Australian Football At the 1956 Summer Olympics
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Australian Football At the 1956 Summer Olympics
1956 Summer Olympics
demonstration match
Date7 December 1956, 4:10pm
StadiumMCG
Attendance30,000
UmpiresLes Wenker

Australian football was one of two demonstration sports at the 1956 Summer Olympics held in Melbourne. The rules stated that the hosts must organise both a native game and a sport foreign to the organising country as "demonstration sports".[1]Australian football was chosen as the "native" sport,[2] while baseball was chosen as the "foreign" sport.[3]

History

Melbourne was selected as the host city for the Games of the XVI Olympiad on 28 April 1949. No less than seven months later, the first proposal for Australian football to feature in the Games was suggested by Jack McCann of the Australian Amateur Football Council (AAFC).[1] Despite the sport's origins being based in Melbourne and its popularity still heavily confined to the southern states of Australia, it was described as the country's "national code", as such warranting the privilege of being shown on the world stage. The AAFC had an affiliation with the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) and this would prove vital as discussions progressed.

By 1952, Australian National Football Council (ANFC) secretary Bruce Andrew was spruiking the potential of Australian football at the Games, opting to work closely with the AAFC to ensure the Olympics' amateur status was maintained and that all competitors would not be playing football for money at the time of the tournament. Andrew acknowledged the pitfalls of playing the match in the off-season during December, but reinforced that all discussions had been "only of a preliminary nature" and that details would be fleshed out in the coming months and years.[4]

Nearly two years had passed and the AOC was still yet to decide on what demonstration sports would feature at the Games. An article published in Tasmania's The Advocate in January 1954 suggested that, alongside Australian football, both surf lifesaving and boomerang throwing were being considered by the committee.[5] On 16 July 1954, more than five years following the announcement of Melbourne as host city, Australian football was chosen as the native demonstration sport for the 1956 Summer Olympics. The choice of foreign sport remained undecided until baseball was chosen later in the week.[6]

Format

Shortly after the confirmation of Australian football as the native sport, officials, journalists, and the public began to muse on what format such an exhibition match would take. While suggestions varied, one constant was that all players must be of an amateur status in keeping with the Olympic spirit and ideals. Thus, this ruled out the top echelon of players in the Victorian Football League (VFL), which was a semi-professional league and continuing to grow in stature and wealth. The Sporting Globe's Ben Kerville was the first to propose a match-up between the VFL's best remaining amateur players and a "selected All-Australian" team comprising the best amateur footballers from around the country.[7] Burdened by the fact that the League would be unable to showcase its brightest talents to a global audience, the VFL conspired to present an exhibition match between its own professional players that would run concurrently with the Games, although not a part of the official programme.[8]

Format suggestions were still being put forward as late as 1956; The Argus' sports editor Percy Taylor revealing in January that an 'Australia vs. the rest' type match-up was a possibility.[9] However, such a clash would have been unfathomably one-sided, with the popularity of Australian football outside of its home country having waned into insignificance following the conclusion of World War II, which, in turn, saw a large decrease in the number of expat competitions overseas. By March, the would-be format - a VFL/VFA combined amateur team invited to take on a selected side from the Victorian Amateur Football Association - had been proposed[10], and in September, subsequently confirmed.[11] Teams would be "urged to play in a strictly competitive spirit", but also to avoid "negative tactics".

Squads

Extended squads for both sides would train once a week, and from each squad a team of twenty (with three emergencies) would be picked for the exhibition match. Regular Australian football rules still applied to the exhibition match, with eighteen players on the field for each side at any one time, and two 'reserves' able to replace any player (who then cannot return to the field following their substitution).

VAFA

The VAFA, growing frustrated by the common theme of having its best amateur players 'poached' by the VFL and VFA to play for money, saw the opportunity to upstage its professional counterparts on an elevated public platform.[12] The relationship between the VAFA and the professional leagues was hostile at best and a win would return a great sense of pride to the amateur association.[13]

The squad selected by the VAFA was star-studded; nearly all of those selected had participated in various association grand finals over the years.[13] The biggest name and captain of the amateur squad was Collegians ruckman Geoff Hibbins, who had previously played 33 League games for St Kilda before returning to Wesley where he won the 1956 Australian Amateur Football Association medal. Murray Mitchell of Old Melburnians was another star selection, having captain-coached his side to premiership success one year prior.[13]

The overall cohesion of the squad was evident given their familiarity with each other, born from all playing in the same competition under the same rules. On the contrary, the differences in play style between the VFL and VFA had the potential to create a more jarring opposition. The bulk of the VAFA side had also played together in representative amateur interstate matches over the last couple of seasons.[13]

VFL/VFA Combined Team

Headlining the VFL/VFA combined squad was Melbourne 150-game veteran Denis Cordner, a 3-time premiership player and former captain of the club.[14] Fresh from the 1956 VFL Grand Final just a month earlier, where he retired at the conclusion of the match after his Demons smashed Collingwood,[15] Cordner was the logical choice to lead the combined team. One of the League's most formidable ruckmen at his peak, finishing runner-up in the club best-and-fairest award in his penultimate season, Cordner would be a valuable asset to the combined team through both skill and leadership.

The VFL portion of the squad, although making up the majority of the final team, was largely youthful and inexperienced. Only Tigers pair Brian Davie and Frank Dunin had more than 30 League games to their name at that point, with eight of the squad members only having made their debut in that year's season. The Magpies had the honour of most squad representatives, with five.

The VFA representatives in the squad contained no Williamstown players, despite the club having won the last three Association premierships. Unlike the VFL squad inclusions, no VFA club boasted more than two players from their side in the overall group of 33. The headline act was arguably Box Hill forward Dave Plunkett, who in his first season of Association football had kicked more than 25 goals to help his side to a maiden finals appearance.[16]

Coincidentally, many of the combined squad members were former VAFA players themselves who had maintained an amateur status upon their inclusion in the professional leagues.[17]

VFL/VFA training squad[18][19]
Club Player(s)
Collingwood (VFL) Ray Gabelich, Brian Gray, Bill Serong, Brian Turner, Ken Turner
Footscray (VFL) John Westacott
Hawthorn (VFL) Brendan Edwards
Melbourne (VFL) Dick Atkinson, Brian Collopy, Denis Cordner
North Melbourne (VFL) Laurie Dwyer, Des Tobin
Richmond (VFL) Ray Allsopp, Brian Davie, Frank Dunin, Vic Naismith[a]
South Melbourne (VFL) Neil McNeill
St Kilda (VFL) Bryan King, Brian Muir, Brian Walsh
Box Hill (VFA) T. Leach, Dave Plunkett
Camberwell (VFA) Ian Clarke
Coburg (VFA) Ron Dangaard, Jack Sassella
Moorabbin (VFA) Norman Burgess
Northcote (VFA) Thomas Hussey, Keith Woolnough
Oakleigh (VFA) Keith Anderson, Don Kitto
Prahran (VFA) Barry Gaze, Lindsay Gaze
Sandringham (VFA) Keith Marshall, Ross Shrives, Des Quinn[a]

Teams

The initial extended training squads were cut to 25 players each in mid-November[19], from which the final teams of twenty for the VAFA and VFL/VFA combined squad were selected on 2 December and 4 December respectively.[20][21] The VAFA side was to wear a white guernsey with green trim emblazoned with the Olympic rings, while the VFL/VFA side would wear an inverse design.[22]

VAFA

Victorian Amateur Football Association
B: 6 R. Collins (Melbourne High School Old Boys) 19 Laurie Wakeling (Old Paradians) 1 Geoff Hibbins (Collegians) (captain)
HB: 20 Lloyd Williams (Ivanhoe) 5 Tony Capes (University Blacks) 16 Phil Rochow (Coburg Amateurs)
C: 7 Cyril Empey (Commonwealth Bank) 14 Ian Merrick (Coburg Amateurs) 17 Bryce Thomas (Old Melburnians)
HF: 2 Murray Mitchell (Old Melburnians) (vice-captain) 10 Jim Hannan (Old Melburnians) 8 G. J. Gill (University Blacks)
F: 15 R. F. Pettigrove (Coburg Amateurs) 3 Duncan Anderson (Old Melburnians) 4 Dick Fenton-Smith (Ormond)
Foll: 11 Peter Harkness (Old Scotch Collegians) 13 John Hayes (University Blues) 12 M. B. Keogh (University Blues)
Res: 9 L. Grant (Power House) 18 Dick Tindale (Old Scotch Collegians)
Coach: Joe Kelly

Emergencies

  • Peter Craw (Old Scotch Collegians)
  • D. Douglas (State Savings Bank)
  • John Byrne (Ormond)
  • E. J. Hill (Old Paradians)
  • S. P. Hawthorne (Old Scotch Collegians)

Team manager

  • Alf Perrin

VFL/VFA Combined Team

The combined team was made up of 14 League players and 6 Association players.

Emergencies

Team manager

Umpires

Respected VAFA adjudicator Les Wenker was given the honour of field umpire; Sam Birtles his reserve. Boundary umpires were Bill Quinn, who had officiated in four VFL Grand Finals in his career to date[23], accompanied by the VAFA's Jack Wilson. In goal were Bob Coldrey and Ossie Meehan, also both of the VAFA.[24]

Lead-up

Although public perception suggested that the VFL/VFA combined team be favourites to win the match on account of the higher standard of competition its players take part in, the VAFA was quietly confident; the media seemed to side with the amateurs, too. All eyes were on the VAFA's Duncan Anderson, the 24-year-old from Old Melburnians who was described as once being the "top amateur goal-kicker in Australia".[25] Despite having not played competitive football in two years, Anderson's performances at training - and in a "special" practice match on 2 December, which the VAFA won - led football journalists to believe that he would be one of the keys to the match, and that his influence may contribute to a "shock" victory for the VAFA over the combined team.[26]

The match

The single demonstration match was played on the Melbourne Cricket Ground, known throughout the Olympics as the "Main Stadium". It started at 4:10 pm on Friday, 7 December 1956, immediately after the bronze medal soccer match between Bulgaria and India had concluded.[27] Players had to deal with the various hazards on the ground left over from previous events, chiefly the Olympic flagpole. The 50-foot structure was to be left standing until the conclusion of the closing ceremony as part of Games protocol, despite the fact that it sat awkwardly in the forward pocket, well in from the boundary line.[28][13] The plinth installed for the inside lane of the running track also posed problems for the footballers, who were at risk of tripping if they did not identify the sharp rise in height of the surface.[22] The size of the playing area itself was reduced dramatically (down to 170 x 145 yards)[27] due to the cinder track around the inside of the stadium, while the sandpits used for the long jump and triple jump events had only recently been covered, making for unsteady ground.[13]

The VAFA got the jump in the first quarter, kicking six goals to one, and this early dominance proved pivotal to the final result. While their opponents fought back in the second term, it was the lapses of the combined team that meant they were never truly in with a chance after going behind early - a goalless third term essentially dashing any hopes of a comeback. Leading the way on the scoreboard for the VAFA were Fenton-Smith and Pettigrove, each with four goals, while the highly favoured Anderson finished with three majors. Dunin was the only multiple goalkicker for the combined team, also finishing with three. Hibbins, captain, took best afield honours for the victors. Contrarily, Cordner, skipper of the combined team, had his impact quelled by the "marking ability and persistency" of his opponents.[29]

While the official Olympic Report of 1956 praised the quality of the match, describing it as being played "in the true amateur spirit, with an abundance of vigour and speed, plenty of good kicking and high marking"[30], the media was less favourable. The Argus' Percy Taylor suggested the crowd would not likely have been impressed by the game, which he said "lacked the fire that makes our game", mostly in part due to it being an out-of-season exhibition match with nothing on the line except pride.[31] Meanwhile, a staff reporter at The Age commented on how the spectators seemed more interested in the butcher hats and coats of the goal umpires than the quirks of the sport itself.[32]

Crowd estimates varied between 15,000 and 30,000 spectators.[32][22] Throughout the entire game, at which the Duke of Edinburgh was an interested spectator,[33] a running commentary attempted to explain the umpires' decisions to the audience, and those who were not used to the game found it extremely useful. VAFA secretary and match organiser Jack Fullerton sat alongside the Duke, explaining the intricacies of the game to him throughout.[13]

Scoreboard

1956 Summer Olympics Australian football demonstration match
7 December 1956 (4:10 pm) Victorian Amateur Football Association def. Victorian FL & Victorian FA Combined Team MCG (crowd: 30,000)
6.1 (37)
9.4 (58)
11.8 (74)
 12.9 (81)
Q1
Q2
Q3
 Final
1.0 (6)
6.0 (36)
6.2 (38)
 8.7 (55)
Umpires: Les Wenker
4: Fenton-Smith, Pettigrove
3: Anderson
1: Rochow
Goals 3: Dunin
1: Turner, Woolnough, Plunkett, Tobin, Allsopp
Hibbins, Fenton-Smith, Anderson, Thomas, Pettigrove, Harkness Best Edwards, Allsopp, Westacott, Woolnough, Collopy, Sassella, Dunin, Dwyer
Nil Injuries Nil
Nil Reports Nil

Aftermath

The VAFA's victory over its highly fancied opponents gave them a bargaining chip when dealing with both the VFL and the VFA in future agreements. The winning twenty were recognised for their achievement with the presentation of a congratulatory letter from Wilfrid Kent Hughes, chairman of the Games organising committee. The following year, the VAFA were granted the use of the Olympic Park No. 2 ground as their headquarters, which proved profitable for the association.[13]

Of the winning amateur team, four players would be picked up by VFL clubs in subsequent seasons. Dick Fenton-Smith was selected by Melbourne for the 1957 season, and in his three years in the league, he played off in three Grand Finals for a return of two premierships. Most fruitful was his debut league season, when the six-foot-five ruckman booted 18 goals from 18 matches on the way to a premiership. Also making their league debuts in 1957 were Lloyd Williams, who played two games for Collingwood, and Phil Rochow, who played a solitary match for Fitzroy. A year later, John Hayes would make his senior debut for St Kilda, finishing with a tally of seven games.

The combined team featured a number of VFL players who would go on to achieve greater success in their league careers. The Magpies quartet of Brian Gray, Ken Turner, Ray Gabelich and Bill Serong were all members of Collingwood's 1958 VFL premiership team, with both Gabelich and Serong going on to win club best-and-fairest awards in future seasons (the latter with North Melbourne). The Shinboners had also unearthed a gem in Laurie Dwyer, wingman for the combined team in the demonstration match, as he went on to become a two-time Syd Barker Medallist for North, while also finishing runner-up in the Brownlow Medal in both his best-and-fairest winning seasons. Brendan Edwards followed up a best-and-fairest win for Hawthorn in 1960 with a starring performance in the Hawks' maiden VFL premiership win of 1961. Coach of the combined team, dual Collingwood premiership player and secretary of the ANFC Bruce Andrew, would be an inaugural inductee into the Australian Football Hall of Fame in 1996, just months before his death.

Of the Association representatives, Keith Woolnough, who had experienced a decade-long career with Northcote up to the end of 1956,[34] capped off his career with a surprise victory in the 1958 J. J. Liston Trophy before immediately retiring from the Dragons after 185 senior games.[35]Box Hill's Dave Plunkett was named at centre half-forward in the club's "Greatest Ever Team", announced in 2000, after a career spanning 115 games and 91 goals.

Foreshadowing a move to commercialise and promote the sport, Alf Potter and Gordon Bennett of HSV-7 commissioned a 'trial run' of filming the demonstration match for television purposes.[36] While it wasn't broadcast on free-to-air TV, remnants of the video remain and can be viewed on the AOC's website.[37] The low-angle action shots and fast jump cuts proved appealing and by the 1957 season, the three major television networks at the time - Seven, Nine and the ABC - were all broadcasting the final quarter of a live VFL match into viewers' homes each week.[36]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Was added to the squad following the initial announcement.

References

  1. ^ a b "Football urged for Games". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. 11 November 1949. p. 20. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  2. ^ "Rules to be seen at Games". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. 17 July 1954. p. 1. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  3. ^ "'Rules at Games". The Sun-Herald. New South Wales, Australia. 24 October 1954. p. 33. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  4. ^ "Exhibition for 1956 Olympics". Sporting Globe. 2 April 1952. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  5. ^ "Aussie sport for Games". The Advocate (Australia). Burnie, Tasmania, Australia. 21 January 1954. p. 6. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  6. ^ "Aust. Rules at Olympic". The Age. 17 July 1954. p. 12. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  7. ^ Kerville, Ben (21 July 1954). "Our game might surprise 'em". Sporting Globe. Victoria, Australia. p. 4. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  8. ^ "VFL to put on show for Games visitors". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. 25 May 1955. p. 29. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  9. ^ Taylor, Percy (19 January 1956). "Football plan for Olympics". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. p. 20. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  10. ^ "Football at Games plan". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. 29 March 1956. p. 22. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  11. ^ Taylor, Percy (29 September 1956). "We will see Games footy". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. p. 20. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  12. ^ Johnson, Joseph (1992). For the Love of the Game: The Centenary History of the Victorian Amateur Football Association 1892-1992. South Yarra, Victoria: Hyland House. p. 127. ISBN 0947062890.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Winterton, Rachel (2004). "The Amateurs March On: The Victorian Amateur Football Association at the Olympic Games" (PDF). Victorian Amateur Football Association/Victoria University Essay Prize 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019.
  14. ^ Andersen, Dave (16 October 1956). "Demon star in Olympic squad". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. p. 18. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  15. ^ Taylor, Percy (16 October 1956). "'Spencer for captain' is Demon move". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. p. 22. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  16. ^ "Plunkett, Dave". The VFA Project. Retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ Leonard, Andrew (26 July 2012). "Australian football on the Olympic stage". VAFA.com.au. Retrieved 2019.
  18. ^ "Games Squad for Football". The Age. 16 October 1956. p. 18.
  19. ^ a b "Football Squads Chosen for Games Exhibition". The Age. 16 November 1956. p. 19.
  20. ^ "Selection of Amateur Side". The Age. 3 December 1956. Retrieved 2019.
  21. ^ "V.F.L. - V.F.A. Combined 18". The Age. 5 December 1956. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ a b c Carroll, Lynda (3 August 2012). "Olympic football". melbournefc.com.au. Retrieved 2019.
  23. ^ "Boundary umpires 1904-2018". AFL Umpires Association. Retrieved 2019. Search for "Quinn"
  24. ^ The Games of the XVI Olympiad - Australian Rules Football program. South Melbourne, Victoria: C. G. Meehan Pty Ltd. 1956. pp. 1-4.
  25. ^ Andersen, Dave (19 October 1956). "He's a footy Games hope". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. p. 12. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  26. ^ "Be ready for a shock in Olympic footy". The Argus (Melbourne). Victoria, Australia. 7 December 1956. p. 14. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  27. ^ a b "Demonstrations: Australian Football". The Official Report of the Organizing Committee for the Games of the XVI Olympiad Melbourne 1956. Melbourne, Australia: W. M. Houston, Government Printer. 1958. pp. 713-714.
  28. ^ "Flagpole Hazard For Footballers". The Canberra Times. Australian Capital Territory, Australia. 3 December 1956. p. 8. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  29. ^ "V.F.L.-V.F.A. Team Beaten". The Age. 8 December 1956. p. 16.
  30. ^ McFarlane, Glenn. "Collingwood and the 1956 Olympic Games". Collingwood Forever. Retrieved 2019.
  31. ^ Taylor, Percy (8 December 1956). "Yes, they saw OUR football". The Argus. Retrieved 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  32. ^ a b "Visitors Were Rude About Our Football". The Age. 8 December 1956. p. 3.
  33. ^ "Duke sees National Football", The Canberra Times, (Saturday, 8 December 1956), p.1
  34. ^ "Woolnough, Keith". The VFA Project. Retrieved 2019.
  35. ^ Meeking, Michael (4 September 1958). "Played On To Help Club - Won Award". The Age. p. 22.
  36. ^ a b Jackson, Russell (25 July 2016). "How Melbourne's 1956 Olympics paved the way for AFL broadcasts of the future". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019.
  37. ^ Cite error: The named reference :21 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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