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This quantum number is the charge of a global/gauge U(1) symmetry in some Grand Unified Theory models, called U(1)B−L. Unlike baryon number alone or lepton number alone, this hypothetical symmetry would not be broken by chiral anomalies or gravitational anomalies, as long as this symmetry is global, which is why this symmetry is often invoked.
The anomalies that would break baryon number conservation and lepton number conservation individually cancel in such a way that is always conserved. One hypothetical example is proton decay where a proton () would decay into a pion () and positron ().
The Weak hypercharge is related to via