft (21 m)
Maximum speed80 mph
Notes
Same specifications as A cars except where noted

The A and B cars were built from 1968 to 1975 by Rohr Industries, an aerospace manufacturing company that had recently started mass-transit equipment manufacturing. The A cars were designed as leading or trailing cars only, with an aerodynamic fiberglass operator's cab housing train control equipment and BART's two-way communication system, and extending 5 feet (1.52 m) longer than the B- and C-cars. A and B cars can seat 60 passengers comfortably, and under crush load, carry over 200 passengers.[2] B cars have no operator's cab and are used in the middle of trains to carry passengers only. In the 1998-2002 timeframe, the fleet was rebuilt by Adtranz/Bombardier, with certain cars being rebuilt into B cars. Currently, BART operates 59 A cars and 380 B cars.[6][7] The BART A cars have a larger cab window than the C cars, allowing riders to look out of the front or the back of the train.

C series

C1 Car
Exterior of BART C train.jpg
ManufacturerAlstom
Constructed1987-1989
Scrapped2019-
Number built150
Number in service148
Number scrapped2
Fleet numbers301-450
Capacity56 (seated)
200 (crush load)
Specifications
Traction motorsWestinghouse 1463
Notes
same specs as B car except where noted
C2 Car
Demonstration car.jpg
A Demonstration Car (modified C2 car) with accommodations for both wheelchairs and bicycles. This car also has hand straps.
ManufacturerMorrison-Knudsen
Constructed1994-1996[8]
Scrapped2019-
Number built80
Number in service75
Number scrapped5
Fleet numbers2501-2580
Notes
same specs as C1 car except where noted
The control panel in a C car
Interior of a C car with upgraded spray-on composite flooring
Side view of nine car BART C1 train. The flat nose of the C series allows them to be used as middle cars, such as cars 343 and 330 in this image.

The C cars feature a fiberglass operator's cab and control and communications equipment like the A cars, but do not have the aerodynamic nose, allowing them to be used as middle cars as well. This allows faster train-size changes without having to move the train to a switching yard. C cars can seat 56 passengers and under crush load accommodate over 200 passengers.[2] The first C cars, referred to as C1 cars, were built by Alstom between 1987 and 1989.[9] The second order of C cars, built by Morrison-Knudsen (now Washington Group International), are known as C2 cars. The C2 cars were identical to the C1 cars but featured an interior with a blue/gray motif. At the time of their construction, the C2 cars also featured flip-up seats which could be folded to accommodate wheelchair users; these seats were later removed during refurbishment. Currently, BART operates 150 C1 cars and 80 C2 cars. The "C" cars have a bright white segment as the final approximately two feet (61 cm) of the car at their cab end. The first legacy fleet car to be scrapped was car 2528 in November 2019; it had operated more than two million miles (3,200,000 km) of service.[10]

Refurbishments

Prior to the introduction of the C2 cars, the seats and carpeted flooring in all the cars were brown. In 1995, BART contracted with Pittsburg-based[11]ADtranz (acquired by Bombardier Transportation in 2001) to refurbish and overhaul the 439 original Rohr A- and B-cars, updating the old brown fabric seats to less-toxic and easier-to-clean,[12] light-blue polyurethane seats and bringing the older cars to the same level of interior amenities as the C2 fleet. The project was completed in 2002. The A, B, and C cars were all given 3-digit numbers originally, but when refurbished 1000 was added to the number of each individual A/B car (e.g. car 633 would become 1633). The C2 cars are numbered in the 2500 series; the C/C1 cars still have 3-digit numbers.

Because one of the original design goals was for all BART riders to be seated, the older cars had fewer provisions such as grab bars for standing passengers. In the late 2000s BART began modifying some of the C2 cars to test features such as hand-straps and additional areas for luggage, wheelchairs and bicycles. These new features were later added to the A, B, and C1 cars.

Prior to 2012, all BART cars featured upholstered seats. It was reported in 2011 that several strains of molds and bacteria were found on fabric seats on BART trains, even after wiping with antiseptic. These included bacteria from fecal contamination.[13] In April, BART announced it would spend $2 million in the next year to replace the dirty seats.[14] The new seats would feature vinyl-covered upholstery which would be easier to clean.[15] The transition to the new seats was completed in December 2014.[16]

Originally all the cars had carpeted flooring. Due to similar concerns regarding cleanliness, the carpeting in all of the cars has been removed.[17] The A and B, and C2 cars now feature vinyl flooring in either grey or blue coloring, while the C1 cars feature a spray-on composite flooring.

Traction motors

Prior to rebuilding,[18] the Direct Current (DC) traction motors used on the 439 Rohr BART cars were Model 1463B with chopper controls from Westinghouse, who also built the automatic train control system for BART. The Rohr cars were rebuilt with ADtranz model 1507C 3-phase alternating current (AC) traction motors with insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverters. The Westinghouse motors are still in use on the Alstom C (C1) and Morrison-Knudsen C2 cars and the motors that were removed from the Rohr cars were retained as spare motors for use on them. Cars have a starting accelerating of 3.0 mph/s or 4.8 km/(h?s) and are capable of holding that acceleration up to 31 mph (50 km/h). Residual acceleration at 80 mph (130 km/h) is 0.78 mph/s or 1.26 km/(h?s). Braking rates range from 0.45 mph/s or 0.72 km/(h?s) up to 3.0 mph/s or 4.8 km/(h?s) (full service rate).[19]

The HVAC system on the Rohr BART cars before rehabilitation were built by Thermo King, when it was a subsidiary of Westinghouse; in 1997 it became a subsidiary of Ingersoll Rand. The current HVAC systems on the rebuilt Rohr-built Gen 1 cars were built by Westcode and possibly also ADtranz who had subcontracted the HVAC system to Westcode.[20]

Noise

Many BART passengers have noted that the system is noisy, with a 2010 survey by the San Francisco Chronicle measuring up to 100 decibels (comparable to the noise level of a jackhammer) in the Transbay Tube between San Francisco and Oakland, and still more than 90 decibels in 23 other locations.[21] According to BART, the noise in the tunnel used to be "compared to banshees, screech owls, or Doctor Who's TARDIS run amok".[22]

However, then-chief BART spokesperson Linton Johnson stated that BART averages 70-80 dB, below the danger zone, and according to a 1997 study by the National Academy of Sciences, BART ranks as among the quietest transit systems in the nation.[23][24] Critics have countered that this study analyzed straight, above-ground portions of different systems throughout the country at 30 mph (48 km/h), which is not representative of actual operating conditions. Much of BART is under ground and curvy, even in the Transbay Tube, and has much higher peak operating speeds than many other systems in the country.[24]

Train noise on curves is caused by the wheels slipping along the rails. This slippage also causes noise and surface damage called corrugation. The process by which the noise and corrugation occur is:[24]

  1. Pairs of wheels are attached to one another with an axle such that they must have the same rotational speed, but on a curve the distances the outer and inner wheels travel are different. As a result, the wheels must slip along the rails.
  2. This slippage causes the wheel and track to wear and become uneven (corrugated).
  3. This corrugation causes more noise and corrugation, not only in the original location but elsewhere in the system.

In 2015, after replacing 6,500 feet (1,981 m) and grinding down (smoothing) 3 miles (4.8 km) of rail in the tube, BART reported a reduction of noise there and positive feedback from riders.[22] BART also announced that the new train cars expected to enter service in December 2016 (see below) will be quieter, thanks to "'micro-plug' doors [that] help seal out noise".[25]

Decommissioning

If Federal Transit Administration funds were used in the purchase of a vehicle and that vehicle is determined to have a value over $5,000 at the time of sale, the FTA is entitled to a reimbursement proportional to their contribution to that vehicle when it was initially bought. This applies even if the car is donated free of charge.[26]

The older cars began retirement in November 2019 as Car 2528 (a C2 car) was the first released from BART ownership. The car was removed from service in 2014 by which time it had run two million miles (3,200,000 km) and was held in reserve for spare parts. Four additional C2 cars, three B2 cars, and two C1 cars (totalling ten cars) were additionally sent to the Schnitzer Steel facility in Oakland to be evaluated and recycled.[10]

Fleet of the Future (D and E series)

D Car
Future Fleet Open House at El Cerrito Del Norte Station
Interior of BART D car, March 2018.jpg
In service2018-present
ManufacturerBombardier Transportation
DesignerMorelli Designers
Built atPlattsburgh, New York
Pittsburg, California
Family nameMovia
ReplacedA, C series
Constructed2012-2022 (estimated)[27]
Entered serviceJanuary 19, 2018
Number under construction310
Fleet numbers3001-3310
Capacity51 (seated)
Depot(s)Colma Yard
Concord Yard
Hayward Complex
Richmond Yard
Specifications
Car length70 ft (21 m)
Platform height39 in (990 mm)
EntryLevel
Doors6
Maximum speed80 mph (130 km/h)
Electric system(s)1,000 V DC third rail
Current collection methodcontact shoe
Minimum turning radius120 m (390 ft)
Coupling systemScharfenberg
Track gauge
E Car
BART E cars at 19th Street Oakland station, March 2018.jpg
ReplacedB, C series
Constructed2012-2022 (estimated)[27]
Number under construction465
Fleet numbers4001-4465
Capacity56 (seated)
Notes
same specs as D car except where noted

In a 2010 APTA study, the average age of BART's mainline fleet was reported to be 30 years, longer than the usual lifespan of 25 years. Despite the purchase of newer cars over the years, the majority of the active fleet in 2016 was over 40 years old and had traveled over a million miles. Because of this, they have been increasingly prone to frequent breakdowns and repairs, decreasing the number of available cars and in turn increasing congestion, especially with the need to increase the fleet size for extensions to the network.[28] Consequently, in 2009, BART began the process of expanding and replacing its railcar fleet.[29] By 2010, it had received proposals from five suppliers, and on May 10, 2012, it awarded a $896.3 million contract to Canadian railcar manufacturer Bombardier Transportation with an order for 410 new cars, split into a base order of 260 cars and a first option order of 150 additional cars.[30][31] The car was designed by Morelli Designers, an industrial design firm based in Montréal, Canada.[32] On November 21, 2013, BART purchased 365 more cars, for a total fleet size of 775 new railcars, while also accelerating the delivery schedule by 21 months (from 10 cars per month up to 16 cars per month) and lowering procurement costs by approximately $135 million.[33][34] According to the contract, at least 2/3 of the contract's amount must be spent on U.S.-built parts.[]

D car operator's cab

There are two different types of car configurations for the new fleet; a cab car (D cars), which will make up 40% of the fleet, or, 310 cars, and a non-cab car (E cars), which will make up the remainder of the fleet, or, 465 cars.[34][35] All cars are to be equipped with bike racks, new vinyl seats (54 per car), and a brand new passenger information system which will display next stop information.[36]

A major difference from the older cars is the presence of an extra set of doorways on each side of the new cars to speed up boarding and alighting.[37] They also include redesigned seating, bike racks, digital displays that display travel information, and automatic announcements.[38] Due to potential access issues for people with disabilities, the pilot car layout was modified by the BART board in February 2015 to include two wheelchair spaces in the center of the car, as well as alternative layouts for bike and flexible open spaces.[39]

The first test car was unveiled in April 2016;[25] upon approval, the first 10 cars were expected to be in service in December 2016, and at least 20 by December 2017.[25] This was delayed several times until the production cars were expected to be delivered in October 2017.[27] Delivery of all 775 cars was initially expected to be completed by Fall 2022,[40] with all cars in service by 2023.[27] Bombardier initially agreed to speed production to have all cars available by the end of 2021 and in service by 2022.

In early November 2017, a test train failed a CPUC regulatory inspection due to door issues, leaving the planned late November revenue service in doubt.[41] The first ten-car train received CPUC certification on January 17, 2018,[42] and began revenue service two days later on January 19.[43] Plans to have 198 new cars by July 2018 did not materialize, and the agency had put only 20 in service at that time.[44] After only running on the Richmond-Warm Springs/South Fremont line since January, a set of D and E cars began transbay service in October 2018.[45]

By the end of March 2019, 65 cars were in use; four 10-car trains for revenue service and the remainder for training. In June 2019, with 84 total cars delivered, Bombardier announced it would be moving production from their New York-based plant to a new facility split with Hitachi Rail in Pittsburg, California in the East Bay.[11]

In November 2018, BART announced they had negotiated to extend their purchase options to a total of 1,200 cars,[46] though reports in 2019 stated that this deal was still not final.[11]

As of June 2020 BART had taken delivery of 218 cars, with 203 certified and 129 in service.[47]

AGT fleet

Cable Liner
OAK-Coliseum Airport Mover.jpg
Interior of cable car used on BART Oakland Airport line.jpg
ManufacturerDCC Doppelmayr
Entered service2014
Number built4
Fleet numbers1.3-4.3
Capacity113
Depot(s)Doolittle maintenance and storage facility
Line(s) served
Specifications
Entrylevel
Articulated sections3
Maximum speed30 mph (48 km/h)
Engine typestationary cable motors

The Coliseum-Oakland International Airport line uses a completely separate and independently operated fleet as it uses off-the-shelf cable car-based automated guideway transit technology. The fleet consists of four Cable Liner trains built by DCC Doppelmayr Cable Car arranged as three-car sets,[48] totaling twelve cars. The system is designed to be expanded to four-car trains with a capacity of 148 passengers in the future if necessary.

eBART fleet

Stadler GTW
A railcar on a rail line in the median of a highway
Interior of eBART DMU, May 2018.JPG
Interior of the eBART DMU
ManufacturerStadler Rail
Built atBussnang, Switzerland
Constructed2014-2018
Entered service2018
Number built8
Fleet numbers101-108
Capacity104 (seated)
96 (standing)[49]
Operator(s)1
Depot(s)Antioch Yard
Line(s) servedeBART
Specifications
Car length132 ft (40 m)[49]
Entrylevel
Doors4
Articulated sections3
Maximum speed75 mph (121 km/h)[49]
Engine typeDiesel
UIC classification2'+Bo+2'
Track gauge

eBART is a spur line built to different design standards than the majority of the mainline; it is non-electrified and serviced by diesel-powered light rail. The vehicle procurement for the line included eight Stadler GTW trains, with two options to purchase six more. Stadler was the sole bidder on the contract.[50] The first was delivered in June 2016.[51] The trains are diesel multiple units (DMU's) with 2/6 articulated power units, and are based on models previously used in Austin, Dallas and New Jersey.[25][52]

Maintenance

Maintenance of way

Builder Model In service Note Image
Plasser & Theurer EM 110c 19-present Track geometry car BART TrackGeometryCar.jpg
MER MEC Roger MM 600 On order as of April 2016[53]
Plasser American ballast and switch tamper BART tamper near Bay Fair station, March 2018.JPG
Nordco? Ballast Regulator BART maintenance vehicle near Bay Fair station, March 2018.JPG
Railcar mover Railcar mover in Daly City Yard, March 2018.JPG
Road-rail vehicle BART maintenance vehicle in Daly City Yard, March 2018.JPG
Brandt Maintenance Vehicle c.2011-present Self Powered Flat Cars #5066, 5067, 5068. BART 5068 at Oakland Shops, July 2018.JPG

Other

Builder Model In service Note Image
Relco Locomotives Work Train NRVE 2019- 3 Tier IV clean diesel Maintenance and Engineering locomotives towing 14 various flatcars with overall 800 ft (240 m) length[54] for TransBay Tube Refit project.

References

  1. ^ a b Chinn, Jerold (January 29, 2015). "Long wait ahead for longer BART trains". San Francisco Bay Area. Retrieved 2015. BART explains it has total of 662 trains, but about 535 are in service during peak commute times, about 86.5 percent of its fleet. BART said it runs more of its fleet than any other major transit agency despite having the oldest trains in the nation.
  2. ^ a b c Cabanatuan, Michael (April 10, 2010). "BART can't keep pace with rising 'crush loads'". SFGate.
  3. ^ ""Why can't the trains be longer?" Some background to explain". Bay Area Rapid Transit. September 25, 2008. Archived from the original on August 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  4. ^ Gafni, Matthias (March 25, 2016). "Has BART's cutting-edge 1972 technology design come back to haunt it?". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ "BART-San Francisco Airport Extension Final Environmental Impact Report/Final Environmental Impact Statement". Federal Transit Administration. June 1996. p. 3-501 – via Internet Archive.
  6. ^ "BART - Car Types". Bay Area Rapid Transit. Retrieved 2009.
  7. ^ "FY08 Short Range Transit Plan and Capital Improvement Program" (PDF). Bay Area Rapid Transit. September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 29, 2008. Retrieved 2007.
  8. ^ http://www.bart.gov/sites/default/files/docs/PosterTimeline_v2.pdf
  9. ^ "BART Car ills". San Jose Mercury News. February 23, 1990. Retrieved 2009 – via Newsbank.com.
  10. ^ a b "BART's first legacy car heads to recycler". Mass Transit. November 12, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ a b c Baldassari, Erin (June 14, 2019). "BART's new train cars to be built in the Bay Area". The Mercury News. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ "New seats now in all trains". Bay Area Rapid Transit. January 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ Elinson, Zusha (March 5, 2011). "BART Seats: Where Bacteria Blossom". Bay Citizen. Retrieved 2011.
  14. ^ Elinson, Zusha (April 12, 2011). "BART Plans to Spend $2 Million to Replace Grimy Seats". Bay Citizen. Retrieved 2011.
  15. ^ Elinson, Zusha (April 6, 2012). "BART's New Seats (a Few) Make Debut". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015.
  16. ^ "New seats now in all trains". Bay Area Rapid Transit. January 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ "BART carpet: Like wool seats, another relic gone for good". Bay Area Rapid Transit. August 10, 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  18. ^ "BART Renovation Nears Completion". Business Wire. October 9, 2003. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ Westcode, Inc., Plaintiff, v. Daimler Chrysler Rail Systems (North America) Inc., f/k/a Aeg Transportation Systems, Inc., Defendant. Text
  21. ^ Cabanatuan, Michael (September 7, 2010). "Noise on BART: How bad is it and is it harmful?". SFGate. Retrieved 2016.
  22. ^ a b "Riders notice a quieter ride following first of two tube shutdowns". Bay Area Rapid Transit. August 13, 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  23. ^ Nelson, J. T (1997). "TCRP Report 23: Wheel-Rail Noise Control Manual" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. Retrieved 2015.
  24. ^ a b c "Why Is BART So Noisy?". Oakland North Radio. October 24, 2010. Retrieved 2012.
  25. ^ a b c d "Onsite testing begins for BART's first new train car". Bay Area Rapid Transit. April 6, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  26. ^ "Legacy Fleet Decommissioning". Bay Area Rapid Transit. Retrieved 2020.
  27. ^ a b c d Baldassari, Erin (October 5, 2017). "BART's new train cars delayed (again): target is now Thanksgiving". East Bay Times. Retrieved 2017.
  28. ^ Grossberg, Adam (January 26, 2016). "After a Million Miles, BART Cars Are Hella Old". KQED News. Retrieved 2018.
  29. ^ "New Train Car Project". Retrieved 2018.
  30. ^ Richman, Josh (May 10, 2012). "BART board approves contract for 410 new train cars". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2012.
  31. ^ Bowen, Douglas John (May 11, 2012). "BART taps Bombardier; U.S. content at issue". Railway Age. Retrieved 2012.
  32. ^ "BART - San Francisco" (in French). Morelli Designers. Archived from the original on July 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  33. ^ "BART Board approves additional 365 cars for Fleet of the Future". Bay Area Rapid Transit. November 21, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  34. ^ a b "Board Meeting Agenda" (PDF). San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. November 21, 2013. pp. 91-92. Retrieved 2013.
  35. ^ "New Train Car Project; New Features". Bay Area Rapid Transit. 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  36. ^ "New Train Car Project New Features". Bay Area Rapid Transit. 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  37. ^ Nguyen, Alexander (October 29, 2015). "New 3-Door BART Cars Could Speed Boarding Times, Officials Say". Walnut Creek Patch. Retrieved 2018.
  38. ^ Morse, Jack (April 6, 2016). "Photos: First Look Inside That New BART Car, Bike Racks And All". SFist. Archived from the original on November 5, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  39. ^ Cuff, Denis (February 26, 2015). "BART changes new train car design to satisfy disabled riders' concerns". Contra Costa Times. Retrieved 2015.
  40. ^ "New Train Car Project Delivery Plan". Bay Area Rapid Transit. 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  41. ^ Rodriguez, Joe Fitzgerald (November 7, 2017). "BART's new train cars fail regulatory test, possibly delaying rollout". San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved 2017.
  42. ^ Cabanatuan, Michael (January 18, 2018). "New BART rail cars approved for service". San Francisco Chronicle.
  43. ^ Hollyfield, Amy (January 19, 2018). "BART's Fleet of the Future put into service today". ABC7 San Francisco. Retrieved 2018.
  44. ^ Matier, Phil (July 16, 2018). "BART's Fleet Of The Future Is Already Spending The Present Getting Repaired". KPIX. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ Swan, Rachel (October 24, 2018). "Shiny new BART trains start crossing the bay as agency braces for rising demand". San Francisco Chronicle.
  46. ^ "Train Car Update". New Train Car Project. Bay Area Rapid Transit. Retrieved 2019.
  47. ^ "New Train Car Project". BART. Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ "BART Board sets fares for BART to Oakland International Airport service". Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART). June 12, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  49. ^ a b c COETSEE, ROWENA (June 30, 2017). "Local pols get sneak peek at eBART train". The Mercury News. Retrieved 2016.
  50. ^ "BART unveils Antioch eBART train". Railway Gazette. July 4, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  51. ^ "East Contra Costa BART Extension (eBART) Implementation". Bay Area Rapid Transit. May 19, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  52. ^ "Stadler Rail delivers trains to Oakland". Stadler Rail. April 26, 2014. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  53. ^ "San Francisco track geometry car ordered". Railway Gazette. April 13, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  54. ^ Richards, Gary (February 22, 2019). "Reasons behind late-starting BART trains: Roadshow". Mercury News. Retrieved 2019.

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