Arabic Script
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Arabic script
Arabic-script.png
Type
abjad (abugida or true alphabet in some adaptations)
LanguagesSee below
Time period
400 CE to the present
Parent systems
Child systems
Inspired the N'Ko alphabet and the Hanifi script
DirectionRight-to-left
ISO 15924Arab, 160
Unicode alias
Arabic

The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian (Farsi/Dari), Uyghur, Kurdish, Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Rohingya, Somali, and Mandinka, among others.[1] Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish. Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish.[2] It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after the Latin and Chinese scripts.[3]

The Arabic script is written from right to left in a cursive style, in which most of the letters are written in slightly different forms according to whether they stand alone or are joined to a following or preceding letter. The basic letter form remains unchanged. In most cases, the letters transcribe consonants or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic alphabets are abjads. Additionally, it does not have capital letters.[4]

The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Quran, the holy book of Islam. With the spread of Islam, it came to be used as the primary script for many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols, with some versions, such as Kurdish, Uyghur and old Bosnian being abugidas or true alphabets. It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic calligraphy.

Languages written with the Arabic script

Overview

the Arabic alphabet
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
' /
kh?'
' j?m ' /
tha'
t?'' b?' 'alif
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
d n /
sh?n
s?n z?y /
zayn
r?' l /
dh?l
d?l
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
q?f f?' ?ayn /
ghayn
'ayn ' ' d
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
y?' w?w h?' n?n m?m l?m k?f
(see below for other alphabets)

The Arabic script has been adapted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian, Malay and Urdu, which are not Semitic. Such adaptations may feature altered or new characters to represent phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology. For example, the Arabic language lacks a voiceless bilabial plosive (the [p] sound), therefore many languages add their own letter to represent [p] in the script, though the specific letter used varies from language to language. These modifications tend to fall into groups: Indian and Turkic languages written in the Arabic script tend to use the Persian modified letters, whereas the languages of Indonesia tend to imitate those of Jawi. The modified version of the Arabic script originally devised for use with Persian is known as the Perso-Arabic script by scholars.[]

In the cases of Bosnian, Kurdish, Kashmiri and Uyghur writing systems, vowels are mandatory. The Arabic script can therefore be used in both abugida and abjad forms, although it is often strongly, if erroneously, connected to the latter due to it being originally used only for Arabic.[]

Use of the Arabic script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, developed with the spread of Islam. To a certain degree the style and usage tends to follow those of the Maghreb (for instance the position of the dots in the letters f?' and q?f). Additional diacritics have come into use to facilitate the writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic language. The term ?Ajam?, which comes from the Arabic root for "foreign," has been applied to Arabic-based orthographies of African languages.[]

Wikipedia in Arabic script of five languages

Table of writing styles

Script or style Alphabet(s) Language(s) Region Derived from Comment
Naskh Arabic
& others
Arabic
& others
Every region where Perso-Arabic scripts are used Sometimes refers to a very specific calligraphic style, but sometimes used to refer more broadly to almost every font that is not Kufic or Nastaliq.
Nastaliq Urdu,
Persian,
& others
Urdu,
Persian,
& others
Southern and Western Asia Taliq Used for almost all modern Urdu text, but only occasionally used for Persian
Taliq Persian Persian
Kufic Arabic Arabic Middle East and parts of North Africa
Rasm Restricted Arabic alphabet Arabic Mainly historical Omits all diacritics including i'jam. Digital replication usually requires some special characters. See: ? ? ? (links to Wiktionary).

Table of alphabets

Alphabet Letters Additional
Characters
Script or Style Languages Region Derived from:
(or related to)
Note
Arabic 28 ^(see above) Naskh, Kufi, Rasm, & others Arabic North Africa, West Asia Aramaic,
Syriac,
Nabataean
Ajami script 33 Hausa, Swahili West Africa Arabic Abjad
Arebica 30 Bosnian Southeastern Europe Perso-Arabic Latest stage with full vowel marking
Arwi alphabet 41 Tamil Southern India, Sri Lanka Perso-Arabic
Belarusian Arabic alphabet 32 Belarusian Eastern Europe Perso-Arabic 15th / 16th century
Berber Arabic alphabet(s) Various Berber languages North Africa Arabic
Burushaski 53 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
(see note)
Burushaski South-West Asia (Pakistan) Urdu Also uses the additional letters shown for Urdu.(see below) Sometimes written with just the Urdu alphabet, or with the Latin alphabet.
Chagatai alphabet(s) 32 Chagatai Central Asia Perso-Arabic
Galal 32 Somali Horn of Africa Arabic
Jawi 36 ? ? ? ? ? ? Malay Peninsular Malay Perso-Arabic Since 1303 AD (Trengganu Stone)
Kashmiri 44 Kashmiri South Asia Perso-Arabic
Kazakh Arabic alphabet 35 Kazakh Central Asia, China Perso-Arabic
/ Chagatai
Since 11th century, now official only in China
Khowar 60 Khowar South Asia Perso-Arabic
Kyrgyz Arabic alphabet 33 Kyrgyz Central Asia Perso-Arabic Now official only in China
Kuryan alphabet 44 Korean East Asia, South Korea Perso-Arabic Invented by Korean Muslim in the 2000s
Pashto 45 Pashto South-West Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan Perso-Arabic
Pegon script 35 Javanese, Sundanese South-East Asia (Indonesia) Perso-Arabic
Persian 32 ? ? ? ? Nastaliq or Naskh Persian (Farsi) West Asia (Iran etc. ) Arabic
Saraiki 45 Saraiki South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic
Shahmukhi 41+
(see note)
Usually Nastaliq Punjabi South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic Similar to Urdu; 58[] letters including digraphs for aspirated consonants.
Sindhi 64 ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Naskh-like Sindhi South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic
Sorabe 33 Malagasy Madagascar Arabic
Soranî 33 Central Kurdish Middle-East Perso-Arabic Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida
Swahili
?ske imlâ 35 Tatar Chagatai / Perso-Arabic Before 1920
Ottoman Turkish 32 Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Empire Perso-Arabic Official until 1928
Urdu 39+
(see notes)
? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?

(see notes)
Nastaliq Urdu South Asia Perso-Arabic 58[] letters including digraphs representing aspirated consonants.
Uyghur 32 Uyghur China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic
/ Chagatai
Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida
Wolofal 28 Wolof West Africa Arabic
Xiao'erjing 36 Sinitic languages China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic
Yaña imlâ 29 Tatar Russia Perso-Arabic
/ Chagatai
1920-1927 replaced with Cyrillic

Current use

Today Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and China are the main non-Arabic speaking states using the Arabic alphabet to write one or more official national languages, including Azerbaijani, Baluchi, Brahui, Persian, Pashto, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Punjabi and Uyghur.[]

An Arabic alphabet is currently used for the following languages:[]

Middle East and Central Asia

East Asia

South Asia

Southeast Asia

Africa

Former use

In the 20th century, the Arabic script was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet in the Balkans,[dubious ] parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia, while in the Soviet Union, after a brief period of Latinisation,[33] use of Cyrillic was mandated. Turkey changed to the Latin alphabet in 1928 as part of an internal Westernizing revolution. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many of the Turkic languages of the ex-USSR attempted to follow Turkey's lead and convert to a Turkish-style Latin alphabet. However, renewed use of the Arabic alphabet has occurred to a limited extent in Tajikistan, whose language's close resemblance to Persian allows direct use of publications from Afghanistan and Iran.[34]

Most languages of the Iranian languages family continue to use Arabic script, as well as the Indo-Aryan languages of Pakistan and of Muslim populations in India. However, the Bengali language of India and Bangladesh was never written in Arabic script, which has been written in the Bengali alphabet since inception.[35]

Africa

Europe

Central Asia and Caucasus

Southeast Asia

Middle East

Unicode

As of Unicode 13.0, the following ranges encode Arabic characters:

Additional letters used in other languages

Assignment of phonemes to graphemes

Ø = phoneme absent from language
Language family Austron. Dravid Turkic Indic (Indo-European) Iranian (Indo-European) Arabic (Semitic)
Language/script Jawi Pegon Arwi Uyghur Sindhi Punjabi Urdu Persian Balochi Kurdish Pashto Moroccan Tunisian Algerian Hejazi Najdi Egyptian Israeli Levantine Iraqi Gulf
? ? ? ? / ?
? ? ? ? ? / ? ? / / ? ? ? ? / ? ? / ? ? / ? ? / ?
? Ø ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? Ø ? Ø ? / ? / ? ? / ?
Ø ? Ø ? ? Ø ? / ? ? Ø
? ? ? ? Ø Ø
Ø Ø ? Ø ? ? ? Ø ? Ø
? ? ? Ø ? Ø Ø
Table of additional letters in other languages
Letter or Digraph [A] Use & Pronunciation Unicode i'jam & other additions Shape Similar Arabic Letter(s)
U+ [B] [C] above below
? Pe, used to represent the phoneme in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Khowar, Sindhi, Urdu, Kurdish; it is not used in most Arabic varieties (except Mesopotamian and Gulf) and it is normalized as /b/; e.g., pepsi > bibsi. U+067E ? none 3 dots ? ?
? used to represent the equivalent of the Latin letter ? (palatalized glottal stop //) in some African languages such as Fulfulde. U+0750   ﮳﮳﮳ ‎  none 3 dots
(horizontal)
? ?
? B, used to represent a voiced bilabial implosive in Hausa, Sindhi and Saraiki. U+067B ? none 2 dots
(vertically)
? ?
? represents an aspirated voiced bilabial plosive in Sindhi. U+0680 ? none 4 dots ? ?
? ?h?, represents the aspirated voiceless retroflex plosive in Sindhi. U+067A ? 2 dots
(vertically)
none ? ?
? , used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+067C ? ? 2 dots ring ? ?
? ?e, used to represent the phoneme (a voiceless retroflex plosive ) in Sindhi U+067D ? 3 dots
(inverted)
none ? ?
? ?e, used to represent ? (a voiceless retroflex plosive ) in Punjabi, Urdu. U+0679 small
?
none ? ?
? Teheh, used in Sindhi and Rajasthani (when written in Sindhi alphabet); used to represent the phoneme (pinyin q) in Chinese Xiao'erjing. U+067F ? 4 dots none ? ?
? represents the "?" voiceless dental affricate phoneme in Bosnian. U+0684 ? none 2 dots
(vertically)
? ?
? represents the "?" voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate phoneme in Bosnian. U+0683 ? none 2 dots ? ? ?
? Che, used to represent ("ch"). It is used in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu and Kurdish. in Egypt. U+0686 ? none 3 dots ? ?
? Ce, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+0685 ? 3 dots none ? ? ? ?
? represents the "?" voiced alveolo-palatal affricate phoneme in Bosnian. U+0757 ? 2 dots none ? ?
? ?im, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+0681 Hamza none ? ? ? ?
? ? used in Saraiki to represent a Voiced alveolar implosive //. U+0759 ? ? small
?
2 dots
(vertically)
? ?
? ? used in Saraiki to represent a voiced retroflex implosive . U+068A ? none 1 dot ? ?
? ? ?al, used to represent a ? (a voiced retroflex plosive ) in Punjabi and Urdu. U+0688 small ? none ? ?
? ? Dhal used to represent the phoneme in Sindhi U+068C ? 2 dots none ? ?
? ? ?al, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+0689 ? none ring ? ?
? ? ?e, represents a retroflex flap in Punjabi and Urdu. U+0691 small ? none ? ?
? ? "?e" represents a retroflex lateral flap in Pashto. U+0693 ? none ring ? _
? ? used in Ormuri to represent a voiced alveolo-palatal fricative , as well as in Torwali. U+076B ? 2 dots
(vertically)
none ? _
? ? ?e/zhe, used to represent the voiced postalveolar fricative in, Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Urdu, Punjabi and Uyghur. U+0698 ? 3 dots none ? ?
? ? ?e / e, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+0696 ? ? 1 dot 1 dot ? ?
? ? used in Kurdish to represent rr in Soranî dialect. U+0695 ? none V pointing down ? ?
? used in Kalami to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative , and in Ormuri to represent a voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /?/. U+076D ? 2 dots vertically none ? ?
? used in Shina to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative . U+075C ? 4 dots none ? ? ?
? xn /n, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+069A ? ? 1 dot 1 dot ? ? ?
? used to represent Spanish words with in Morocco. U+069C ? ? 3 dots 3 dots ? ? ?
? Ga, used to represent the voiced velar plosive in Algerian and Tunisian. U+06A8 ? 3 dots none ? ?
? Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Kurdish, Uyghur, Mesopotamian, Urdu and Ottoman Turkish. U+06AF line horizontal line none ? ?
? Gaf, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+06AB ? ring none ? ?
? Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive in the Jawi script of Malay. U+0762 ? 1 dot none ? ?
? U+06AC ? 1 dot none ? ?
? Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive in the Pegon script of Indonesian. U+08B4 ? none 1 dot ? ?
? Ng, used to represent the phone in Ottoman Turkish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Uyghur, and to represent the in Morocco and in many dialects of Algerian. U+06AD ? 3 dots none ? ?
? Ee, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. U+0623 U+064A ? Hamza 2 dots ? + ?
? E, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. U+0626 Hamza none ? ? ?
? Ii, used to represent the phoneme in Somali and Saraiki. U+0649 U+0653 Madda none ? ?
? ? O, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. U+0624 Hamza none ? ?
? Pasta Ye, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto and Uyghur. U+06D0 ? none 2 dots vertical ? ?
? N?r?na Ye, used to represent the phoneme [?j] and phoneme in Pashto. U+06CC ? 2 dots
(start + mid)
none ? ?
? end
only
x?na ye Ye, used to represent the phoneme [?i] in Pashto. U+06CD line horizontal
line
none ? ?
? F?iliyaYe, used to represent the phoneme [?i] and in Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki and Urdu U+0626 Hamza none ? ? ?
Oo, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. U+0623 U+0648 Hamza none ? + ?
Uu, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. ?‎ + U+0648 U+0653 Madda none ? ? +
? represents a voiced velar implosive /?/ in Sindhi and Saraiki U+06B1 ? horizontal
line
2 dots ? ?
? represents the Velar nasal /?/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06B1 ? 2 dots + horizontal
line
none ? ?
? Kh?, represents in Sindhi. U+06A9 none none none ? ?
? "Swash k?f" is a stylistic variant of ? in Arabic, but represents un- aspirated in Sindhi. U+06AA none none none ? ? or ?
? used to represent the phoneme (pinyin ng) in Chinese. U+0763 ? none 3 dots ? ?
? represents the retroflex nasal /?/ phoneme in Pashto. U+06BC ? ? ? 1 dot ring ?
? represents the retroflex nasal /?/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06BB small ? none ? ?
? used in Punjabi to represent and Saraiki to represent . U+0768 ? ? 1 dot + small ? none ? ?
? Nya in the Jawi script. U+06BD ? 3 dots none ? ?
? Nya in the Pegon script. U+06D1 ? none 3 dots ? _
? Nga in the Jawi script and Pegon script and Gain in Khowar alphabet. U+06A0 ? 3 dots none ? ?
? used in Marwari to represent a retroflex lateral flap , and in Kalami to represent a voiceless lateral fricative . U+076A line horizontal
line
none ? ?
? ? - or alternately typeset as ‎ - is used in Punjabi to represent voiced retroflex lateral approximant /?/[39] U+08C7 small ? none ? ?
? U+0644 U+0615
? Vi, used in Algerian and Tunisian when written in Arabic script to represent the sound . U+06A5 ? none 3 dots ? ?
? Ve, used in by some Arabic speakers to represent the phoneme /v/ in loanwords, and in the Kurdish language when written in Arabic script to represent the sound . Also used as pa in the Jawi script and Pegon script. U+06A4 ? 3 dots none ? ?
? ? Va in the Jawi script. U+06CF ? 1 dot none ? ?
? ? represents a voiced labiodental fricative in Kyrgyz, Uyghur, and Old Tatar; and /w, ?w, ?w/ in Kazakh; also formerly used in Nogai. U+06CB ? 3 dots none ? ?
? ? represents "O" in Kurdish, and in Uyghur it represents the sound similar to the French eu andoeu sound. It represents the "?" close back rounded vowel phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C6 V pointing down none ? ?
? represents Ê or É in Kurdish. U+06CE V pointing down 2 dots
(start + mid)
? ?
?
?

Do-chashmi he (two-eyed h?'), used in digraphs for aspiration and breathy voice in Punjabi and Urdu. [D] U+06BE none none none ? ?
? end
only
Ba ye ('big y?''), represents "ai" or "e" in Urdu , and Punjabi. U+06D2 none none none ? ?
? used to represent the phoneme (pinyin c) in Chinese. U+069E ? 3 dots none ? ? ?
? used to represent the phoneme (pinyin z) in Chinese. U+0637 ? ?
? ? represents the "o" open-mid back rounded vowel phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C9 V pointing up none ? ?
? represents the "?" palatal nasal phoneme in Bosnian. U+0769 ? 1 dot
V pointing down
none ? ?
? used in Kurdish to represent ll in Soranî dialect. U+06B5 V pointing down none ? ?
? represents the "?" palatal lateral approximant phoneme in Bosnian. U+06B5 V pointing down none ? ?
? ? represents the "?" close front unrounded vowel phoneme in Bosnian. U+0627 U+0656 U+0649 Alef none  + ?
Footnotes:
  1. ^ From right: start, middle, end, and isolated forms.
  2. ^ Joined to the letter, closest to the letter, on the first letter, or above.
  3. ^ Further away from the letter, or on the second letter, or below.
  4. ^ Shown in Naskh (top) and Nastaliq (bottom) styles. The Nastaliq version of the connected forms are connected to each other, because the tatweel character U+ used to show the other forms does not work in many Nastaliq fonts.

Letter construction

Most languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet use the same base shapes. Most additional letters in languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet are built by adding (or removing) diacritics to existing Arabic letters. Some stylistic variants in Arabic have distinct meanings in other languages. For example, variant forms of k?f ? ? ? are used in some languages and sometimes have specific usages. In Urdu and some neighbouring languages the letter H? has diverged into two forms ? d?-?a?m? h? and ? g?l h?.[40] while a variant form of ? y? referred to as ba y? ? is used at the end of some words.[40]

Table of Letter Components

abbreviations used below

A = The letter is used for most languages and dialects with writing systems based on Arabic.

MSA = Letters used in Modern Standard Arabic.

CA = Letters used in Classical Arabic.

AD = Letters used in some regional Arabic Dialects.

"Arabic" = Letters used in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, and most regional dialects.

"Farsi" = Letters used in modern Persian.

FW = Foreign words: the letter is sometimes used to spell foreign words.

SV = Stylistic variant: the letter is used interchangeably with at least one other lletter depending on the calligraphic style.

AW = Arabic words: the letter is used in additional languages to spell Arabic words.


Table

No additions
Letter Line Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
positional forms isolated ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
start ? ? none (YNB) (QF) ? ? ?
middle ? none (YNB) (QF)
end ?
image of forms isolated
start
middle
end
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Unicode for above U+0621 U+0627 U+06D2 U+0649 U+06BA U+066E U+062D U+0633 U+0635 U+0637 U+0639 U+06A1 U+066F U+06AA U+0643 U+06A9 U+06AF U+0644 U+0645 U+062F U+0631 U+0648 U+06BE U+06C1 U+0647 ? + ?
Languages that use the letter shape with or without i'jam Arabic Arabic Urdu Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Sindhi, Arabic SV Arabic Farsi, Urdu, Arabic SV Farsi, Urdu Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Urdu, Arabic SV Urdu, Arabic SV Arabic, Farsi Arabic
diacritics (i) isolated ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
none start
mid
end
? ?  ? ?  

?
















?










? ? ?





Languages using the bare shape with no additions Arabic Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Urdu MSA Urdu, Arabic SV Arabic SV Rasm Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic SV in Rasm Arabic SV in Rasm Sindhi, Arabic SV Arabic Farsi, Urdu, Arabic SV Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Arabic, Farsi, Urdu Urdu, Arabic SV Urdu, Arabic SV Arabic, Farsi MSA
Unicode for above U+0621 U+0627 U+06D2 U+0649 U+06BA U+066E U+062D U+0633 U+0635 U+0637 U+0639 U+06A1 U+066F U+06AA U+0643 U+06A9 U+06AF U+0644 U+0645 U+062F U+0631 U+0648 U+06BE U+06C1 U+0647 ? + ?
Bare line in isolated and end forms only isolated ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
start
mid
end








image
Languages
Unicode U+08BD U+08BB U+08BC
dots
dots bigger heading
1
Diacritics (i) Letter Shapes:
(ii)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
1 dot below       ?   ?  isolated ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
connected
image
Languages
U+FBB3 U+065C Unicode U+0628 U+062C
1 dot above + 1 dot below    isolated ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
connected
image
Languages
Unicode
1 dot above  ?  isolated ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
connected
image
Languages
U+FBB2 Unicode U+0646 U+062E U+0636 U+0638 U+063A U+0641 U+06A7 U+0630 U+0632
2
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
2 dots below
start and mid (iii)
? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages Farsi, Urdu, AD
U+FBB5 U+FBB5 Unicode U+06CC
2 dots below
all positions
? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages Arabic (iv)
U+FBB5 U+FBB5 Unicode U+064A
2 vertical dots below   ?    isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
U+FBBE Unicode
2 vertical dots above   ?    isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
U+FBBD Unicode
2 horizontal
dots above
? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
FBB4 Unicode U+062A U+0642 U+06C3 U+0629
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? above: 2 dots
? below: 2 dots
? above: 2 dots
(vertically)
? below: 2 dots
(vertically)
U+08EB (2283) TWO DOTS ABOVE
U+08EE (2286) TWO DOTS BELOW
3
? ? ? ? ? Arabic & Persian
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? other pointing out
? ? ? ? ? ? ? inverted
3 dots below (horizontal)

 ﮳ ﮳ ﮳ 

character ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages Fula
Unicode U+0750
3 dots below (inverted)  ?  character ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
U+FBB7 Unicode
3 dots below  ?  isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
U+FBB9 Unicode U+067E U+0686
3 dots above
+ 3 dots below
 ??  isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
U+FBB6 + U+FBB9 Unicode
3 dots above  ?  isolated form ? ? ?
image
Languages
U+FBB6 Unicode U+062B U+0634 U+0698
3 dots above (inverted)  ?  character ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
U+FBB8 Languages
Unicode
4
4 dots below  ?    isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
U+FBBB Unicode
4 dots above  ?    isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages Shina, Torwali Sindhi, Shina, Torwali
U+FBBA Unicode U+067F U+075C U+0690 U+0699
different dots above and below
mixed dots
above + below
isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
Unicode
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
t
small t
below
? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
connected form(s)
image U+076E Naskh style.svg
Unicode U+076E
Languages Khowar
small t
above
  ?   isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?   ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
connected form(s)
image
Urdu Punjabi Languages Punjabi Urdu Punjabi [39] Urdu Urdu
U+0615 U+FBC0 Unicode U+06BB U+0679 U+0688 U+0691
small t + dot(s) isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
connected form(s)
image
Languages Punjabi, Seraiki, Shina
Unicode
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
ring
ring       isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
FBBF Unicode
ring and dots isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
Unicode
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
line
horizontal line -- isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages Punjabi, Marwari, Kalami Kirghiz[]
Unicode U+075B
multiple lines   ?     isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages
U+FBBC Unicode U+08A6
vertical line isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

?

? ? ?
image
Languages
Unicode
numeral
https://hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com/2010/04/burushaski-primer.html
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Persian numeral 2 above ? ? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski Burushaski
Unicode U+077A
Persian numeral 3 above ? ? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski
Unicode U+077B
Persian numeral 4 above ? ? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski
Unicode U+077D
Persian numeral 4 below ? ? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Burushaski Languages Burushaski
Unicode U+077C
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
arrows
V below   ?     ?   isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages Wolof
U+065B U+065A Unicode
small V above ? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Languages Wolof
U+065A Unicode U+0756
inverted V above ? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
U+065B Unicode
Languages
arrow and dots isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Unicode
Languages
Hamza
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Hamza below ? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
sometimes omitted in contexts where short vowel diacritics are omitted Languages
U+0655 Unicode U+0625 U+0644
+ U+0625
Hamza above ? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
sometimes omitted in contexts where short vowel diacritics are omitted Languages
U+0674 U+0654 Unicode U+0623 U+06D3 U+0626 U+0624 U+06C2 U+06C0 U+0644
+ U+0623
Hamza and dots isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
Unicode
Languages
other semi-optional vowels
maddah above ? ? isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
image
doesn't strictly count as i'jam, but included in a lot of situations where other diacritics are left out. Languages Arabic, Urdu
U+06E4 U+0653 Unicode U+0622
Wasala above isolated form ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Wasala on screen 20200507.png
image
Alef wasala on screen 20200507w.png
Languages CA
none
(v)
Unicode U+0671
diacritics (i) Letter Shapes (ii) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
table end

|- |}[clarification needed]

blank line for new entries

header

References

footnotes

^i. The i'jam diacritic characters are illustrative only, in most typesetting the combined characters in the middle of the table are used. The characters used to illustrate the consonant diacritics are from Unicode set "Arabic pedagogical symbols".[43] The "Arabic Tatweel Modifier Letter" U+0640 character used to show the positional forms doesn't work in some Nastaliq fonts.

^ii. For most letters the isolated form is shown, for select letters all forms (isolated, start, middle, and end) are shown.

^iii. Urdu Choti Y? has 2 dots below in the initial and middle positions only. The standard Arabic version ? always has 2 dots below.

^iv. These characters are used by most languages that use writing systems based on Arabic, though sometimes only in foreign words.

^v. A Wasala diacritic Unicode character has been proposed but not yet released.[]

See also

References

  1. ^ Mahinnaz Mirdehghan. 2010. Persian, Urdu, and Pashto: A comparative orthographic analysis. Writing Systems Research Vol. 2, No. 1, 9-23.
  2. ^ "Exposición Virtual. Biblioteca Nacional de España". Bne.es. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Arabic Alphabet". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Ahmad, Syed Barakat. Introduction to Qur'anic script. ISBN 978-1-136-11138-9. OCLC 1124340016.
  5. ^ "Sayad Zahoor Shah Hashmii". baask.com.
  6. ^ |Baluchi Language Protection Academy
  7. ^ Sarlak, Riz (2002). "Dictionary of the Bakhtiari dialect of Chahar-lang". google.com.eg.
  8. ^ Iran, Mojdeh (5 February 2011). "Bakhtiari Language Video (bak) ? ! ? " – via Vimeo.
  9. ^ "Ethnologue". Retrieved 2020.
  10. ^ "Pakistan should mind all of its languages!". tribune.com.pk.
  11. ^ "Ethnologue". Retrieved 2020.
  12. ^ "Ethnologue". Retrieved 2020.
  13. ^ Khadim. "Balti to English". khadimskardu1.blogspot.com.
  14. ^ "The Bible in Brahui". Worldscriptures.org. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016. Retrieved 2013.
  15. ^ "HUNZA DEVELOPMENT FORUM". hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com.
  16. ^ "Chittagonian". scriptsource.org.
  17. ^ "Rohingya Language Book A-Z". Scribd.
  18. ^ "Ida'an". scriptsource.org.
  19. ^ urangCam. "Bông S?". naipaleikaohkabuak.blogspot.com.
  20. ^ "Zribi, I., Boujelbane, R., Masmoudi, A., Ellouze, M., Belguith, L., & Habash, N. (2014). A Conventional Orthography for Tunisian Arabic. In Proceedings of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC), Reykjavík, Iceland".
  21. ^ Brustad, K. (2000). The syntax of spoken Arabic: A comparative study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, and Kuwaiti dialects. Georgetown University Press.
  22. ^ "The Coptic Studies' Corner". stshenouda.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved .
  23. ^ "--The Cradle of Nubian Civilisation--". thenubian.net.
  24. ^ "2 » AlNuba egypt". 19 July 2012. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012.
  25. ^ "Zarma". scriptsource.org.
  26. ^ "Tadaksahak". scriptsource.org.
  27. ^ "Lost Language -- Bostonia Summer 2009". bu.edu.
  28. ^ "Dyula". scriptsource.org.
  29. ^ "Jola-Fonyi". scriptsource.org.
  30. ^ "Ibn Sayyid manuscript". Archived from the original on 2015-09-08. Retrieved .
  31. ^ "Muhammad Arabic letter". Archived from the original on 2015-09-08. Retrieved .
  32. ^ "Charno Letter". Muslims In America. Archived from the original on May 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  33. ^ Alphabet Transitions - The Latin Script: A New Chronology - Symbol of a New Azerbaijan, by Tamam Bayatly
  34. ^ Sukhail Siddikzoda. "Tajik Language: Farsi or Not Farsi?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2006.
  35. ^ Escudero Pascual Alberto (23 October 2005). "Writing Systems/ Scripts" (PDF). Primer to Localization of Software. it46.se. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 2006.
  36. ^ "Brief history of writing in Chechen". Archived from the original on December 23, 2008.
  37. ^ p. 20, Samuel Noel Kramer. 1986. In the World of Sumer: An Autobiography. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
  38. ^ J. Blau. 2000. Hebrew written in Arabic characters: An instance of radical change in tradition. (In Hebrew, with English summary). In Heritage and Innovation in Judaeo-Arabic Culture: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the Society For Judaeo-Arabic Studies, p. 27-31. Ramat Gan.
  39. ^ a b Lorna Priest Evans; M. G. Abbas Malik. "Proposal to encode ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH SMALL ARABIC LETTER TAH ABOVE in the UCS" (PDF). www.unicode.org. Retrieved 2020.
  40. ^ a b "Urdu Alphabet". www.user.uni-hannover.de. Retrieved 2020.
  41. ^ "Extended Arabic Letter". unicode.org. Retrieved 1920. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  42. ^ "Based on ISO 8859-6". unicode.org. Retrieved 1920. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  43. ^ "Unicode Utilities: UnicodeSet Arabic pedagogical symbols". unicode.org. Retrieved 2020.

External links

Media related to Arabic script at Wikimedia Commons


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