Bamum Script
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Bamum
Shumom-text.jpg
A book in the 6th Bamum script, c. 1910.
Type
LanguagesBamum, Shümom
Time period
c. 1896, moribund c. 1931, revived c. 2007
Child systems
Bagam?
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Bamu, 435
Unicode alias
Bamum

The Bamum scripts are an evolutionary series of six scripts created for the Bamum language by King Njoya of Cameroon at the turn of the 19th century. They are notable for evolving from a pictographic system to a partially alphabetic syllabic script in the space of 14 years, from 1896 to 1910. Bamum type was cast in 1918, but the script fell into disuse around 1931. A project began around 2007 to revive the Bamum script.[]

History

In its initial form, Bamum script was a pictographic mnemonic aid (proto-writing) of 500 to 600 characters. As Njoya revised the script, he introduced logograms (word symbols). The sixth version, completed by 1910, is a syllabary with 80 characters. It is also called a-ka-u-ku after its first four characters. The version in use by 1906 was called mbima.[1]

The script was further refined in 1918, when Njoya had copper sorts cast for printing. The script fell into disuse in 1931 with the exile of Njoya to Yaoundé, Cameroon.[2]

At present, Bamum script is not in any significant use. However, the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project is attempting to modernize and revive the script. The project is based in the old Bamum capital of Foumban.[3]

Phase A

The initial form of Bamum script, called Lewa ("book"), was developed in 1896-1897. It consisted of 465 pictograms (511 according to some sources) and 10 characters for the digits 1-10. The writing direction could be top-to-bottom, left-to-right, or bottom-to-top. (Right-to-left was avoided because that was the direction of the Arabic script used by the neighboring Hausa people.)

Phase B

The second system, called Mbima ("mixed"), was developed in 1899-1900. It was a simplification of the first; Njoya omitted 72 characters but added 45 new ones. The writing direction was left-to-right in this and all subsequent phases.

Phase C

The third system, called Nyi Nyi Nfa' after its first three characters, was developed around 1902. This simplification omitted 56 characters, leaving 371 and 10 digits. Njoya used this system to write his History of the Bamun People and in correspondence with his mother.

Phase D

The fourth system, called Rii Nyi Nsha Mfw' after its first four characters, was developed around 1907-1908. It has 285 characters and 10 digits and is a further simplification of the previous version.

Phase E

The fifth system, called Rii Nyi Mfw' Men, was also developed around 1907-1908. It has 195 characters and 10 digits and was used for a Bible translation. These first five systems are closely related: All were progressively simplified pictographic protowriting with logographic elements.

Phase F

The sixth system, called A Ka U Ku after its first four characters, was developed around 1910. It has 82 characters and 10 digits. This phase marks a shift to a full syllabic writing system able to distinguish 160 syllables. It was used to record births, marriages, deaths, and court rulings.

Phase G

The seventh and final system, called Mfemfe ("new") or A Ka U Ku Mfemfe, was developed around 1918. It has only 80 characters, ten of which double as both syllables and digits. Like the previous system, missing syllables are written using combinations of similar syllables plus the desired vowel, or with a diacritic.

Description

The Bamum syllabary, less diacritics, digraphs, and the nmli
Map of the Kingdom of Bamun in present-day Cameroon

The 80 glyphs of modern Bamum are not enough to represent all of the consonant-vowel syllables (C V syllables) of the language. This deficiency is made up for with a diacritic or by combining glyphs having CV1 and V2 values, for CV2. This makes the script alphabetic for syllables not directly covered by the syllabary. Adding the inherent vowel of the syllable voices a consonant: tu + u = /du/, fu + u = /vu/, ju + u = /?u/, ja + a = /?a/, ?i + i = /?i/, pu? + u = /bu/.

The two diacritics are a circumflex (ko'ndon) that may be added to any of the 80 glyphs, and a macron (tukwentis) that is restricted to a dozen. The circumflex generally has the effect of adding a glottal stop to the syllable, for instance is read /ka?/, though the vowel is shortened and any final consonant is dropped in the process, as in pû? /pu?/ and kt /k/. Prenasalization is also lost: â /?a?/, ntê /te?/, ntûu /tu?/. Sometimes, however, the circumflex nasalizes the vowel: /n?n/, /pin/, /r?n/, jû? /jun/, m /m?n/, û? /jun/ (loss of NC as with glottal stop). Others are idiosyncratic: ?m /j?m/ (simple loss of NC), t /t/ (vowel change), /?e/, riê /z/, m? /n/, x /j?x/, nû? /?u?/, kx //, r /r?/, ?kwn /?u?t/, fm /mv?p/, mbn /p?n/, /t?/, kpâ /?ma/, v? /fy/, m /m/.[4]

The macron is a 'killer stroke' that deletes the vowel from a syllable and so forms consonants and NC clusters (/nd, /) that can be used for syllable codas. Consonantal /n/ is used both as a coda and to prenasalize an initial consonant. The two irregularities with the macron are ?, read as /j/, and , read as /?/.

The script has distinctive punctuation, including a 'capitalization' mark (nmli), visually similar to an inverted question mark, for proper names, and a decimal system of ten digits; the old glyph for ten has been refashioned as a zero.

Modern syllabary (phase G)

Bamum syllabary (diacritics in gray)[5]
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
a ka u ku e re t? ? nyi i la pa rii rie lee mee
a? ka? wu? ku? e? r?n t nye i? la? pa? ri? z le? me?
?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
taa ndaa nm m suu mu ?ii si x s?x kye k?t nu? nu n?u? y
ta? nda? y?m n su? mu? ?i? si? y?x s kye? ke? ?u? nu? yu?n y
nd ? s y
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?u yu ya n?a k?x p?x n?e nte pe fe ru lu mi ni
?u? yun ya? ?a? p n?e? te? pü? ü? pe? fe? ru? lu? mi? n?n
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
r?x r? k?n ?kw?n ?ga ?a pu? fu f?m wa na li pi l k?
r r? k?n ?u?t ?ga? ?a? pu? fu? mv?p wa? na? li? pin l k
?g ? f n l k
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
mb?n
 
r?n
 
m?n
 
ma
 
ti
 
ki
 
m?
1
mbaa
2
t?t
3
kpa
4
t?n
5
ntuu
6
sa
7
faa
8

9
m
0
p?n r?n m?n ma? t? ki? m?n mba? t?t ?ma t?n tu? sa? fa? ?g?m
t m

Punctuation

Bamum punctuation[5][6]
? ? ? ? ? ?
introduces proper names or
changes the meaning of a word[4]
.
period
:
colon
,
comma
;
semicolon
?
question mark

Numbers

The last ten base characters in the syllabary are used for both letters and numbers:[5]

Bamum digits
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
m?
1
mbaa
2
t?t
3
kpa
4
t?n
5
ntuu
6
sa
7
faa
8

9
m
0

Historically, ? was used for ten but was changed to zero when decimal mathematics were introduced.[5]

All versions (phases A-G)

Phase
A
Interpretation   Phase
A
Interpretation   Phase
A
Interpretation   Phase
A
Interpretation
? ?kü mf?n ? ntp?n ? mgbasa ? mm?t
? gbie f?n ? k?k?tnda ? m?nmnd ? ?um
? p?n mf?n pip?mgbie ? nkindi ? mmpu? ? l?mm?
? p?n mf?n pip?mba ? suu ? kafa ? fir'i
? naa mf?n ? ?künz?m ? pa ler?wa ? r?m
? ?ün?üt ? lapa? ? nda ler?wa ? kp
? tita mf?n ? l?t kut ? p?t ? s
? nza mf?n ? ntap mfaa ? m?mkp?n ? map piet
? ?inda pa n?i ? m?k?p ? nika ? ?ir?
? p?n pa n?i pip?mgbie ? pa ? pup ? ntap
? p?n pa n?i pip?mba ? r? ? tu?p ? n?ut yum
? m?mgbie ? pam ? lu?p ? nyit mk
? tu m?mba ? m?n ?gt ? s?n?am ? paar?
? ?a?u ? nzun m?t ? t?t?w?n ? nkaar?
? m?mv?x ? u yu? n? ? m?nyi ? (unknown)
? mansu? ? ? k?t
? mvam ? ntap ntaa ? ndaa?gt
? s?nyam ? sisa ? ku
A Interpretation A Interpretation A Interpretation A Interpretation
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B A B A B
? ? n?üt ? ? tu nsie ? ? m
? ? tu m?mgbie ? ? t n?a? ? ? ?gu ("small termite")
? ? sie ? ? ?tu ? ? ?gu ("large termite")
? ? s?t tu ? ? mf?n t ? mfiya?
? ? l?m nt?m ? mbit mbaak?t ? ?
? ? mba m?le ? ? nyi nt?m ? ? mb?ri
? ? kiem ? k?pu? ? ? m?ntien
? ? y?r? ? ? ?n ? ? ny?m?
? ? mbaar? ? ? k?y?x ? ? pu?aam
? ? kam ? ? laan? ? ? m?t ?get
? ? pe?i ? ? parum ? ? f?x
? ? yafu ler?wa ? ? v?m ? ? mbu
? ? lam n?ut nyam ? ? ?kindi mv?p ? ? fe
? ? ntie ? ? ? ?g? mbu ? km
? ? ndu n?aa ? ? wu?t ? ? ma nna
? ? m ? ? ma n?u?a ? ? sak
? ? pit ? ? taam
A B Interpretation A B Interpretation A B Interpretation
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B C A B C A B C
? ? ? ?kü m?mba ? ? ? ndida ? ? ? nsu?t m
? ? ? nza ? ? ? taa ? ? ? n?ee
? ? ? yum ? ? ? n?ü? ? ? ? k?t
? ? ? wa?ku ? ? ? tita yü ? ? ? ?gu
? ? ? ?g?n ? ? ? su?t ? ? ? m?si
? ? ? ndre ? ? ? ?gu?n nyam ? ? mbu?m
? ? ? ?ka? ? ? ? v?x ? ? ? lu
? ? ? ?ar? ? ? ? nansana? ? ? ? kut
? ? ? mbeket ? ? ? ma kri ? ? ? n?am
? ? ? gbayi ? ? ? ntaa ? ? ? m
? ? ? nyir mkpara? m?n ? ? ? ?gu?n ? ? ? wup
? ? ? ntu mbit ? ? ? lap ? ? ? ?guet
? ? ? mb?m ? ? ? mbirien ? ? ? ns?m
? ? ? pirien ? ? ? mgbasa? ? ? ? nt?n
? ? ? nd?mbu ? ? ? nt?ngba ? ? ? ku?p nkaar?
? ? ? mbaa ? ? ? t?t?x ? ? ? nsun
? ? ? k?p ? ? ? ?gum ? ? ? ndam
? ? ? ?ap ? ? ? ? ? ? ma nsie
? ? ? k?ka? ? ? ? nd?t ? ? ? yaa
? ? ? yu mu?m? ? ? ? nsa ? ? ndap
? ? ? nz?m ? ? ? n?a? ? ? ? ?ü?
? ? ? mbü ? ? ? bu? ? ? ? tf?n
? ? ? nsn ? ? ? vp?n ? ? mbi
? ? ? mbit ? ? ? mb?r? ? ? ? m?mba
? ? ? y ? ? ? ru ? ? ? mbanyi
? ? ? kpara? ? ? ? nm ? ? ? k?s?x
? ? ? kaa ? ? ? lam ? ? mb?x
? ? ? s?x ? ? ? titu?p ? ? k?m
A B C Interpretation A B C Interpretation A B C Interpretation
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B C D A B C D
? ? ? ? mbu? ? ? ? ? mfo
? ? ? ? wap ? ? ? lum
? ? ? ? n?i ? ? ? ? nsiep
? ? ? ? mf?n ? ? ? ? mbaa
? ? ? ? n?ie ? ? ? ? kw?t
? ? ? ? lie ? ? ? ? ny?t
? ? ? nt ? ? tn
? ? ? n?e ? ? ? ? s?t
? ? ? ? ?gaam? ? ? ? ? yuw
? ? ? ? nyam ? ? ? ? k?m
? ? ? ? wu?n ? ? ? ? r?m
? ? ? ? ?kun ? ? ? ? tee
? ? ? ? ?e ? ? ? ? ?k
? ? ? ? ?kap ? ? ? ? mf
? ? ? ? ktm?n ? ? ? ? nsiet
? ? ? t?t ? ? ? ? k?p
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? pip
? ? ? ? n?ap ? ? ? ? p?t?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? nyü
? ? ? ? k?t ? ? ? ? l?t
? ? ? y?mm? ? ? ? ?gaam
? ? ? ku?m ? ? ? ? mfie
? ? ? ? sap ? ? ? ?gw?n
? ? ? ? mf?t ? ? ? yu?m
? ? ? ? nd?x ? ? ? pap
? ? ? ? maleri ? ? ? ? yu?p
? ? ? ? m?t ? ? ? ? ndam
? ? ? ? s ? ? ? ? nt?m
? ? ? ? y?n ? ? ? ? su?
? ? ? ? nm ? ? ? ? kun
? ? ? ? kt mbu? ? ? ? ? ?g?x
? ? ? ? ?k?ri ? ? ? ? ?kie
? ? ? tu ? ? ? ? tu?t
? ? ? ? ?aa ? ? ? ? m?n
? ? ? ? ?kye ? ? ? ku?
? ? ? ? f?ft ? ? ? nsum
? ? ? ? nde ? ? ? ? t?n
? ? ? ? mgb?fum ? ? ? ? m?nt
? ? ? lp ? ? ? ? ?gap
? ? ? ? nd?n ? ? ? l?m
? ? ? ? m?ni ? ? ? ? ?gu?m
? ? ? mgb?n ? ? ? ? n?ut
? ? ? ? puut ? ? ? ? n?ü?
? ? ? ? mgbie
A B C D Interpretation A B C D Interpretation
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B C D E A B C D E
? ? ? ? ? ndap ? ? ? ? ? v
? ? ? ? ? tn ? ? ? ? ? w?x
? ? ? ? ? mb?m ? ? ? ? ? laam
? ? ? ? ? lap ? ? ? ? ? pu
? ? ? ? ? v?m ? ? ? ? ? taa?
? ? ? ? ? l?n ? ? ? ? ? ?aam?
? ? ? ? ? paa ? ? ? ? r?t
? ? ? ? ? s?m ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ra? ? ? ? ? ? mgb?n
? ? ? ? ? n?u?p ? ? ? ? mbe
? ? ? ? ? ndun ? ? ? ? ? nza?
? ? ? ? ? pu? ? ? ? ? ? nk?m
? ? ? ? ? tam ? ? ? ? ? gb?t
? ? ? ? ? ?ka ? ? ? ? ? tum
? ? ? ? ? kp?x ? ? ? ? ? küt
? ? ? ? ? wu? ? ? ? ? yap
? ? ? ? se ? ? ? ? ? nyi
? ? ? ? ? ?gt ? ? ? ? ? yit
? ? ? ? ? paam ? ? ? ? mf
? ? ? ? ? t ? ? ? ? ? ndia?
? ? ? ? ? ku?p ? ? ? ? ? pie?
? ? ? ? ? l?m ? ? ? ? ? yü?
? ? ? ? ? n?ie ? ? ? ? ? lm
? ? ? ? ? ?g?p ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? m?m ? ? ? ? ? gb?x
? ? ? ? ? ?k?x ? ? ? ? ? ?kup
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? k?t
? ? ? ? ? n?ü ? ? ? ? ? m?
? ? ? ? ? rimgba ? ? ? ? ?kaami
? ? ? ? ? nx ? ? ? ? ? t
? ? ? ? ? ns?n ? ? ? ? ? fa
? ? ? ? ? pem ? ? ? ? ? ntum
? ? ? ? ? saa ? ? ? ? ? p?t
? ? ? ? ? ?gur? ? ? ? ? ? y?m
? ? ? ? ? mgba ? ? ? ? ? ?g
? ? ? ? ? x ? ? ? ? ? nyi
? ? ? ? ? ?km ? ? ? ? ? nzu?
? ? ? ? ? nmli ? ? ? ? ? pn
? ? ? ? ? map ? ? ? ? ? mie
? ? ? ? ? lt ? ? ? ? ? füt
? ? ?gee ? ? ? ? ? n?
? ? ? ? ? ndi? ? ? ? ? ? mu?
? ? ? ? ? t?n nt?m ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? s?t ? ? ? ? ? fu i
? ? ? ? ? pum ? ? ? ? ? mvi
? ? ndaa ? ? ? ? ? pua?
? ? ? ? ? ?gu nyam ? ? ? ?kum
? ? ? ? ? yie ? ? ? ? kut
? ? ? ? ? n ? ? ? ? ? pi?t
? ? ? ? ? tu? ? ? ? ? ? ntap
? ? ? ? ? y ? ? ? ? ? yt
? ? ? ? ? p? ? ? ? ? ? ?gup
? ? ? ? ? tum? ? ? ? ? ? pa
? ? ? ? ? k ? fu
? ? ? ? su?n ? ? ? ? f?m
? ? ? ? ? t ? n?e
A B C D E Interpretation A B C D E Interpretation
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B C D E F G A B C D E F G
? ? ? ? ? ? ? a ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
a ü?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ka ? ? ? ? ? ? ? pe
? ka? pe?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? u ? ? ? ? ? ? ? fe
wu? ? ? ? ? ? ve
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ku fe?
ku?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? e ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ru
e? ru?
? ? ? ? ? ? re ? ? ? ? ? ? lu
? ? ? ? r?n lu?
? ? ? ? ? ? t? ? ? ? ? ? ? mi
? ? ? ? ? t mi?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? n'i
? n?n
? ? ? ? ? ? ? nyi ? ? ? ? ? ? ? r?x
nye r
? ? ? ? ? ? ? i ? ? ? ? ? ? ? r?
i? r?
? ? la ? ? ? ? ? ? ? k?n
? ? ? ? ? la? ? ? ? k?n (with high tone)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? pa ? ? ? ? ? ?kw?n
pa? ? ? ? ? ? ?u?t
? ? ? ? ? ? ? rii ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?ga
ri? ?ga?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? rie ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?a
z ? ? ? ?a?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? lee ? ? ? ? ?
le? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? mee ? ? ? ? ? ? ? pu?
? me? ? ? ? ? ? pu?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? taa ? ? ? ? ? ? ? fu
? ? ? ? ? ta? fu?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ndaa ? ? ? f?m
nda? ? ? ? ? mv?p
? ? ? ? ? ? ? nm ? ? ? ? ? ? wa
y?m wa?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? m ? ? ? ? ? ? ? na
? n ? ? ? na?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? suu ? ? ? ? ? ? ? li
su? ? ? ? li?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? mu ? ? ? ? ? ? ? pi
mu? ? ? ? pin
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?ii ? ? ? ? ? ? ? l
? ? ? ? ? ?i? ? ? ? ? ? l
? ? ? ? ? ? ? si ? ? ? ? ? ? k?
si? k
? ? ? ? ? ? x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? mb?n
? ? ? ? ? y?x ? ? ? p?n
? ? ? ? ? ? ? s?x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? r?n
s r?n
? ? ? ? ? ? ? kye ? ? ? ? ? ? ? m?n
kye? m?n
? ? ? ? ? ? ? k?t ? ? ? ? ? ? ma
ke? ? ? ? ? ? ma?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? nu? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ti
? ? ? ? ? ?u? ? ? ? ? ? t?
? ? ? ? ? ? nu ? ? ? ? ? ? ki
? nu? ? ? ki?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? n?u? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? m?
? ? ? ? ? yu?n ? ? ? m?n
? ? ? ? ? ? y ("swimming") ? ? ? ? ? ? ? mbaa
? ? ? ? ? y ("cover") ? mba?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?u ? ? ? ? ? ? ? t?t
?u? ? ? t?t (with high tone)
? ? ? ? ? ? yu? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? kpa
? ? ? ? ? yun ?ma
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ya ? ? ? ? ? ? ? t?n
ya? t?n
? ? ? ? ? ? ? n?a ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ntuu
?a? tu?
? ? ? ? ? ? k?x ? ? ? samba
? ? ? ? sa?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? p?x ? ? ? faam?
p ? ? ? ? ? fa?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? n?e ? ? ? k?vü
n?e?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? nte ? ? ? m
te? ? ? ?g?m
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
pü?
A B C D E F G Interpretation A B C D E F G Interpretation

Unicode

Bamum's 88 characters were added to the Unicode standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. Bamum Unicode character names are based on the International Phonetic Alphabet forms given in L'écriture des Bamum (1950) by Idelette Dugast and M.D.W. Jeffreys:[5]

Usage Letters
a b d ? e ? f ? g i k l m n ? ?
Unicode name A B D EE EA E F GH G I K L M N NG O
French a b d è é e f gh g i k l m n ng o
p r s ? t u ü ? v w x y z ? ?
Unicode name P R S SH T U UE EU V W X Y Z J Q
French p r s sh t u ü ù v w x y z j '

The Unicode block for Bamum is U+A6A0–U+A6FF:

Bamum[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+A6Ax
U+A6Bx
U+A6Cx
U+A6Dx
U+A6Ex
U+A6Fx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Historical stages of Bamum script were added to Unicode in October, 2010 with the release of version 6.0. These are encoded in the Bamum Supplement block as U+16800–U+16A3F. The various stages of script development are dubbed "Phase-A" to "Phase-E". The character names note the last phase in which they appear. For example, 𖣮 BAMUM LETTER PHASE-C PIN is attested through Phase C but not in Phase D.

Bamum Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1680x 𖠀 𖠁 𖠂 𖠃 𖠄 𖠅 𖠆 𖠇 𖠈 𖠉 𖠊 𖠋 𖠌 𖠍 𖠎 𖠏
U+1681x 𖠐 𖠑 𖠒 𖠓 𖠔 𖠕 𖠖 𖠗 𖠘 𖠙 𖠚 𖠛 𖠜 𖠝 𖠞 𖠟
U+1682x 𖠠 𖠡 𖠢 𖠣 𖠤 𖠥 𖠦 𖠧 𖠨 𖠩 𖠪 𖠫 𖠬 𖠭 𖠮 𖠯
U+1683x 𖠰 𖠱 𖠲 𖠳 𖠴 𖠵 𖠶 𖠷 𖠸 𖠹 𖠺 𖠻 𖠼 𖠽 𖠾 𖠿
U+1684x 𖡀 𖡁 𖡂 𖡃 𖡄 𖡅 𖡆 𖡇 𖡈 𖡉 𖡊 𖡋 𖡌 𖡍 𖡎 𖡏
U+1685x 𖡐 𖡑 𖡒 𖡓 𖡔 𖡕 𖡖 𖡗 𖡘 𖡙 𖡚 𖡛 𖡜 𖡝 𖡞 𖡟
U+1686x 𖡠 𖡡 𖡢 𖡣 𖡤 𖡥 𖡦 𖡧 𖡨 𖡩 𖡪 𖡫 𖡬 𖡭 𖡮 𖡯
U+1687x 𖡰 𖡱 𖡲 𖡳 𖡴 𖡵 𖡶 𖡷 𖡸 𖡹 𖡺 𖡻 𖡼 𖡽 𖡾 𖡿
U+1688x 𖢀 𖢁 𖢂 𖢃 𖢄 𖢅 𖢆 𖢇 𖢈 𖢉 𖢊 𖢋 𖢌 𖢍 𖢎 𖢏
U+1689x 𖢐 𖢑 𖢒 𖢓 𖢔 𖢕 𖢖 𖢗 𖢘 𖢙 𖢚 𖢛 𖢜 𖢝 𖢞 𖢟
U+168Ax 𖢠 𖢡 𖢢 𖢣 𖢤 𖢥 𖢦 𖢧 𖢨 𖢩 𖢪 𖢫 𖢬 𖢭 𖢮 𖢯
U+168Bx 𖢰 𖢱 𖢲 𖢳 𖢴 𖢵 𖢶 𖢷 𖢸 𖢹 𖢺 𖢻 𖢼 𖢽 𖢾 𖢿
U+168Cx 𖣀 𖣁 𖣂 𖣃 𖣄 𖣅 𖣆 𖣇 𖣈 𖣉 𖣊 𖣋 𖣌 𖣍 𖣎 𖣏
U+168Dx 𖣐 𖣑 𖣒 𖣓 𖣔 𖣕 𖣖 𖣗 𖣘 𖣙 𖣚 𖣛 𖣜 𖣝 𖣞 𖣟
U+168Ex 𖣠 𖣡 𖣢 𖣣 𖣤 𖣥 𖣦 𖣧 𖣨 𖣩 𖣪 𖣫 𖣬 𖣭 𖣮 𖣯
U+168Fx 𖣰 𖣱 𖣲 𖣳 𖣴 𖣵 𖣶 𖣷 𖣸 𖣹 𖣺 𖣻 𖣼 𖣽 𖣾 𖣿
U+1690x 𖤀 𖤁 𖤂 𖤃 𖤄 𖤅 𖤆 𖤇 𖤈 𖤉 𖤊 𖤋 𖤌 𖤍 𖤎 𖤏
U+1691x 𖤐 𖤑 𖤒 𖤓 𖤔 𖤕 𖤖 𖤗 𖤘 𖤙 𖤚 𖤛 𖤜 𖤝 𖤞 𖤟
U+1692x 𖤠 𖤡 𖤢 𖤣 𖤤 𖤥 𖤦 𖤧 𖤨 𖤩 𖤪 𖤫 𖤬 𖤭 𖤮 𖤯
U+1693x 𖤰 𖤱 𖤲 𖤳 𖤴 𖤵 𖤶 𖤷 𖤸 𖤹 𖤺 𖤻 𖤼 𖤽 𖤾 𖤿
U+1694x 𖥀 𖥁 𖥂 𖥃 𖥄 𖥅 𖥆 𖥇 𖥈 𖥉 𖥊 𖥋 𖥌 𖥍 𖥎 𖥏
U+1695x 𖥐 𖥑 𖥒 𖥓 𖥔 𖥕 𖥖 𖥗 𖥘 𖥙 𖥚 𖥛 𖥜 𖥝 𖥞 𖥟
U+1696x 𖥠 𖥡 𖥢 𖥣 𖥤 𖥥 𖥦 𖥧 𖥨 𖥩 𖥪 𖥫 𖥬 𖥭 𖥮 𖥯
U+1697x 𖥰 𖥱 𖥲 𖥳 𖥴 𖥵 𖥶 𖥷 𖥸 𖥹 𖥺 𖥻 𖥼 𖥽 𖥾 𖥿
U+1698x 𖦀 𖦁 𖦂 𖦃 𖦄 𖦅 𖦆 𖦇 𖦈 𖦉 𖦊 𖦋 𖦌 𖦍 𖦎 𖦏
U+1699x 𖦐 𖦑 𖦒 𖦓 𖦔 𖦕 𖦖 𖦗 𖦘 𖦙 𖦚 𖦛 𖦜 𖦝 𖦞 𖦟
U+169Ax 𖦠 𖦡 𖦢 𖦣 𖦤 𖦥 𖦦 𖦧 𖦨 𖦩 𖦪 𖦫 𖦬 𖦭 𖦮 𖦯
U+169Bx 𖦰 𖦱 𖦲 𖦳 𖦴 𖦵 𖦶 𖦷 𖦸 𖦹 𖦺 𖦻 𖦼 𖦽 𖦾 𖦿
U+169Cx 𖧀 𖧁 𖧂 𖧃 𖧄 𖧅 𖧆 𖧇 𖧈 𖧉 𖧊 𖧋 𖧌 𖧍 𖧎 𖧏
U+169Dx 𖧐 𖧑 𖧒 𖧓 𖧔 𖧕 𖧖 𖧗 𖧘 𖧙 𖧚 𖧛 𖧜 𖧝 𖧞 𖧟
U+169Ex 𖧠 𖧡 𖧢 𖧣 𖧤 𖧥 𖧦 𖧧 𖧨 𖧩 𖧪 𖧫 𖧬 𖧭 𖧮 𖧯
U+169Fx 𖧰 𖧱 𖧲 𖧳 𖧴 𖧵 𖧶 𖧷 𖧸 𖧹 𖧺 𖧻 𖧼 𖧽 𖧾 𖧿
U+16A0x 𖨀 𖨁 𖨂 𖨃 𖨄 𖨅 𖨆 𖨇 𖨈 𖨉 𖨊 𖨋 𖨌 𖨍 𖨎 𖨏
U+16A1x 𖨐 𖨑 𖨒 𖨓 𖨔 𖨕 𖨖 𖨗 𖨘 𖨙 𖨚 𖨛 𖨜 𖨝 𖨞 𖨟
U+16A2x 𖨠 𖨡 𖨢 𖨣 𖨤 𖨥 𖨦 𖨧 𖨨 𖨩 𖨪 𖨫 𖨬 𖨭 𖨮 𖨯
U+16A3x 𖨰 𖨱 𖨲 𖨳 𖨴 𖨵 𖨶 𖨷 𖨸
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also

References

  1. ^ The History of cartography. Harley, J. B. (John Brian), Woodward, David, 1942-2004, Monmonier, Mark S. University of Chicago Press. 1987-2015. p. 42. ISBN 9780226907284. OCLC 13456456.CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ The End of King Njoya and the Bamum Script
  3. ^ Unseth, Peter. 2011. Invention of Scripts in West Africa for Ethnic Revitalization. In The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts, ed. by Joshua A. Fishman and Ofelia García, pp. 23-32. New York: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ a b Riley, Charles (2007-01-19). "L2/07-023: Towards the Encoding of the Bamum Script in the UCS" (PDF).
  5. ^ a b c d e Everson, Michael; Riley, Charles; Tuchscherer, Konrad (2008-10-14). "L2/08-350: Proposal to encode modern Bamum in the BMP" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Chapter 19: Africa, Bamum" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 10.0. Mountain View, California: Unicode, Inc. July 2017. ISBN 978-1-936213-16-0.

External links


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