Baroda
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Baroda

Vadodara

Baroda
Laxmi Vilas Palace, Vadodara.jpg
NyayM.jpg
Sardar Patel Planetarium Vadodara.jpg
Baroda Techo.jpg
Clockwise from top: Lakshmi Vilas Palace, Saradar Patel Planetarium, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Nyay Mandir in the heart of Vadodara,
Nickname(s): 
Sayaji Nagari (City of Sayajirao Gaekwad), Sanskari Nagari (Cultural City)
Vadodara is located in Gujarat
Vadodara
Vadodara
Location of Vadodara in Gujarat
Coordinates: 22°18?N 73°12?E / 22.300°N 73.200°E / 22.300; 73.200Coordinates: 22°18?N 73°12?E / 22.300°N 73.200°E / 22.300; 73.200
CountryIndia India
StateGujarat
DistrictVadodara District
Zone4[1]
Ward25[1][3]
Vadodara Municipal CorporationEstablished 1950
Government
 o BodyVUDA, VMSS
 o MayorJigeesha Sheth
 o Municipal CommissionerNalin Upadhyay
Area
 o Total400 km2 (200 sq mi)
Area rank18
Elevation
129 m (423 ft)
Population
(2011)[2]
 o Total1,822,221 [2]
 o Rank20th (3rd in Gujarat State)
Demonym(s)Vadodarian, Barodian
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
390 0XX
Telephone code(91)265
ISO 3166 codeISO 3166-2:IN
Vehicle registrationGJ-06 (Urban)/GJ-29 (Rural)
VillageAhmedabad
Nearest cityBharuch, Anand
Literacy Rate94.5%
Legislature typeMunicipal Corporation
Legislature Strength84[1]
Lok Sabha constituency1[4]
Vidhan Sabha constituency13[5]
ClimateTropical savanna (Köppen: Aw)
Planning agency1 (VUDA)
Distance from Gandhinagar126 kilometres (78 mi) NE (Rail & Air)
Distance from Mumbai395 kilometres (245 mi) S (Rail & Air)
Distance from Ahmedabad100 kilometres (62 mi) NW (Road)
Websitewww.vmc.gov.in

Vadodara (Gujarati pronunciation: ['?od:]; formerly known as Baroda) is a large[6] city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is the administrative headquarters of Vadodara District and is located on the banks of the Vishwamitri river, 141 kilometres (88 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar. The railway line and NH 8 that connect Delhi and Mumbai pass through Vadodara. It is known as a Sanskari Nagari (city)[7] of India.

As of 2011, Vadodara had a population of almost 2 million people.[8] The city is known for the Lakshmi Vilas Palace, the residence of Baroda State's Maratha royal family, the Gaekwads, of the Gaekwad Dynasty. It is also the home of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, the largest university in Gujarat.

History

Etymology

The city used to be called Chandanavati after its ruler Raja Chandan of the Dor tribe of Rajputs. The capital was also known as Virakshetra or Viravati (Land of Warriors). Later on, it was known as Vadpatraka or Vadodará, which according to tradition is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word vatodar meaning in the belly of the Banyan tree. It is now almost impossible to ascertain when the various changes in the name were made; but early English travellers and merchants mention the town as Brodera,[9] and it is from this that the name Baroda is derived. In 1974, the official name of the city was changed to Vadodara.

In 1907, a small village and township[10] in Michigan, United States, were named after Baroda.

Old Ankotakka

It is believed that early man lived on the banks of the Mahi River, which formed the floodplain during that age.[11] The movements of these hunter-gatherers, living on the banks of the river, grubbing the roots and killing animals with crude stone tools made out of the cobbles and pebbles available on the river bank, were necessarily controlled by the availability of convenient raw materials for their tools.

Recent history

Baroda State was a former Indian State. Vadodara's more recent history began when the Maratha general Pilaji Gaekwad conquered Songadh from the Mughals in 1726.[12] Before the Gaekwads captured Baroda, it was ruled by the Babi Nawabs, who were the officers of the Mughal rulers. Most notably, from 1705-1716, Sardar Senapati Khanderao Dabhade led the Maratha Empire forces in Baroda. Except for a short period, Baroda continued to be in the reign of the Gaekwads from 1734 to 1948. Initially detailed to collect revenue on behalf of the Peshwa in Gujarat, Pilaji Gaekwad remained there to carve out a kingdom for himself. Damajirao, who was son and successor of Pilaji Gaekwad, defeated the Mughal armies and conquered Baroda in 1734.[12] His successors consolidated their power over large tracts of Gujarat, becoming easily the most powerful rulers in the region.

After the Maratha defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761,[12] control of the empire by the Peshwas weakened as it became a loose confederacy, and the Gaekwad Maharajas ruled the kingdom until it acceded to Independent Republic of India in 1949. In 1802,[12] the British intervened to defend a Maharaja that had recently inherited the throne from rival claimants, and Vadodara concluded a subsidiary alliance with the British that recognised the Kingdom as a Princely state and allowed the Maharajas of Baroda internal political sovereignty in return for recognising British 'Paramountcy', a form of suzerainty in which the control of the state's foreign affairs was completely surrendered.[]

The golden period in the Maratha rule of Vadodara started with the accession of Maharaja Sayajirao III in 1875.[12] Near Maharaja Sayaji Gaekwad University there is a well known garden which was built by Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwad himself in 1879 A.D. This garden is known as Sayaji Baug known for visitors centre.This place is situated on river Vishwamitri.

Geography

Vadodara is located at 22°18?N 73°11?E / 22.30°N 73.19°E / 22.30; 73.19 in western India at an elevation of 39 metres (128 ft). It is the 18th-largest city in India with an area of 235 square kilometres (91 sq mi) and a population of 2.1 million, according to the 2010-11 census. The city sits on the banks of the Vishwamitri River, in central Gujarat. The Vishwamitri frequently dries up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water. The city is located on the fertile plain between the Mahi and Narmada Rivers. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the cosmopolis falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing proneness to earthquakes).[13]

Panorama of Laxmi Vilas Palace

Climate

Despite the roughly 800 mm of precipitation that the city receives annually, Vadodara features a semi-arid climate (BSh) under Köppen's Climate classification due to the area's high potential evapotranspiration. There are three main seasons: Summer, Monsoon and Winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is dry. The weather is hot during March to July, when the average maximum is 45 °C (113 °F), and the average minimum is 23 °C (73 °F). From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C (86 °F), the average minimum is 15 °C (59 °F), and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chilly days in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average rainfall is 93 cm (37 in), but infrequent heavy torrential rains cause the river to flood[14] like the 2005 Gujarat flood or the 2008 Indian floods which were catastrophic.[15]

The highest recorded temperature was 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) on 11 May 1960 crossed with 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) on 19 May 2016,[16] while the lowest recorded temperature was -1.1 °C (30.0 °F) on 15 January 1935.[17]

Climate data for Vadodara
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.2
(97.2)
41.7
(107.1)
44.4
(111.9)
45.9
(114.6)
48.0
(118.4)
45.6
(114.1)
40.6
(105.1)
37.9
(100.2)
41.1
(106.0)
42.1
(107.8)
39.6
(103.3)
36.8
(98.2)
48.0
(118.4)
Average high °C (°F) 29.5
(85.1)
31.9
(89.4)
36.2
(97.2)
39.2
(102.6)
40.1
(104.2)
36.8
(98.2)
32.5
(90.5)
31.4
(88.5)
33.0
(91.4)
35.5
(95.9)
33.4
(92.1)
30.7
(87.3)
34.2
(93.5)
Average low °C (°F) 12.5
(54.5)
14.2
(57.6)
18.4
(65.1)
23.0
(73.4)
26.6
(79.9)
27.0
(80.6)
25.8
(78.4)
25.0
(77.0)
24.5
(76.1)
21.4
(70.5)
16.9
(62.4)
13.7
(56.7)
20.8
(69.4)
Record low °C (°F) -1.1
(30.0)
1.7
(35.1)
6.7
(44.1)
11.7
(53.1)
18.9
(66.0)
20.2
(68.4)
21.1
(70.0)
22.2
(72.0)
18.9
(66.0)
11.7
(53.1)
7.2
(45.0)
3.3
(37.9)
-1.1
(30.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.2
(0.09)
0.7
(0.03)
0.7
(0.03)
1.4
(0.06)
6.1
(0.24)
118.9
(4.68)
274.6
(10.81)
242.4
(9.54)
124.2
(4.89)
26.4
(1.04)
1.3
(0.05)
3.7
(0.15)
802.6
(31.61)
Average rainy days 0 0 0 0 0 9 14 11 7 3 1 0 49
Average relative humidity (%) 45 43 35 33 49 67 80 75 73 62 58 54 56
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1952-2000)[18]
Source #2: Weatherbase (Avg. rainy days)

Economy

In Vadodara various large-scale industries such as Indian Oil Corporation(IOCL), Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals (GSFC), Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL, now owned by Reliance Industries Limited) and Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Limited (GACL) have come up in the vicinity of Gujarat Refinery and all of them are dependent on it for their fuel and feedstock. Other large-scale public sector units are Heavy Water Project, Gujarat Industries Power Company Limited (GIPCL), Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) & Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL). In addition to these public sector enterprises, a number of other large-scale enterprises have come up in the private sector such as Avalance Global Solutions, Bombardier Transportation.[19][20]

Located in Vadodara are over 35% India's power transmission and distribution equipment manufacturers and an estimated 800 ancillaries supporting the big players in Power Sector equipment manufacturing and engineering industry.[21]

In line with the 'Knowledge City'[22] vision of the Confederation of Indian Industry, Vadodara is gradually becoming a hub in Gujarat for IT and other development projects.

Vadodara is also home to the Vadodara Stock Exchange (VSE).

Civic administration

Vadodara City Officials
Mayor Dr. Jigeeshaben Jatinbhai Sheth[23]
Municipal Commissioner Shri Nalin Upadhyay
Police Commissioner Anupamsinh Gehlot IPS

The two main institutions involved in planning and development in Vadodara are VMSS and the VUDA. The jurisdiction of both these agencies is demarcated clearly not only physically but also functionally. The governing acts for both the institutions differ. The principal responsibility of VUDA is to ensure a holistic development of the Vadodara agglomeration covering an area of 714.56 km2 (275.89 sq mi),[1] whereas VMSS is involved in the development of area of 235 km2 (91 sq mi).[1]

Three corporators are elected from each ward, who in turn elect a mayor. Executive powers are vested in the municipal commissioner, who is an IAS officer appointed by the Gujarat state government. The mayor is responsible for the day-to-day running of the city services, municipal school board, the city bus service, the municipal hospital and the city library. The Vadodara City Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, an IPS officer.

The City elects 1[4] member to the Lok Sabha (parliament) and 5[5] to the Gujarat Vidhan Sabha(Assembly) All of the 5 assembly seats of Vadodara were won by the BJP during the legislative elections in 2002. In the 2006 VMSS elections, the BJP won 74[24] seats, 6 seats went to the Congress.

  • Election Wards: 38[1]
  • Seats (Corporators): 114[1]
  • Population per ward: 31,122
  • Seats reserved for women: 38
  • Total voters (as on 1 January 2019): 1,638,321

The Vadodara City Police are responsible for law enforcement and public safety in Vadodara, India. They are a subdivision of the state police force of Gujarat and are headed by a commissioner. The Vadodara police force is responsible for the protection and safety of Vadodara citizens. Shri Anupam Singh Gahlaut is the current Commissioner of Vadodara City Police.[25]

Transport

The city is on the major rail and road arteries joining Mumbai with Delhi and Mumbai with Ahmedabad.

Air

Vadodara Airport (IATA: BDQ) is located north-east of the city. Vadodara has flight connections with Mumbai, New Delhi, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Air India and IndiGo are currently operating their services from the airport.A new integrated international terminal has been constructed at the Vadodara airport and was inaugurated in October 2016. Vadodara is the first Green Airport in Gujarat and Second Green Airport in India after Kochi.[26][27][28][29][30]

Railway

Vadodara Junction Railway Station

Vadodara was part of the historic Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway (BBCI), which arrived in the city in January 1861.[31] On 5 November 1951 the BBCI Railway was merged with the Saurashtra, Rajputana and Jaipur railways to create the Western Railway. Vadodara Railway Station now belongs to the Western Railway zone of Indian Railways and is a major junction on the Western Railway Main Line.

Demographics

According to the 2011 India census, Vadodara metropolitan area had a population of 1,822,221. In Vadodara, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.[32]Gujarati, Urdu, Marathi, Hindi and English are the languages spoken in the city. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%.

Population Growth of Vadodara 
CensusPop.
1881101,800
--
1891116,40014.3%
1901103,800-10.8%
191199,300-4.3%
192194,700-4.6%
1931112,90019.2%
1941153,30035.8%
1951211,40037.9%
1961295,10039.6%
1971467,00058.3%
1981744,00059.3%
19911,126,80051.5%
20011,491,04532.3%
20111,822,22122.2%
source:[33][34]
Religions in Vadodara city (2011)[32]
Hinduism
85.39%
Islam
11.40%
Jainism
1.32%
Christianity
1.22%
Sikhism
0.45%
Others
0.22%
Distribution of religions

Religions and festivals

United Way of Baroda Garba Festival in 2011
Buddha Statute erected 1930 in the '#Jubilee Park (Jubilee Baug).

The most followed religion in the city is Hinduism, practiced by 85% of the population. The second most followed religion is Islam, followed by 11% of the population. All other religious groups make up the remaining 4% of the population.[35]

Sports

Vadodara has a professional cricket team, the Baroda cricket team, as well as the oldest cricket ground in Asia, called Moti Baug.[36] The team has won the Ranji Trophy six times. Reliance Stadium, a private cricket ground owned by Reliance Industries, hosts ODIs. Some of the notable cricketer's from Baroda are Kiran More, Nayan Mongia, Atul Bedade, Irfan Pathan, Yusuf Pathan, Hardik Pandya, Krunal Pandya, Deepak Hooda.

Media

The city has five local FM stations: Radio City (91.1 MHz), Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), and All India Radio, Vividh Bharti (93.9 MHz)(Aakashwani). Radio City (91.1 MHz) is known all over Vadodara for its Rag Rag Ma Vadodara City profile. All India Radio is broadcast on the AM band.[37]Satellite radio was launched in nearby city of Ahmedabad by WorldSpace in 2005.[38] Vadodara News Magazine(VNM) is a local news TV channel that covers events in the city.

Education

The city houses many Schools and Colleges. Higher Education Institutions across various disciplines attract international students mainly from the African countries such as Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, South Africa, and Kenya.[39]

Universities

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Institutional Setup in Vadodara" (PDF). Vadodara Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  2. ^ a b Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011 Archived 23 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. censusindia.gov.in
  3. ^ "Ward Office Details". Vadodara Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ a b "List of Lok Sabha Constituencies from Gujarat". Gujarat Assembly. Archived from the original on 2 March 2005. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ a b "List of MLAs from Vadodara District". Gujarat Assembly. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2007.
  6. ^ CHAPTER - 4 PROFILE OF SELECTED CITIES OF GUJARAT Archived 22 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. inflibnet.ac.in
  7. ^ "About Vadodara". www.baroda.com. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ "India: Metropolitan Areas". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 2007.
  9. ^ "Hand Painting of Bridge over the River Vishwamitri, near Brodera". Collect Britain, British Library. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  10. ^ "Village of Baroda" (PDF). Berrien County Community Development Department, Michigan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  11. ^ "History of Vadodara - Baroda". Introduction | History of Vadodara - Baroda. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Baroda State History". The Royal Ark. Archived from the original on 2 April 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  13. ^ "Gujarat Earthquake Hazard Risk Zone". Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2006.
  14. ^ "Baroda, India (2~35 kilometers)". Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 2013.[better source needed]
  15. ^ "Gujarat Floods 2005: Project Report" (PDF). International Association for Human Values and the Art of Living. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  16. ^ "Vadodara May Weather 2016 - AccuWeather Forecast for Gujarat India". Archived from the original on 30 September 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  17. ^ "Ever Recorded Maximum/Minimum Temperature up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  18. ^ "Climate of Vadodara" (PDF). India meteorological department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ "Corporate > About Us > Worldwide Presence > India". Bombardier.com. Archived from the original on 1 June 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  20. ^ MasterCard launches technology hub in India with facilities in Pune and Vadodara - The Economic Times Archived 7 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Economictimes.indiatimes.com (5 February 2015). Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
  21. ^ Switch conference at Vadodara in October - The Times of India Archived 9 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. timesofindia.indiatimes.com (1 August 2016).
  22. ^ "Vadodara: Knowledge City" (PDF). Confederation of Indian Industry. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 2010.
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Sweeping victory for BJP in Gujarat civic polls". Chennai, India: The Hindu Daily. 14 December 2005. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  25. ^ "Vadodara City Police - Details". cpvadodara.gujarat.gov.in. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  26. ^ "Vadodara's new airport makes place in Limca Record". Dnasyndication.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 2016.
  27. ^ Dave, Vimukt (22 October 2016). "Vadodara gets India's second green airport after Kochi". Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 2016 – via Business Standard.
  28. ^ "PM Narendra Modi inaugurates Vadodara International Airport - Times of India ?". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  29. ^ "Vadodara Airport -[FSA]-". Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  30. ^ "Vadodara International Airport - Projects - Gensler". Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  31. ^ Sharma, Sachin (23 December 2009). "150th year of Railway in Vadodara". Times of India. Retrieved 2009.
  32. ^ a b Vadodara City Census 2011 data Archived 22 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
  33. ^ "Historical Census of India". Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  34. ^ "Census of World". Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 2014.
  35. ^ "Vadodara City Population Census 2011-2019 - Gujarat". www.census2011.co.in. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  36. ^ "Ground Profile". Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 28 December 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  37. ^ "Radio Stations in Gujarat, India". Asiawaves. Archived from the original on 27 May 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  38. ^ "WorldSpace Satellite Radio Lights Up Ahmedabad". Worldspace Satellite Radio. 3 November 2005. Archived from the original on 12 November 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  39. ^ "Gujarat: More foreign students opt for MS University of Baroda". The Indian Express. 28 July 2019. Retrieved 2019.

Further reading

External links


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