Balinese Script
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Aksara Bali
Aksara Bali1.png
Type
LanguagesBalinese
Sasak
Time period
c. 1000–present
Parent systems
Sister systems
Batak
Baybayin
Kulitan
Buhid
Hanunó'o
Javanese
Lontara
Old Sundanese
Rencong
Rejang
Tagbanwa
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Bali, 360
Unicode alias
Balinese
U+1B00–U+1B7F
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit. With some modifications, the script is also used to write the Sasak language, used in the neighboring island of Lombok.[1] The script is a descendant of the Brahmi script, and so has many similarities with the modern scripts of South and Southeast Asia. The Balinese script, along with the Javanese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia.[2]

Though everyday use of the script has largely been supplanted by the Latin alphabet, the Balinese script has significant prevalence in many of the island's traditional ceremonies and is strongly associated with the Hindu religion. The script is mainly used today for copying lontar or palm leaf manuscripts containing religious texts.[2][3]

Characteristics

There are 47 letters in the Balinese script, each representing a syllable with inherent vowel /a/ or /?/ at the end of a sentence, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Pure Balinese can be written with 18 consonant letters and 9 vowel letters, while Sanskrit transliteration or loan words from Sanskrit and Old Javanese utilizes the full set. A set of modified letters are also used for writing the Sasak language. Each consonant has a conjunct form called gantungan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[4][5]

Punctuation includes a comma, period, colon, as well as marks to introduce and end section of a text. Musical notation uses letter-like symbols and diacritical marks in order to indicate pitch information. Text are written left to right without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[1]

There is also a set of "holy letters" called aksara modre which appears in religious texts and protective talismans. Most of them are constructed using diacritic ulu candra with corresponding characters. A number of additional characters, known to be used inline in text (as opposed to decoratively on drawings), remains under study and those characters are expected to be proposed as Balinese extensions in due course.[1]

Letters

A basic letter in Balinese is called aksara (), and each letter stands for a syllable with inherent vowel /a/.

Consonants

Consonants are called wianjana (?) or aksara wianjana (). Balinese script has 33 consonants, of which only 18 called wrestra () are used for writing basic vocabulary in Balinese language. The other 15, known as sualalita (?), are mainly used for writing Sanskrit and Kawi loanwords in Balinese language. The consonants can be arranged into Sanskrit order and hanacaraka traditional order.

Hanacaraka traditional order

The consonants can be arranged in hanacaraka traditional order. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka. However, the hanacaraka sequence only has the 18 consonants of aksara wrestra () and exclude aksara sualalita (). However, this table below include aksara sualalita as the current romanization have no diacritics for the consonants.


Aksara Wianjana
Consonants
Poem First Line Second Line Third Line Fourth Line
IPA [ha] [na] [t?a] [ra] [ka] [da] [ta] [sa] [wa] [la] [ma] [ga] [ba] [?a] [pa] [d?a] [ja] [?a]
Aksara Latin
Latin Transcription
ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la ma ga ba nga pa ja ya nya
Aksara Wrestra
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Aksara Sualalita
? ? ? ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
? ? ? ?

Sanskrit order

As other Brahmic scripts, consonants in Balinese script can be arranged into Tamil / Sanskrit order. Thus, Balinese script had been influenced by Kalvi / Shiksha. The table below uses the order.

Aksara Wianjana

Consonants
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Pancawalimukha

Ardhasuara

(Semivowels)
ma
?
(Fricatives)
Wisarga

(Glottal)
Unvoiced Voiced Anun?sika
?
Nasal
Alpapra

Unaspirated
Mah?pra

Aspirated
Alpapra

Unaspirated
Mah?pra

Aspirated
Kahya

(Guttural)
Bali Ka.png

?
[ka]
ka
Ka1
Bali Ka mahaprana.png

?
[k?a]
kha
Ka mahaprana
Bali Ga.png

?
[ga]
ga
Ga1
Bali Ga gora.png

?
[g?a]
gha
Ga gora
Bali Nga.png

?
[?a]
nga
Nga1
Bali Ha.png

?
[ha]
ha
Ha12
T?lawya

(Palatal)
Bali Ca.png

?
[t?a]
ca
Ca murca1
Bali Ca laca.png

?
[ta]
cha
Ca laca3
Bali Ja.png

?
[d?a]
ja
Ja1
Bali Ja jera.png

?
[da]
jha
Ja jera
Bali Nya.png

?
[?a]
nya
Nya1
Bali Ya.png

?
[ja]
ya
Ya1
Bali Sa saga.png

?
[?a]
?a ça
Sa saga
M?rdhanya

(Retroflex)
Bali Ta latik.png

?
[?a]
?a
Ta latik
Bali Ta latik mahaprana.png

?
[a]
?ha
Ta latik m.5
Bali Da madu murdhanya.png

?
[?a]
?a
Da murda a.4
Bali Da murda mahaprana.png

?
[a]
?ha
Da murda m.5
Bali Na rambat.png

?
[?a]
?a
Na rambat
Bali Ra.png

?
[ra]
ra
Ra1
Bali Sa sapa.png

?
[?a]
?a
Sa sapa
Dantya

(Dental)
Bali Ta.png

?
[ta]
ta
Ta1
Bali Ta tawa.png

?
[t?a]
tha
Ta tawa
Bali Da.png

?
[da]
da
Da lindung1
Bali Da madu.png

?
[d?a]
dha
Da madu
Bali Na.png

?
[na]
na
Na kojong1
Bali La.png

?
[la]
la
La1
Bali Sa.png

?
[sa]
sa
Sa danti16
Ohya

(Labial)
Bali Pa.png

?
[pa]
pa
Pa1
Bali 8, Pha.png

?
[p?a]
pha
Pa kapal
Bali Ba.png

?
[ba]
ba
Ba1
Bali Ba kembang1.png or Bali Ba kembang2.png

?
[b?a]
bha
Ba kembang7
Bali Ma.png

?
[ma]
ma
Ma1
Bali Wa.png

?
[wa]
wa
Wa1

^1 Aksara wrestra. They are, in traditional order: ha na ca ra ka / da ta sa wa la / ma ga ba nga / pa ja ya nya.
^2 The consonant ha is sometimes not pronounced. For example, hujan (lit. rain) is pronounced ujan.[6]
^3 The exact form of ca laca is unknown because only the appended (gantungan) form is left.[7] However, the independent form is included in Unicode.[8]
^4 alpaprana ^5 mahaprana
^6 Actually an alveolar consonant, but classified as dental by tradition
^7 The former of the two letter forms is more frequently used.

Vowels

Vowels, called suara (?) or aksara suara (), can be written as independent letters when vowels appear in initial position. They are described in the following list:

Aksara suara

Vowels
Warga(Place of articulation) Aksara suara h?e?ua

(Short vowels)
Aksara suara dirgha

(Long vowels)
Balinese script Balinese script Latin Transliteration IPA Name Name Balinese script Balinese script Latin Transliteration IPA
Kahya

(Guttural)
Bali vowel A kara.png
? a [a] A kara
Bali vowel A kara-tedung.png
? ? [?:]
T?lawya

(Palatal)
Bali vowel I kara.png
? i [i] I kara
Bali vowel I kara-tedung.png
? ? [i:]
M?rdhanya

(Retroflex)
Bali vowel Ra repa.png
? ? [] Ra repa
Bali vowel Ra repa-tedung.png
? ? [:]
Dantya

(Dental)
Bali 2-vowel La lenga.png
? ? [l?] La lenga
Bali vowel La lenga-tedung.png
? ? [l?:]
Ohya

(Labial)
Bali vowel U kara.png
? u [u] U kara
Bali vowel U kara-tedung.png
? ? [u:]
Kaha-T?lawya

(Palato-guttural)
Bali 6-vowel E kara.png
? e [e]
[?]
E kara Airsanya
Bali vowel Airsanya.png
? ai [a:i]
Kaha-Ohya

(Labio-guttural)
Bali 3-vowel O.png
? o [o]
[?]
O kara
Bali vowel O kara-tedung.png
? au [a:u]

Gantungan and Gempelan

Gantungan () (appended letters) and gempelan () (attached letters) has to be used to represent consonant cluster as zero vowel sign (adeg-adeg) may not used in middle of sentence in general. Thus, as some Brahmic family (Javanese), consonant cluster is written in stack. Each consonant letter has a corresponding either gantungan or gempelan (for pa, pha, sa and ?a only) form, and the presence of gantungan and gempelan eliminate the inherent vowel [a] of the letter it is appended to. For example, if the letter na (?) is appended with gantungan da (), the pronunciation becomes nda ().

Gantungan or gempelan can be applied with pangangge (diacritic) to a letter. However, attaching two or more gantungan to one letter is forbidden; this condition is known as tumpuk telu (three layers). Adeg-adeg may be used in the middle of a sentence to avoid such situation. For example, tamblang with consonant cluster mbl is written as .[9]

The forms of gantungan and gempelan are as follows:

Gantungan Gempelan
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Pancawalimukha

Ardhasuara

(Semivowels)
ma
?
(Fricatives)
Wisarga

(Glottal)
Unvoiced Voiced Anun?sika
?
Nasal
Alpapra

Unaspirated
Mah?pra

Aspirated
Alpapra

Unaspirated
Mah?pra

Aspirated
Kahya

(Guttural)
Gantungan Ka.png

Ka
Gantungan Ka mahaprana.png

Ka mahaprana
Gantungan Ga.png

Ga
Gantungan Ga gora.png

Ga gora
Gantungan Nga.png

Nga
Gantungan Ha.png

Ha
T?lawya

(Palatal)
Gantungan Ca.png

Ca murca
Gantungan Ca laca.png

Ca laca
Gantungan Ja.png

Ja
Gantungan Ja jera.png

Ja jera
Gantungan Nya.png

Nya
Pangangge Nania.png

Ya
Gantungan Sa saga.png

Sa saga
M?rdhanya

(Retroflex)
Gantungan Ta latik.png

Ta latik
Gantungan Ta latik mahaprana.png

Ta latik m.
Gantungan da madu alpaprana.png

Da madu a.
Gantungan Da madu murdhanya.png

Da madu m.
Gantungan Na rambat.png

Na rambat
Pangangge Cakra.png

Ra
Gempelan Sa sapa.png

Sa sapa
Dantya

(Dental)
Gantungan Ta.png

Ta
Gantungan Ta tawa.png

Ta tawa
Gantungan Da.png

Da lindung
Gantungan Da madu.png

Da madu
Gantungan Na.png

Na kojong
Gantungan La.png

La
Gempelan Sa danti.png

Sa danti
Ohya

(Labial)
Gempelan Pa.png

Pa
Gantungan Pa kapal.png

Pa kapal
Gantungan Ba.png

Ba
Gantungan Ba kembang.png

Ba kembang
Gantungan Ma.png

Ma
Pangangge Suku kembung.png

Wa

Diacritics

Diacritics (pangangge (?), pronounced /pae/, also known as sandhangan when referring to the Javanese script) are symbols that cannot stand by themselves. When they are attached to the independent letters, they affect the pronunciation. The three types of diacritics are pangangge suara, pangangge tengenan (pronounced /t?nan/) and pangangge aksara.

Pangangge suara

Pangangge suara () change the inherited vowel of a consonant letter. For example, the letter ? (na) with ulu () becomes ni (); ka (?) with suku () becomes ku (). The diacritics in this category are summarized in the following list:

Pangangge suara
Warga(Place of articulation) Balinese script Transliteration IPA Name
Kahya

(Guttural)
Pangangge Pepet.png
e / ê / ? 1 [?] Pepet
Pangangge Tedung.png
? [?:] Tedung
T?lawya

(Palatal)
Pangangge Ulu.png
i [i] Ulu
Pangangge Ulu sari.png
? [i:] Ulu sari
Ohya

(Labial)
Pangangge Suku.png
u [u] Suku
Pangangge Suku ilut.png
? [u:] Suku ilut
Kaha-T?lawya

(Palato-guttural)
Pangangge Taling.png
e / é 1 [e]
[?]
Taling
Pangangge Taling detya.png
ai [a:i] Taling detya
Kaha-Ohya

(Labio-guttural)
Pangangge Taling-tedung.png
o [o]
[?]
Taling tedung
Pangangge Taling detya-tedung.png
au [a:u] Taling detya matedung

^1 As first romanization of Balinese Language was developed during Dutch Colonial Era, letter e represents sound [?] and letter é represents sound [e] and [?] as in Van Ophuijsen Indonesian and Dutch orthography. After 1957, sounds [?], [e] and [?] are represented with e as in current Indonesian orthography with exception for new learner and dictionary usage.[10][11]

Many consonants can form ligatures with tedung:

Aksara Bali polih tedung.png

Pangangge tengenan

Pangangge tengenan (), except adeg-adeg, adds a final consonant to a syllable. It can be used together with pangangge suara. For example, the letter ? (na) with bisah () becomes (nah); ? (ka) with suku () and surang () becomes (kur). Compared to Devanagari, bisah is analogous to visarga, cecek to anusvara, and adeg-adeg to virama.

Adeg-adeg is zero vowel diacritics as in other Brahmic scripts in Balinese script. Adeg-adeg, as virama in Devanagari, suppress the inherent vowel /a/ in the consonant letter. Adeg-adeg is used on impossibility of gantungan and gempelan usage such as succeeded by punctuation marks, attachment of two or more gantungan to one letter (tumpuk telu, lit. three layers), preservation of combination (watek ksatriya, rather than ?) and disambiguation.[10]

Pangangge tengenan
Balinese script IPA Translit. Name
Pangangge Bisah.png
[h] h Bisah
Pangangge Surang.png
[r] r Surang
Pangangge Cecek.png
[?] ng Cecek
Pangangge Adeg-adeg.png
[?] Adeg-adeg

Pangangge aksara

Pangangge aksara () is appended below consonant letters. Pangangge aksara are the appended (gantungan) forms of the ardhasuara (semivowel) consonants. Guwung macelek is the appended form of the vowel ra repa (?).

Pangangge aksara
Balinese script IPA Translit. Name
Pangangge Cakra.png
[ra] ra Cakra
Guwung
Pangangge Guwung macelek.png
[r?] r? Guwung macelek
Pangangge Suku kembung.png
[?a] ua Suku kembung
Pangangge Nania.png
[ja] ia Nania

Numerals

Balinese numerals are written in the same manner as Arabic numerals. For example, 25 is written with the Balinese numbers 2 and 5.

Balinese numeral Balinese numeral Arabic numeral Name Balinese numeral Balinese numeral Arabic numeral Name
Bali 0.png
? 0 Bindu
Windu
Bali 5.png
? 5 Lima
Bali 1.png
? 1 Siki
Besik
Bali 6-vowel E kara.png
? 6 Nem
Bali 2-vowel La lenga.png
? 2 Kalih
Dua
Bali 7.png
? 7 Pitu
Bali 3-vowel O.png
? 3 Tiga
Telu
Bali 8, Pha.png
? 8 Kutus
Bali 4.png
? 4 Papat
Bali 9.png
? 9 Sanga
Sia

If the number is written in the middle of a text, carik has to be written before and after the number to differentiate it from the text. Below is an example of how a date is written using Balinese numerals (date: 1 July 1982, location: Bali):

Balinese script Transliteration
Bali, 1 Juli 1982.

?
Bali, 1 Juli 1982.

Other symbols

There are some special symbols in the Balinese script. Some of them are punctuation marks, and the others are religious symbols. The symbols are described in the following list:

Symbol Symbol Name Remarks
Punctuation Carik.png
? Carik
Carik Siki.
Written in the middle of a sentence, like a comma (,). Also, written surrounding numerals to differentiate them from the text.
Punctuation Carik kalih.png
? Carik Kalih
Carik Pareren
Written at the end of a sentence, like a full stop (.).
Punctuation Pamungkah.png
? Carik pamungkah Functions like a colon (:).
Center Pasalinan Used at the end of a prose, letter, or verse.
Punctuation Panti.png
? Panten or Panti Used at the beginning of a prose, letter, or verse.
Punctuation Pamada.png
? Pamada Used at the beginning of religious texts. This symbol is a ligature of the letters ma, nga, ja, and pa, forming the word mangajapa, which roughly means "praying for safety".
Modre symbol Omkara.png
Ongkara Sacred symbol of Hinduism. This symbol is pronounced "Ong" or "Om".

Orthography

Balinese Language

Assimilation

Assimilation in Balinese occurs within the word.[does this only occur with conjuncts/consonant clusters, or can it occur across vowels?] Balinese script represents assimilation occurred, however Latin script sometimes may not represent this. In general, alveolar consonants are assimilated into palatal, retroflex or labial. There are more specific descriptions in assimilation combination:[11]

  • ? [n] assimilated into ? [?] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster nc and nj . For example, word wianjana is written as ? ([wja?d?ana]), not written as ? ([wjand?ana]).
  • ? [s] assimilated into ? [?] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster sc . For example, word pascad is written as ([pa?cad]), not written as ([pascad]).
  • ? [d] assimilated into ? [d?] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster dny . For example, word yadnya is written as ? ([jada]), not written as ? ([jad?a]).
  • ? [n] assimilated into ? [?] if preceded by retroflex consonants, such as consonant cluster rn . For example, word karna is written as ? ([kar?a]), not written as ? ([karna]).
  • ? [s] assimilated into ? [?] if succeeded by retroflex consonants, such as consonant cluster st () and sn () . For example, word dusta (dua, lie) is written as ([dua]), not written as ([dus?a]).
  • ? [n] assimilated into ? [m] if succeeded by labial consonants. For example, word tanbara is written as ([tamb?ara]), not written as ([tanb?ara]).

Liquid Consonant-Schwa Combination

Liquid consonant, ? [r] and ? [l], may not be combined with (pepet, schwa) [?] as and . These combination, r? [r?] and l? [l?], sholuld be written as ? (re repa) and ? (le lenga). Word k?r?ng (lit. eat a lot) and lekad are written as ? and ?. While combination of (gantungan [l]) and (pepet) is possible as in (bleganjur), combination of (cakra or gantungan [r]) and pepet is not allowed. If the combination follows a word which ends in a consonant, (gempelan re repa) may be used as in (Pak R?r?h, Mr. R?r?h). If the combination is in a word, (guwung macelek) may be used instead as in (Kr?sna, Krishna).[11][12]

Latin Script Transliteration

Latin script transliteration into Balinese script is based on phonetics. As vocabulary expands, foreign sounds are introduced and have no equivalent on Balinese script. In general, transliteration of foreign sounds is shown as below.[13]

Foreign Sound Transliteration
IPA Foreign Sound
Latin Script
Balinese Language Example
Latin Script Balinese Script Foreign Word Balinese Language Meaning
Latin Script Balinese Script
[f] f p ? telefon telepon telephone
[v] v p ? vitamin pitamin ? vitamine
[kw], [k], [q] q k ? quantum kuantum quantum
[z] z j ?
[z] z s ?

Sasak Language

Fonts

There are some fonts for Balinese script as of 2016. Bali Simbar, Bali Galang, JG Aksara Bali, Aksara Bali, Tantular Bali, Lilitan, Geguratan and Noto Sans Balinese are some fonts that included Balinese script. The fonts have different degree of compatibility each other, and most contain critical flaws.[14]

Bali Simbar is first font for Balinese script by I Made Suatjana Dipl Ing at 1999.[15] Bali Simbar is not compatible for Mac-OS and Unicode.[15][14]JG Aksara Bali, was designed by Jason Glavy, has over 1400 Balinese glyphs, including a huge selection of precomposed glyph clusters.[14] The latest version of JG Aksara Bali is released on 2003, thus has no compatibility with Unicode.[14] Bali Simbar and JG Aksara Bali, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Balinese's extensive repertoire as Balinese script was not included in Unicode at the creation time.[15][14]

Aksara Bali by Khoi Nguyen Viet is the first hacked Unicode Balinese font with a brute-force OpenType implementation. The results depend on how well other OpenType features are implemented in the renderer. The font has about 370 Balinese glyphs, but does not display the vowel ⟨é⟩ correctly.[14] The team of Aditya Bayu Perdana, Ida Bagus Komang Sudarma, and Arif Budiarto has created a small series of Balinese fonts: Tantular Bali, Lilitan, and Geguratan, all using hacked Unicode and a brute-force OpenType implementation. Tantular has about 400 Balinese glyphs.[14] These all have serious flaws.[14]

Another Unicode font is Noto Sans Balinese from Google.[16] However, Noto Sans Balinese exhibits several critical flaws, such as an inability to correctly display more than one diacritic per consonant.[14]

The free font Bali Galang, maintained by Bemby Bantara Narendra, displays correctly apart from the consonant-spanning vowels ⟨o⟩ and ⟨au⟩. However, those vowels can be manually substituted by their graphic components, ⟨é⟩ and ⟨ai⟩ followed by the length sign (tedung), which together display as ⟨o⟩ and ⟨au⟩. It also automatically assimilates some consonants within words. It displays corresponding Balinese glyphs instead of Latin letters.

Unicode

Balinese script was added to the Unicode Standard in July, 2006 with the release of version 5.0.

The Unicode block for Balinese is U+1B00–U+1B7F:

Balinese[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1B0x
U+1B1x
U+1B2x
U+1B3x ᬿ
U+1B4x
U+1B5x
U+1B6x
U+1B7x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c Everson, Michael; Suatjana, I Made (2005-01-23). "N2908: Proposal for encoding the Balinese script in the UCS" (PDF). Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  3. ^ Fox, Richard (2013). Rival Styles of Writing, Rival Styles of Practical Reasoning. Heidelberg: Institut für Ehtnologie.
  4. ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 2013.
  5. ^ Richard Ishida (2012). "Balinese Script Notes". Retrieved 2014.
  6. ^ Tinggen, p. 16
  7. ^ Tinggen, p. 23
  8. ^ "Unicode Table" (PDF). Retrieved .
  9. ^ Tinggen, p. 27
  10. ^ a b Tinggen, I Nengah (1994). Pedoman Perubahan Ejaan Bahasa Bali dengan Huruf Latin dan Huruf Bali. Singaraja: Rikha.
  11. ^ a b c Pedoman Pasang Aksara Bali. Denpasar: Dinas Kebudayaan Provinsi Bali. 1997.
  12. ^ Ishida, Richard. "Balinese script notes". Retrieved 2016.
  13. ^ Tinggen, I Nengah (1994). Celah-Celah Kunci Aksara Bali (1 ed.). Singaraja: Rhika.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Bringing Balinese to iOS". Norbert's Corner. Retrieved 2016.
  15. ^ a b c "Aksara Bali". Bali Galang Foundation. Retrieved 2016.
  16. ^ "Noto Sans Balinese". Google Noto Font. Retrieved 2016.

Sources

  • Surada, I Made. 2007. Kamus Sanskerta-Indonesia. Surabaya: Penerbit Paramitha.
  • Simpen, I Wayan. Pasang Aksara Bali. Diterbitkan oleh Dinas Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Provinsi Daerah Tingkat I Bali.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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