Ashikaga Clan
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Ashikaga Clan
Ashikaga clan
Ashikaga mon.svg
Ashikaga Futatsubiki (), the Ashikaga family crest
Parent houseSeiwa Genji (Minamoto clan)
TitlesVarious
FounderMinamoto no Yoshiyasu (Ashikaga Yoshiyasu)
Final rulerAshikaga Yoshiaki
Ruled until1573, Ashikaga shogunate deposed by Oda Nobunaga
Cadet branchesHosokawa clan
Imagawa clan
Hatakeyama clan (restored line)
Kira clan
Shiba clan
Hachisuka clan
others

The Ashikaga clan (, Ashikaga-shi) was a prominent Japanese samurai clan which established the Muromachi shogunate and ruled Japan from roughly 1333[1] to 1573.[2]

The Ashikaga were descended from a branch of the Minamoto clan, deriving originally from the town of Ashikaga in Shimotsuke province (modern-day Tochigi prefecture).

For about a century the clan was divided in two rival branches, the Kant? Ashikaga, who ruled from Kamakura, and the Ky?to Ashikaga, rulers of Japan. The rivalry ended with the defeat of the first in 1439. The clan had many notable branch clans, including the Hosokawa,[]Imagawa,[]Hatakeyama[] (after 1205), Kira[], Shiba,[] and Hachisuka clans.[] After the head family of the Minamoto clan died out during the early Kamakura period, the Ashikaga came to style themselves as the head of the Minamoto, coopting the prestige which came with that name.

Another Ashikaga clan, not related by blood, and derived instead from the Fujiwara clan, also existed.

History

Emperor Go-Daigo (1288-1339) destroyed the Kamakura shogunate in 1333. Yet the emperor was unable to control the unrest produced. The emperor's inefficient rule led to one of his greatest generals, Ashikaga Takauji ? (1305-1358), to betray him in 1335. This established the Northern Court, named after its location in Kyoto, which was north of Go-Daigo's encampment. The conflict between Go-Daigo and the Ashikaga clan is known as the Upheaval of the Northern and Southern courts (Nanbokuch? no d?ran ). In 1392, the Southern Court surrendered to the third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu ? (1358-1408).[3]

Notable Sh?guns

The Ashikaga clan had 15 Sh?guns from 1333 to 1573.[4] Some were more powerful or prominent than others. Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (?) was the third shogun of the Ashikaga clan. He made the Ashikaga Shogunate strong and stable. Ashikaga Yoshimitsu was responsible for the defeat of the Southern Court in 1392. Known for his patronage of the arts, he constructed the Kinkaku-ji in 1397. Yoshimitsu also expanded foreign relations with Ming China. Yoshimitsu sent an embassy to Ming Dynasty China in 1401, headed by priest Soa and Hakata merchant Koetomi. They brought with them a conciliatory memorial to the emperor, and numerous gifts including horses, fans, gold, screens, paper, swords, armor, and inkstone cases. The mission was successful, and returned to Japan the following year. A Ming envoy returned alongside Soa and Koetomi, and presented Yoshimitsu with an official imperial Chinese calendar, and documents officially recognizing (or investing) him as "King of Japan."[5]

After the death of Yoshimitsu, the Ashikaga Shogunate lost power and influence. In 1429, Ashikaga Yoshinori (?) the sixth shogun adapted Yoshimitsu's policies in order to strengthen the power of the Shogunate. He wanted to increase military power but faced opposition. His 12-year reign saw the restoration of diplomatic ties and trade between Japan and China that had been the fourth Shogun, Yoshimochi's undertaking.[6]

Ashikaga Yoshiaki (?)was the 15th and last Shogun. He came into power in 1568 with the help of the general Oda Nobunaga (?). After rivalry emerged between the two, Nobunaga defeated Yoshiaki and banished him from Kyoto. This effectively ended the rule on the Ashikaga clan in 1573[7].

Clan heads

Sh?guns

Notable

Family tree

Picture of the genealogy of the Ashikaga.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "...Ashikaga (1333-1572)" Warrior Rule in Japan, page 11. Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Ashikaga" in Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 53-57, p. 53, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File[permanent dead link].
  3. ^ NetCommons (2017-03-17). "?" (in Japanese). 29. doi:10.15055/00006618. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ "Ashikaga Yoshiaki | Japanese shogun". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "Ashikaga Yoshimitsu - SamuraiWiki". wiki.samurai-archives.com. Retrieved .
  6. ^ kato. "Ashikaga Yoshinori, the 6th Ashikaga Shogun". Samurai World (in Japanese). Retrieved .
  7. ^ "Ashikaga Yoshiaki | Japanese shogun". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved .
  8. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshiyasu" at p. 57., p. 57, at Google Books
  9. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshikane" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books
  10. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Takauji" at p. 55., p. 55, at Google Books
  11. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshiakira" at p. 55., p. 55, at Google Books
  12. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshimitsu" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books
  13. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshimochi" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books
  14. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshikazu" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books
  15. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshinori" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books
  16. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshikatsu" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books
  17. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshimasa" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books
  18. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshihisa" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books
  19. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshitane" at p. 57., p. 57, at Google Books
  20. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshizumi" at p. 57., p. 57, at Google Books
  21. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshiharu" at p. 55., p. 55, at Google Books
  22. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshiteru" at p. 57., p. 57, at Google Books
  23. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshihide" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books
  24. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshiaki" at p. 55., p. 55, at Google Books
  25. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Chachamaru" at p. 54., p. 54, at Google Books
  26. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Masatomo" at p. 54., p. 54, at Google Books
  27. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Mitsukane" at p. 54., p. 54, at Google Books
  28. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Mochiuji" at p. 54., p. 54, at Google Books
  29. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Motouji" at p. 54., p. 54, at Google Books
  30. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Shigeuji" at pp. 54-55., p. 54, at Google Books
  31. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Tadafuyu" at p. 55., p. 55, at Google Books
  32. ^ Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615. Stanford University Press. pp. 81-82, 90-91, 95, 97. ISBN 0804705259.
  33. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Tadayoshi" at p. 55., p. 55, at Google Books
  34. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Ujimitsu" at p. 55., p. 55, at Google Books
  35. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshimi" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books

References


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