Balinese Language
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Balinese Language
Balinese
, 1
Bha Bali, Basa Bali1
Aksara Bali1.png
RegionBali, Nusa Penida, Lombok and Java, Indonesia
EthnicityBalinese, Bali Aga
Native speakers
3.3 million (2000 census)[1]
Early form
Old Balinese
Latin, Balinese
Language codes
ban
ban
Glottologbali1278[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Balinese or simply Bali, is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people (as of 2000) on the Indonesian island of Bali as well as Northern Nusa Penida, Western Lombok and Eastern Java.[3] Most Balinese speakers also know Indonesian. Balinese itself is not mutually intelligible with Indonesian but may be understood by Javanese speakers after some exposure.[]

In 2011, the Bali Cultural Agency estimated that the number of people still using the Balinese language in their daily lives on the Bali Island does not exceed 1 million, as in urban areas their parents only introduce the Indonesian language or even English, while daily conversations in the institutions and the mass media have disappeared. The written form of the Balinese language is increasingly unfamiliar and most Balinese people use the Balinese language only as a means of oral communication, often mixing it with Indonesian in their daily speech. But in the transmigration areas outside Bali Island, the Balinese language is extensively used and believed to play an important role in the survival of the language.[4]

The higher registers of the language borrow extensively from Javanese: an old form of classical Javanese, Kawi, is used in Bali as a religious and ceremonial language.

Phonology

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e ? o
Low a

The official spelling denotes both /a/ and /?/ by a. However, a is usually pronounced [?] when it ends a word, and [?] occurs also in prefixes ma-, pa- and da-.[5]

Consonants

Depending on dialect, the phoneme /t/ is realized as a voiceless alveolar or retroflex stop. This is in contrast with most other languages in western Indonesia (including Standard Indonesian), which have a dental /t/ patterning with an otherwise alveolar phoneme series.[6]

Stress

Stress falls on the last syllable.[5]

Grammar

The word order is similar to that of Indonesian, and verb and noun inflectional morphology is similarly minimal. However, derivational morphology is extensive, and suffixes are applied to indicate definite or indefinite articles, and optionally to indicate possession.[5]

Registers

Balinese has different registers depending on the relationship and status of those speaking: low (basa ketah), middle (basa madia), and high (basa singgih). Basa singgih contains many loanwords from Sanskrit and Javanese.

Numerals

Balinese has a decimal numeral system, but this is complicated by numerous words for intermediate quantities such as 45, 175, and 1600.

Writing

Balinese has been written in two different writing systems: the Balinese script, and in modern times the Latin script.

Balinese script

Basic signs of the Balinese script
Note: The script is arranged in Javanese order.

The Balinese script (Aksara Bali, ), which is arranged as Hanacaraka (), is an abugida, ultimately derived from the Br?hm? script of India. The earliest known inscriptions date from the 11th century AD.

Few people today are familiar with the Balinese script.[7] The Balinese script is almost the same as Javanese script.

Latin alphabet

Schools in Bali today teach a Latin alphabet known as Tulisan Bali.[8]

Gallery

Note

^1 In Balinese script, Sanskrit and Kawi loanword has different orthography than native words. The first Balinese script is influenced by orthography of Sanskrit and Kawi as word basa derives from the Sanskrit word ? bh. Meanwhile, diacritics is not written in current romanization of Balinese language. Thus, and basa Bali are the standard forms.

See also

References

  1. ^ Balinese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Balinese". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Ethnologue.
  4. ^ "Balinese language 'will never die'". March 30, 2012.
  5. ^ a b c Spitzing, Günter (2002). Practical Balinese: Phrasebook and Dictionary. Rutland VT: Tuttle Publishing. p. 22.
  6. ^ Clynes, Adrian (1995). Topics in the Phonology and Morphosyntax of Balinese (PhD). Australian National University.
  7. ^ Omniglot.
  8. ^ The Balinese Languages by Fred B Eiseman, Jr Archived 2012-03-31 at the Wayback Machine - Bali Vision

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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