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King of Assyria
?ar m?t Aur
Adad-nirari III transparent.png
Stele of Adad-nirari III, r 811-783 BC
First monarchTudiya
(earliest contemporarily attested)
Last monarchAshur-uballit II
Formationc. 2450 BC
Abolition609 BC
AppointerDivine right, hereditary

The king of Assyria (Akkadian: ?ar m?t Aur),[1] called the governor or viceroy of Assyria (Akkadian: Ii'ak Aur)[2] in the Early and Old periods, was the ruler of the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom of Assyria, which existed from approximately the 26th century BC to the 7th century BC. All modern lists of Assyrian kings generally follow the Assyrian King List, a list kept and developed by the ancient Assyrians themselves over the course of several centuries. Though some parts of the list are probably fictional, the list accords well with Hittite, Babylonian and ancient Egyptian king lists and with the archaeological record, and is generally considered reliable for the age.

The ancient Assyrians did not believe that their king was divine himself, but saw their ruler as the vicar of their principal deity, Ashur, and as his chief representative on Earth. In their worldview, Assyria represented a place of order while lands not governed by the Assyrian king (and by extension, the god Ashur) were seen as places of chaos and disorder. As such it was seen as the king's duty to expand the borders of Assyria and bring order and civilization to lands perceived as uncivilized.

Originally vassals of more powerful empires, the early Assyrian kings used the title governor or viceroy (Ii'ak), which was retained as the ruling title after Assyria gained independence due to the title of king (?ar) being applied to the god Ashur. Later Assyrian kings, beginning with Ashur-uballit I (14th century BC) adopted the title ?ar m?t Aur as their empire expanded and later also adopted more boastful titles such as "king of Sumer and Akkad", "king of the Universe" and "king of the Four Corners of the World", often to assert their control over all of Mesopotamia.

The line of Assyrian kings ended with the defeat of Assyria's final king Ashur-uballit II by the Neo-Babylonian Empire and the Median Empire in 609 BC, after which Assyria disappeared as an independent political unit, never to rise again. The Assyrian people survived and remain as an ethnic, linguistic, religious (most being Christians since the 1st-3rd centuries AD) and cultural minority in the Assyrian homeland and elsewhere to this day.


Assyrian King List of the 7th century BC on a terracotta tablet, from Aur, Iraq. Housed at the Museum of the Ancient Orient, Istanbul.

Incomplete king-lists have been recovered from all three of the major ancient Assyrian capitals (Aur, Dur-?arukkin and Nineveh). The three lists are largely consistent with each other, all originally copies of a single original list, and are based on the yearly appointments of limmu-officials (the eponymous officials for each year, appointed by the king to preside over the celebration of the New Year festival). Because of the consistency between the list and the method through which it was created, modern scholars usually accept the regnal years mentioned as more or less correct. There are some differences between the copies of the list, notably in that they offer somewhat diverging regnal years before the reign of king Ashur-dan I of the Middle Assyrian Empire (reign beginning in 1178 BC). After 1178 BC, the lists are identical in their contents.[3]

The king-lists mostly accord well with Hittite, Babylonian and ancient Egyptian king lists and with the archaeological record, and are generally considered reliable for the age.[4] It is however clear that parts of the list are fictional, as some known kings are not found on the list and other listed kings are not independently verified.[5] Originally it was assumed that the list was first written in the time of Shamshi-Adad I circa 1800 BC but it now is considered to date from much later, probably from the time of Ashurnasirpal I (1050-1031 BC).[6] The oldest of the surviving king-lists, List A (8th century BC) stops at Tiglath-Pileser II (c. 967-935 BC) and the youngest, List C, stops at Shalmaneser V (727-722 BC).[7]

One problem that arises with the Assyrian King List is that the creation of the list may have been more motivated by political interest than actual chronological and historical accuracy. In times of civil strife and confusion, the list still adheres to a single royal line of descent, probably ignoring rival claimants to the throne.[8] Additionally, there are some known inconsistencies between the list and actual inscriptions by Assyrian kings, often regarding dynastic relationships. For instance, Ashur-nirari II is stated by the list to be the son of his predecessor Enlil-Nasir II, but from inscriptions it is known that he was actually the son of Ashur-rabi I and brother of Enlil-Nasir.[9]


Text and seal of Shamash-shum-ukim, a Neo-Assyrian king of Babylon, featuring a depiction of the king fighting an oryx antelope. Now housed in the British Museum.

Assyrian royal titles typically followed trends that had begun under the Akkadian Empire (c. 2334-2154 BC), the Mesopotamian civilization that preceded the later kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon. When the Mesopotamian central government under the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2112-2004 BC) collapsed and polities that had once been vassals to Ur became independent, many of the new sovereign rulers refrained from taking the title of king (?ar), instead applying that title to their principal deities (in the case of Assyria, Ashur). For this reason, most of the Assyrian kings of the Old Assyrian period (c. 2025-1378 BC) used the title Ii'ak Aur, translating to "governor of Assyria".[10][2]

In contrast to the titles employed by the Babylonian kings in the south, which typically focused on the protective role and the piety of the king, Assyrian royal inscriptions tend to glorify the strength and power of the king.[11] Assyrian titularies usually also often emphasize the royal genaeology of the king, something Babylonian titularies do not, and also drive home the king's moral and physical qualities while downplaying his role in the judicial system.[12] Assyrian epithets about royal lineage vary in how far they stretch back, most often simply discussing lineage in terms of "son of ..." or "brother of ...". Some cases display lineage stretching back much further, Shamash-shuma-ukin (r. 667-648 BC) describes himself as a "descendant of Sargon II", his great-grandfather. More extremely, Esarhaddon (r. 681-669 BC) calls himself a "descendant of the eternal seed of Bel-bani", a king who would have lived more than a thousand years before him.[13]

Assyrian royal titularies were often changed depending on where the titles were to be displayed, the titles of the same Assyrian king would have been different in their home country of Assyria and in conquered regions. Those Neo-Assyrian kings who controlled the city of Babylon used a "hybrid" titulary of sorts in the south, combining aspects of the Assyrian and Babylonian tradition, similar to how the traditional Babylonian deities were promoted in the south alongside the Assyrian main deity of Ashur.[12] The assumption of many traditional southern titles, including the ancient "king of Sumer and Akkad" and the boastful "king of the Universe" and "king of the Four Corners of the World", by the Assyrian kings served to legitimize their rule and assert their control over Babylon and lower Mesopotamia.[14] Epithets like "chosen by the god Marduk and the goddess Sarpanit" and "favourite of the god Ashur and the goddess Mullissu", both assumed by Esarhaddon, illustrate that he was both Assyrian (Ashur and Mullissu, the main pair of Assyrian deities) and a legitimate ruler over Babylon (Marduk and Sarpanit, the main pair of Babylonian deities).[15]

To examplify an Assyrian royal title from the time Assyria ruled all of Mesopotamia, the titulature preserved in one of Esarhaddon's inscriptions read as follows[16]:

The great king, the mighty king, king of the Universe, king of Assyria, viceroy of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, son of Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of Assyria, grandson of Sargon, the great king, the mighty king, king of Assyria; who under the protection of Assur, Sin, Shamash, Nabu, Marduk, Ishtar of Nineveh, Ishtar of Arbela, the great gods, his lords, made his way from the rising to the setting sun, having no rival.

Role of the Assyrian king

The Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, depicting the King Ashurbanipal (r. 668-631 BC) engaging in a ritual lion hunt, a sport reserved for royalty and symbolically representing the king's duty to bring order to the world

Ancient Assyria was an absolute monarchy, with the king believed to be appointed directly through divine right by the chief deity, Ashur.[17] The Assyrians believed that the king was the link between the gods and the earthly realm. As such, it was the king's primary duty to discover the will of the gods and enact this, often through the construction of temples or waging war. To aid the king with this duty, there was a number of priests at the royal court trained in reading and interpreting signs from the gods.[18]

The heartland of the Assyrian realm, Assyria itself, was thought to represent a serene and perfect place of order whilst the lands governed by foreign powers were perceived as infested with disorder and chaos.[17] The peoples of these "outer" lands were seen as uncivilized, strange and as speaking strange languages.[19] Because the king was the earthly link to the gods, it was his duty to spread order throughout the world through the military conquest of these strange and chaotic countries.[17] As such, imperial expansion was not just expansion for expansion's sake but was also seen as a process of bringing divine order and destroying chaos to create civilization.[19]

There exists several ancient inscriptions in which the god Ashur explicitly orders kings to extend the borders of Assyria. A text from the reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I (r. c. 1233-1197 BC) states that the king received a royal scepter and was commanded to "broaden the land of Ashur". A similar inscription from the reign of Ashurbanipal (r. 668-631 BC) commands the king to "extend the land at his feet".[19]

The king was also tasked with protecting his own people, often being referred to as a "shepherd". This protection included defending against external enemies and defending citizens from dangerous wild animals. To the Assyrians, the most dangerous animal of all was the lion, used (similarly to foreign powers) as an example of chaos and disorder due to their aggressive nature. To prove themselves worthy of rule and illustrate that they were competent protectors, Assyrian kings engaged in ritual lion hunts. Lion-hunting was reserved for Assyrian royalty and was a public event, staged at parks in or near the Assyrian cities.[17] In some cases, the hunt even took place with captive lions in an arena.[20]


As opposed to some other ancient monarchies, such as ancient Egypt, the Assyrian king was not believed to be divine himself, but was seen as divinely chosen and uniquely qualified for the royal duties. Most kings stressed their legitimacy through their familial connections to previous kings; a king was legitimate through his relation to the previous line of great kings who had been chosen by Ashur. Usurpers who were unrelated to previous kings usually either simply lied about being the son of some previous monarch or claimed that they had been divinely appointed directly by Ashur.[19]

Two prominent examples of such usurpers are the kings Tiglath-Pileser III (r. 745-727 BC) and Sargon II (r. 722-705 BC). The inscriptions of these kings completely lack any familial references to previous kings, instead stressing that Ashur himself had appointed them directly with phrases such as "Ashur called my name", "Ashur placed me on the throne" and "Ashur placed his merciless weapon in my hand".[19]

Early Assyrian kings

As in the Sumerian king list, it is possible that some of the rulers listed below were contemporaries rather than predecessors and successors of each other.[21] No dates are provided by the Assyrian King List for kings preceding the Old Assyrian Empire, making the lengths of the reigns of these kings (many of which may not have existed at all) unknown.[3]

"Kings who lived in tents"

Approximate political map of the Ancient Near East c. 2500 BC

The intention of the author of the list, describing the first (probably all fictional, note the rhyming names) seventeen kings as "kings who lived in tents", was probably to indicate them as nomadic kings of the Assyrians.[3] Considering them "living in tents", these rulers (if they were real in the first place) probably did not govern the actual city of Aur itself.[21] It is possible that the conclusion of this section on the king list would have indicated an end of the nomadic period of Assyrian history and the foundation of Aur.[22] The sixteenth king, Ushpia, was designated by later Assyrians as the founder of the temple dedicated to Ashur in Aur.[22]

"Kings who were ancestors"

The meaning of "kings who were ancestors" is unclear, this section is also the only section of the Assyrian king list to be written in reverted order for reasons unknown. The list mentions "ten kings who were ancestors" but includes the final king of the "kings who lived in tents", Apiashal, as one of them, possibly an error.[3] To avoid repetition, Apiashal has been left out of the previous section in this list.

Name Succession & notes Ref
Son of Ushpia [3][23]
Son of Apiashal [3][23]
Son of Hale [3][23]
Son of Samani [3][23]
Son of Hayani [3][23]
Son of Ilu-Mer [3][23]
Son of Yakmesi [3][23]
Son of Yakmeni [3][23]
Son of Yazkur-el [3][23]
Son of Ila-kabkabu [3][23]

"Kings named on bricks whose eponyms are unknown"

The kings listed in this section would probably have been early rulers of Aur.[7] King Kikkia is mentioned by later kings as having restored the inner city wall of Aur.[24] In addition to the three kings listed here, three further kings are listed as "kings named on bricks whose eponyms are unknown" in the Assyrian king list,[7] but they are in this list presented in the following section due to their dynastic relationship to later kings.

Name Succession & notes Ref
Son of Aminu [3][23]
Unclear succession [3][23]
Unclear succession [3][23]

Old Assyrian kings (c. 2025-1366/1353 BC)

Dynasty of Puzur-Ashur

Approximate political map of the Ancient Near East c. 1900 BC

The period beginning with Puzur-Ashur I's reign is sometimes referred to as the Dynasty of Puzur-Ashur.[25] Puzur-Ashur's line saw the beginning of true Akkadian names in the Assyrian royal line as opposed to earlier names which may have corresponded closer to Hurrian names.[21]

Name Succession & notes Ref
Puzur-Ashur I
Unclear succession [3]
Son of Puzur-Ashur I [3]
Son of Shalim-ahum [3]
Erishum I
Son of Ilu-shuma [3]
Son of Ilu-shuma [3]
Sargon I
Son of Ikunum [3]
Puzur-Ashur II
Son of Sargon I [3]
Nar?m Sîn
Son of Puzur-Ashur II [3]
Erishum II
Son of Naram-Sin [3]

Dynasty of Shamshi-Adad

Approximate extent of Shamshi-Adad I's empire upon his death

Also referred to as the period of Amorite domination over Assyria.[26]

Name Succession & notes Ref
Shamshi-Adad I
Usurper; possibly a descendant of Sulili [3]
Ishme-Dagan I
Son of Shamshi-Adad I [3]
Son of Ishme-Dagan I [3][27]
Unclear relation; descendant of Shamshi-Adad I [3][27]
Grandson of Shamshi-Adad I [3][27]

Seven usurpers

After the end of Shamshi-Adad's dynasty, seven competing claimants reigned for a total of just six years. Ashur-dugul appears to have ruled throughout most of the period, making the extent of the rule of the other usurpers unclear.[28]

Name Succession & notes Ref
Usurper; unrelated to previous kings [3][27]
Usurper; unrelated to previous kings; extent of rule unclear [3][27]
N?sir Sîn
Usurper; unrelated to previous kings; extent of rule unclear [3][27]
Usurper; unrelated to previous kings; extent of rule unclear [3][27]
Usurper; unrelated to previous kings; extent of rule unclear [3][27]
Usurper; unrelated to previous kings; extent of rule unclear [3][27]
Usurper; unrelated to previous kings; extent of rule unclear [3][27]

Adaside dynasty (c. 1700/1680-745 BC)

Approximate political map of the Ancient Near East c. 1700 BC
Approximate political map of the Ancient Near East c. 1600 BC

The Adasides ruled Assyria from the middle of the Old Assyrian period to the dynasty's fall (and replacement by the Sargonid dynasty) in the middle of the Neo-Assyrian period, ruling for nearly a thousand years.[29] From this section and onwards, the list records the dates of royal reigns in both the Middle chronology (indicated with MC) and Short chronology (indicated with SC), competing chronologies of ancient Mesopotamian history. The Middle Chronology tends to be favored by modern researchers.[30][31][32]

Name Reign Succession & notes Ref
1700 - 1691 BC (MC)
1680 - 1671 BC (SC)
Son of Adasi [3][27]
1690 - 1674 BC (MC)
1670 - 1654 BC (SC)
Son of Bel-bani or Adasi [3][27]
Sharma-Adad I
1673 - 1662 BC (MC)
1653 - 1642 BC (SC)
Son of Libaya or Adasi [3][27]
1661 - 1650 BC (MC)
1641 - 1630 BC (SC)
Son of Sharma-Adad I or Adasi [3][27]
1649 - 1622 BC (MC)
1629 - 1602 BC (SC)
Son of Iptar-Sin or Bel-bani [3][27]
1621 - 1616 BC (MC)
1601 - 1596 BC (SC)
Usurper; unrelated to the Adaside dynasty [3][27]
1615 - 1602 BC (MC)
1596 - 1583 BC (SC)
Son of Bazaya [3][27]
Sharma-Adad II
1601 - 1598 BC (MC)
1582 - 1580 BC (SC)
Son of Shu-Ninua [3][27]
Erishum III
1598 - 1586 BC (MC)
1579 - 1567 BC (SC)
Son of Sharma-Adad II [3][27]
Shamshi-Adad II
1585 - 1580 BC (MC)
1567 - 1561 BC (SC)
Son of Erishum III [3][27]
Ishme-Dagan II
1580 - 1564 BC (MC)
1561 - 1545 BC (SC)
Son of Shamshi-Adad II [3][27]
Shamshi-Adad III
1564 - 1548 BC (MC)
1545 - 1529 BC (SC)
Nephew of Sharma-Adad II [3][27]
Ashur-nirari I
1548 - 1522 BC (MC)
1529 - 1503 BC (SC)
Son of Ishme-Dagan II [3][27]
Puzur-Ashur III
1522 - 1498 BC (MC)
1503 - 1479 BC (SC)
Son of Ashur-nirari I [3][27]
Enlil-nasir I
1498 - 1485 BC (MC)
1479 - 1466 BC (SC)
Son of Puzur-Ashur III [3][27]
1485 - 1473 BC (MC)
1466 - 1454 BC (SC)
Son of Enlil-nasir I [3][27]
1473 BC (MC)
1454 BC (SC)
Son of Nur-ili [3][27]
Ashur-rabi I
1473 - 1433 BC (MC)
1453 - 1435 BC (SC)
Son of Enlil-nasir I; usurped the throne from Ashur-shaduni [3][27]
Ashur-nadin-ahhe I
1433 BC (MC)
1435 - 1420 BC (SC)
Son of Ashur-rabi I [3][27]
Enlil-nasir II
1433 - 1427 BC (MC)
1420 - 1414 BC (SC)
Son of Ashur-rabi I; usurped the throne from Ashur-nadin-ahhe I [3][27]
Ashur-nirari II
1427 - 1420 BC (MC)
1414 - 1407 BC (SC)
Son of Ashur-rabi I [3][27]
1420 - 1411 BC (MC)
1407 - 1398 BC (SC)
Son of Ashur-nirari II [3][27]
1411 - 1403 BC (MC)
1398 - 1390 BC (SC)
Son of Ashur-nirari II [3][27]
Ashur-nadin-ahhe II
1403 - 1393 BC (MC)
1390 - 1380 BC (SC)
Son of Ashur-rim-nisheshu [3][27]
Eriba-Adad I
1393 - 1366 BC (MC)
1380 - 1353 BC (SC)
Son of Ashur-rim-nisheshu [3][27]

Middle Assyrian kings (1365/1353-912 BC)

Adaside dynasty (continued)

The territory of the Middle Assyrian Empire in the 13th to 11th centuries BC
Name Reign Succession & notes Ref
Ashur-uballit I
1365 - 1330 BC (MC)
1353 - 1318 BC (SC)
Son of Eriba-Adad I [3][33]
1329 - 1320 BC (MC)
1317 - 1308 BC (SC)
Son of Ashur-uballit I [3][33]
1319 - 1308 BC (MC)
1307 - 1296 BC (SC)
Son of Enlil-nirari [3][33]
Adad-nirari I
1307 - 1275 BC (MC)
1295 - 1264 BC (SC)
Son of Arik-den-ili [3][33]
Shalmaneser I
1274 - 1245 BC (MC)
1263 - 1234 BC (SC)
Son of Adad-nirari I [3][33]
Tukulti-Ninurta I
1244 - 1208 BC (MC)
1233 - 1197 BC (SC)
Son of Shalmaneser I [3][33]
1207 - 1204 BC (MC)
1196 - 1194 BC (SC)
Son of Tukulti-Ninurta I; usurped the throne from his father [3][33]
Ashur-nirari III
1203 - 1198 BC (MC)
1193 - 1188 BC (SC)
Son or nephew of Ashur-nadin-apli [3][33]
1197 - 1193 BC (MC)
1187 - 1183 BC (SC)
Son of Tukulti-Ninurta I; usurped the throne from Ashur-nirari III [3][33]
1192 - 1180 BC (MC)
1182 - 1180 BC (SC)
Descendant of Eriba-Adad I; usurped the throne from Enlil-kudurri-usur [3][33]
Ashur-dan I
1179 - 1134 BC Son of Ashur-nadin-apli; regnal dates from Ashur-dan I onwards are consistent in all chronologies [3][33]
1133 BC Son of Ashur-dan I [3][33]
1133 BC Son of Ashur-dan I; usurped the throne from Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur [3][33]
Ashur-resh-ishi I
1132 - 1115 BC Son of Mutakkil-nusku [3][33]
Tiglath-Pileser I
1114 - 1076 BC Son of Ashur-resh-ishi I [3][33]
1075 - 1074 BC Son of Tiglath-Pileser I [3][33]
1073 - 1056 BC Son of Tiglath-Pileser I [3][33]
Eriba-Adad II
1055 - 1054 BC Son of Ashur-bel-kala [3][33]
Shamshi-Adad IV
1053 - 1050 BC Son of Tiglath-Pileser I; usurped the throne from Eriba-Adad II [33]
Ashurnasirpal I
1049 - 1031 BC Son of Shamshi-Adad IV [3][33]
Shalmaneser II
1030 - 1019 BC Son of Ashurnasirpal I [3]
Ashur-nirari IV
1018 - 1013 BC Son of Shalmaneser II [3]
Ashur-rabi II
1012 - 972 BC Son of Ashurnasirpal I [3]
Ashur-resh-ishi II
971 - 967 BC Son of Ashur-rabi II [3]
Tiglath-Pileser II
967 - 935 BC Son of Ashur-resh-ishi II [3]
Ashur-dan II
935 - 912 BC Son of Tiglath-Pileser II [3]

Neo-Assyrian kings (912-609 BC)

Adaside dynasty (continued)

Territory and expansion of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the reign of Ashurnasirpal II
Territory and expansion of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the reign of Shalmaneser III
Image Name Reign Succession & notes Ref
-- Adad-nirari II
912 - 891 BC Son of Ashur-dan II [3]
-- Tukulti-Ninurta II
891 - 884 BC Son of Adad-nirari II [3][34]
Ashurnasirpal IIKopfBM.jpg Ashurnasirpal II
884 - 859 BC Son of Tukulti-Ninurta II [3][34]
20131205 Istanbul 049.jpg Shalmaneser III
859 - 824 BC Son of Ashurnasirpal II [3][34]
Shamshi-Adad V-1.jpg Shamshi-Adad V
824 - 811 BC Son of Shalmaneser III [3][34]
Adad-nirari III transparent.png Adad-nirari III
811 - 783 BC Son of Shamshi-Adad V [3][34]
-- Shalmaneser IV
783 - 773 BC Son of Adad-nirari III [3][34]
-- Ashur-dan III
773 - 755 BC Son of Adad-nirari III [3][34]
-- Ashur-nirari V
755 - 745 BC Son of Adad-nirari III [3][34]

Pre-Sargonid kings (745-722 BC)

Image Name Reign Succession & notes Ref
Tilglath pileser iii.jpg Tiglath-Pileser III
745 - 727 BC Claimed to be the son of Adad-nirari III; usurped the throne from Ashur-nirari V [3][34][35][36]
Shalmaneser V.jpg Shalmaneser V
727 - 722 BC Son of Tiglath-Pileser III [3][34]

Sargonid dynasty (722-609 BC)

The Neo-Assyrian Empire at the apex of its power in 671 BC, in the reign of Esarhaddon
Image Name Reign Succession & notes Ref
Sargon II and dignitary (particular).jpg Sargon II
722 - 705 BC Claimed to be the son of Tiglath-Pileser III; usurped the throne from Shalmaneser V [3][34][37]
Sanherib-tr-4271.jpg Sennacherib
705 - 681 BC Son of Sargon II [3][34]
Esarhaddon.jpg Esarhaddon
681 - 669 BC Son of Sennacherib [3][34]
The Royal lion hunt reliefs from the Assyrian palace at Nineveh, the king is hunting, about 645-635 BC, British Museum (12254914313).jpg Ashurbanipal
669 - 631 BC Son of Esarhaddon [38][39]
-- Ashur-etil-ilani
631 - 627 BC Son of Ashurbanipal [39]
-- Sinsharishkun
627 - 612 BC Son of Ashurbanipal [39]
Sin-sum2.png Sin-shumu-lishir
626 BC General of Ashur-etil-ilani; rebelled against Sinsharishkun and attempted to claim the throne for himself [40]
-- Ashur-uballit II
612 - 609 BC Unclear relation; possibly the son of Sinsharishkun [41][42]

See also



  1. ^ Karlsson 2017, p. 2.
  2. ^ a b Liverani 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn Assyrian King List.
  4. ^ Rowton 1970, pp. 194-195.
  5. ^ La Boda 1994, p. 89.
  6. ^ Azize 1998, p. 1-27.
  7. ^ a b c Meissner 1990, p. 101-102.
  8. ^ Hagens 2005, p. 24.
  9. ^ Hagens 2005, p. 27.
  10. ^ Hallo 1980, p. 193.
  11. ^ Stevens 2014, p. 73.
  12. ^ a b Karlsson 2017, p. 1.
  13. ^ Karlsson 2017, p. 12.
  14. ^ Soares 2017, p. 21.
  15. ^ Soares 2017, p. 28.
  16. ^ Luckenbill 1927, p. 211.
  17. ^ a b c d British Museum.
  18. ^ Melville 2016, pp. 219-229.
  19. ^ a b c d e Parker 2011, pp. 357-386.
  20. ^ Reade 1998b, pp. 72-79.
  21. ^ a b c Roux 1994, p. 187.
  22. ^ a b Rowton 1970, pp. 202-204.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Glassner 2004, p. 137.
  24. ^ Lewy 1966, p. 21.
  25. ^ Roux 1994, p. 543.
  26. ^ Dumbrill 2015, p. 97.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Ancient Egypt and Archaeology.
  28. ^ Radner 1998, p. 179.
  29. ^ Veenhof & Eidem 2008, p. 24.
  30. ^ Kuhrt 1997, p. 12.
  31. ^ Mieroop 2015, p. 4.
  32. ^ Sagona & Zimansky 2009, p. 251.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Kuhrt 1995, p. 351.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Manser & Reid 2012, p. 114.
  35. ^ Tadmor 1994, p. 29.
  36. ^ Frye, Wolfram & Dietz 2016.
  37. ^ Mark 2014.
  38. ^ Lipschits 2005, p. 15.
  39. ^ a b c Na'aman 1991, p. 243.
  40. ^ Lipschits 2005, p. 13.
  41. ^ Reade 1998, p. 260.
  42. ^ Radner 2019, pp. 135-141.


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