Apple Pay
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Apple Pay

Apple Pay
Apple Pay logo.svg
Apple Pay on an iPhone and an Apple Watch
Apple Pay on an iPhone and an Apple Watch
Developer(s)Apple Inc.
Initial releaseOctober 20, 2014; 5 years ago (2014-10-20)
Operating systemiOS 8.1 or later
(iOS 10 or later for Apple Pay on the web)
(iOS 11.2 or later for Apple Pay Cash)
All watchOS versions
macOS Sierra or later
Platform
LicenseProprietary
Website

Apple Pay is a mobile payment and digital wallet service by Apple Inc. that allows users to make payments in person, in iOS apps, and on the web although Apple Pay web support is limited to the Safari browser only. It is supported on the iPhone, Apple Watch, iPad, and Mac. It digitizes and can replace a credit or debit card chip and PIN transaction at a contactless-capable point-of-sale terminal. Apple Pay does not require Apple Pay-specific contactless payment terminals; it works with any merchant that accepts contactless payments.[1] It is similar to contactless payments, with the addition of two-factor authentication via Touch ID, Face ID, PIN, or passcode. Devices wirelessly communicate with point of sale systems using near field communication (NFC), with an embedded secure element (eSE) to securely store payment data and perform cryptographic functions, and Apple's Touch ID and Face ID for biometric authentication.

Originally launching in the United States, Apple Pay is available in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Brazil, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Kazakhstan, China, New Zealand, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Georgia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro and all countries in the European Economic Area (EEA).[1] Apple Pay supports both international payment schemes--such as American Express, Visa (including Electron and V Pay), Mastercard (including Maestro), and Discover--as well as country-specific domestic payment schemes like China's UnionPay, Japan's JCB, France's Cartes Bancaires, Australia's eftpos and Saudi Arabia's mada. Participating banks vary by region. Apple Pay can also be used to ride some public transport networks[2] either through the use of credit/debit cards (open loop) or dedicated travel cards such as JR East's Suica or the MTA's OMNY (closed loop).

Service

Device compatibility

The service is compatible with iPhone 6 and newer, iPad Air 2 and newer, Macs with Touch ID, and all Apple Watches. It can store between 8-12 payment cards.[3]

Technology

Apple Pay uses[4] the EMV Payment Tokenisation Specification.[5]

The service keeps customer payment information private from the retailer by replacing the customer's credit or debit card Funding Primary Account Number (FPAN) with a tokenized Device Primary Account Number (DPAN), and creates a "dynamic security code [...] generated for each transaction".[6] The 'dynamic security code' is the cryptogram in an EMV-mode transaction, and the Dynamic Card Verification Value (dCVV) in a magnetic stripe data emulation-mode transaction. Apple added that they would not track usage, which would stay between the customers, the vendors, and the banks. Users can also remotely halt the service on a lost phone via the Find My iPhone service.[6]

To pay at points of sale, users hold their authenticated Apple device to the point of sale system's NFC card reader. iPhone users authenticate by using Touch ID, Face ID,[6][7] or passcode,[7] whereas Apple Watch users authenticate by double-clicking a button on the device.[8] To pay in supported iOS apps, users choose Apple Pay as their payment method and authenticate with Touch ID or Face ID.[6] Users can add payment cards to the service in any of four ways: through the payment card listed on their iTunes accounts, by taking a photo of the card, being provisioned from within the card issuer's app, or by entering the card information manually.

Although users receive immediate notification of the transaction, the Apple Pay system is not an instant payment instrument, because the fund transfer between counter-parties is not immediate.[9] The settlement time depends on the payment method chosen by the customer. (An exception being payments made using a Japanese Suica card, which stores the user's balance on the card itself and can transfer funds directly to the merchant without the need for an online connection.)

In the United Kingdom, traditional contactless payments using bank cards are limited to £45 (previously £30 until April 2020 and then previously £20 until August 2015)[10] as no cardholder authentication is provided as part of the transaction. Payments using Apple Pay, however, support payments of any amount owing to the increased security and lower risk of fraud in Apple Pay transactions (although some issuing banks may impose their own transaction limits, and not all contactless readers support this functionality - see CDCVM below).[11] Similar transaction limits apply in other countries.

Apple assumes some liability for fraudulent use of the service.[6] Banks are expected to carry the burden of the service, and Apple is said to have negotiated smaller transaction fees. In turn, the banks hoped to capture purchases that were formerly handled without credit.[12]Financial Times reported that Apple receives 0.15% cut of US purchases made with the service,[13] but, following the UK launch, reported that Apple's cut is much lower in the UK. This is largely because Regulation (EU) 2015/751 capped interchange fees in the European Economic Area at 0.3% for personal credit cards and 0.2% for personal debit cards with effect from June 8, 2015.[14][15] In Russia, Apple receives 0.05% for debit cards and 0.12% for credit cards of each purchase, in addition, the bank pays 45 rubles a year for each card added in the service.[16]

Consumer Device Cardholder Verification Method (CDCVM)

In EMV-mode transactions, Apple Pay supports the use of the Consumer Device Cardholder Verification Method (CDCVM) using Touch ID, Face ID, or the phone's or watch's passcode. The use of CDCVM allows for the device itself to provide verification for the transaction and may not require the cardholder to sign a receipt or enter their PIN. Additionally, in certain markets which have a 'no verification contactless limit' using contactless cards (such as the £30 limit in the United Kingdom and the C$100 limit in Canada), the use of CDCVM can enable merchants to accept transactions higher than these amounts using Apple Pay, providing their terminal software is updated to support the latest network contactless specifications.[17]

Express Transit or Express Travel

Since iOS 12.3, supported credit and debit cards, as well as some stored-value transport cards (such as Shanghai & Beijing transit cards, Suica, MTA and TriMet) can be used to pay for journeys on certain public transport networks without requiring the user to authenticate the payment with Touch ID or Face ID.[18] Once a supported credit, debit or transit card is selected as a user's Express Transit/Travel card, the user can simply hold their device near the card reader, for example at ticket barriers, to initiate or authorise payment for the journey.

Within iOS, the functionality is labelled as "Express Transit" in North America and "Express Travel" in most other English-speaking countries, because "transit" in most varieties of English has a narrower meaning of travelling through a jurisdiction or airport during a journey as opposed to travel or transport in general.

On iPhone XR, iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max and later, Express Transit/Travel cards can be used up to five hours on Power Reserve after the device has powered off due to a drained battery. The typical low-battery icon will display with "Express Cards Available" text appearing at the bottom of the display, letting users know that Express Transit/Travel is still available for usage.

Express mode is also available for contactless student ID cards stored in the Wallet app.[19]

Global acceptance

About two-thirds of merchants accept Apple Pay, but many terminals don't.[20] Due to provisioning differences between countries (and even between issuers), users may encounter acceptance issues when travelling to a different country. Some known issues include:

  • Canada, UK, and possibly other non-US-issued VISA cards only support EMV-mode transactions and not legacy magnetic stripe data emulation transactions. Some contactless terminals in the US do not support EMV-mode contactless transactions (even if they support EMV contact transactions), and therefore these visitors to the US will receive a 'Could Not Complete Payment' error on the iPhone screen and an error on the terminal when attempting to use Apple Pay.

Apple Cash

Apple Cash, formerly Apple Pay Cash, is a feature that allows the transfer of money from one user to another via iMessage. When a user receives a payment, the funds are deposited in the recipient's Apple Cash card, where it is available for immediate use at merchants that accept Discover. Alternatively, the user can choose to transfer the balance to a nominated bank account via ACH transfer. Apple Cash is only available in the United States.[21][22]

History

2013

The service was in preparation for "a long time", as Apple acquired startups, hired executives and filed patents related to payments.[6] Apple partnered with American Express, MasterCard and Visa. Their joint project began in January 2013, though they had discussed Apple's potential involvement for years. Their joint solution was a system where single-use digital tokens would replace the transfer of personal information.[12] A Visa executive said that 750 people at the company worked on the anonymized "token" system for a year, and the other partners had similar teams in collaboration.[23] MasterCard began work on the project in 2013 and hoped that their joint work would become a "standard for mobile payments".[23] The announcement of the service came at a time when MasterCard and Visa policy created strong incentives for upgrading to mobile payment-compatible point of sale systems.[6] Apple then approached several big banks in mid-2013 and did not divulge the names of the other banks. To maintain secrecy, JPMorgan set up a windowless "war room" where the majority of the sensitive work was done. Of their 300 people on the project, about 100 knew that the partner was Apple. Others close to the project did not know it was named "Apple Pay" until the announcement. The company's participation remained a secret leading up to its announcement.[12]

2014

The service was announced at Apple's iPhone 6 event on September 9, 2014. At its announcement, Apple CEO Tim Cook described the magnetic stripe card payment process as broken for its reliance on plastic cards' "outdated and vulnerable magnetic interface", "exposed numbers", and insecure "security codes".[6] The iOS 8.1 software update accompanying the service's launch activated Apple Pay on compatible devices.[6][8][24] The company announced an API for app developers to build Apple Pay checkout into their apps.[6]

2015

The service initially supported US-issued payment cards. An international roll-out was ongoing, beginning with support for UK-issued payment cards in July 2015.[25] On December 17, 2015, Apple announced that it would launch Apple Pay with fifteen major banks in China,[26] and Chinese users could start to use Apple Pay on February 18, 2016.[27]

In October 2015, Apple Pay vice president Jennifer Bailey confirmed that KFC, Chili's, and Starbucks would begin accepting Apple Pay in 2016.[28]

2016

On March 8, 2016, ExxonMobil officially launched Apple Pay support within its Speedpass+ iOS app, letting customers pay for gas or car washes directly from their iPhone, eliminating the need to use the ExxonMobil's physical NFC Speedpass keychain token at the point of transaction.[29]

On April 27, 2016, ANZ made Apple Pay available to their American Express and Visa cardholders in Australia.[30][31]

On May 4, 2016, Kohl's became the first retailer to allow the use of Apple Pay with Kohl's Charge Cards or other credit or debit cards enrolled with Apple Pay and simultaneously earn Yes2You Rewards[32] loyalty points with a single tap using Apple Pay. J.C. Penney announced that they will be rolling out the same in the near future.[33]

On May 10, 2016, Apple Pay expanded the service in Canada to customers of RBC, CIBC, ATB Financial and Canadian Tire Bank. The expansion includes varying support for Visa, MasterCard, and Interac, covering most major debit and credit cards in Canada. Apple Pay was previously only available in Canada for non-bank-issued American Express cards. Apple Pay was expanded to TD Canada Trust, Scotiabank, and the Bank of Montreal in June to complete the rollout across Canada's Big Five financial institutions.[34] Apple Pay support is also coming soon to Air Canada, Aldo Group, Domino's Pizza, Pizza Pizza, Zulily, and the Toronto Transit Commission. Additionally, the payment service is integrated into the iPhone and iPad applications for the Apple Store, Delta Air Lines, Etsy, Fancy.com, Groupon, Kickstarter, Priceline.com, Starbucks, Ticketmaster, Uber, and Zara starting in June 2016.[35]

On May 19, 2016, Chime Banking initiated its support of Apple Pay.[36]

Apple Pay launched in Singapore on April 19, 2016, with American Express issued cards. On May 25, 2016, this was extended to support Visa and MasterCard credit and debit cards issued by Singapore's five major banks, translating to about 83 percent of credit and debit cards in the country.[37]

BMO, Scotiabank, and TD Canada Trust, which make up three of the five largest banks in Canada, rolled out Apple Pay support on June 1, 2016.[38]

On June 1, 2016, KFC has announced that it accepts Apple Pay at some of its U.S. restaurants, with nationwide adoption to be completed by the end of the summer.[39]

On June 3, 2016, Grubhub, the nation's leading online and mobile food-ordering and delivery platform began accepting payment from its customers using Apple Pay on its two applications; Grubhub and Seamless.[40] The company is keeping up with its rivals in adopting the payment service as Caviar, DoorDash, and Postmates.[41]

Apple announced at its WWDC 2016 keynote on June 13, 2016, that Apple Pay will be entering three new markets; France, Hong Kong, and Switzerland over the following months in partnerships with Visa, Mastercard, and American Express. Visa and Mastercard cards will be supported in all three markets, while American Express will also be available in Hong Kong. The specific credit, debit, and prepaid cards that can be used in each country vary depending on the participating issuers[42]

On June 26, 2016, Bendigo and Adelaide Bank alongside Commonwealth Bank, NAB and Westpac sought authorization from the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) for third party access to the iPhone's NFC chip (limited to Apple Pay) in order to distribute their own mobile wallet without any delays nor interference from Apple and also to collectively negotiate passing Apple Pay fees to cardholders. This action received support from the likes of Heritage Bank, Tyro Payments and Coles. An interim authorization, however, was not granted on August 19, 2016. A draft determination also denied the authorization on November 29, 2016. After a three-month extension, the ACCC released a determination denying authorization on March 31, 2017. During this time, the banks involved in this action held a collective boycott of the service.[46]

Under a partnership with American Express, Hong Kong and Spain will also get Apple Pay support in 2016.[47]

Bank of America is outfitting some of its ATMs with Apple Pay support and the ability to withdraw cash using it. The new Apple Pay enabled ATM is outfitted with the NFC reader and logo that Apple Pay users have become used to seeing since the service launched. The NFC reader is located directly to the left of the card reader, although unlike the card reader, the NFC reader does not light up. Bank of America has launched a new website[48] detailing the simple process of withdrawing cash with a smartphone (Google Pay, Samsung Pay, or Apple Pay). Bank of America says that "Consumer Debit Cards, U.S. Trust Debit Cards, Small Business Debit Cards (owner card only)" are supported.[48][49]Wells Fargo and JPMorgan Chase also integrated Apple Pay support into their ATMs.[50]

On August 18, 2016, Apple announced it has added Apple Pay support for customers of Yorkshire Bank and Clydesdale Bank in the United Kingdom.[51]

On August 29, 2016, ANZ expanded their support for Apple Pay to support MasterCard holders in Australia.[52]

On September 7, 2016, Apple announced that iPhone 7 and Apple Watch Series 2 users in Japan can add both local credit cards and FeliCa cards to their Apple Pay wallets. Only Suica cards are supported by Apple Pay, which can be used at subway stations, convenience stores, etc., just like regular Suica cards. Apple Pay also supports payment via all QUICPay and iD enabled terminals that are already popular in Japan.[53][54][55]

Taiwan's Financial Supervisory Commission began accepting applications from the country's banks offering Apple Pay to their customers on September 28, 2016. This includes the banks; CTBC Bank, Cathay, United Commercial Bank, E.SUN Commercial Bank, and Taishin International Bank.[56]

On October 13, 2016, Apple Pay rolled out in New Zealand, available to customers with Visa credit or debit cards issued by ANZ.[57]

On November 15, 2016, Apple Pay was made available to credit unions and minor banks under the Cuscal network in Australia.[58]

On December 1, 2016, Apple Pay started operating in Spain available to customers with cards issued by American Express, Banco Santander, Ticket Restaurante and Carrefour.[59]

2017

On January 13, 2017, ANZ was one of the first banks to release an instant provisioning service with Apple Pay in Australia, this allowed for customers to utilize the service even when they lost or had their card stolen.

On January 28, 2017, Credibanco and Redeban Multicolor enabled contactless payments such as Apple Pay; it was available by virtual prepaid card service like Boon Payment by Wirecard, Square Cash by Squareup and Yandex Money. Also, Apple Pay enabled bank cards are accepted.

On March 7, 2017, Ulster Bank and KBC Bank Ireland became the first banks in Republic of Ireland to launch Apple Pay.[60][61]

On March 29, 2017, Apple Pay launched in Taiwan with seven banks.

On May 17, 2017, Apple Pay launched in Italy (including San Marino and Vatican City) with boon., Unicredit and Carrefour Bank, also introducing support for Mastercard's Maestro and Visa's VPay, not available to use with Apple Pay in other countries.

On May 18, 2017, Apple Pay expanded in Ireland to include bank Allied Irish Bank.

On October 17, 2017, Apple Pay rolled out to the eftpos card network in Australia, marking the first card tokenisation service of the network. The rollout was only limited to ANZ Access cards and could only be used in physical stores.[62]

On October 23, 2017, Apple Pay expanded to Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and the United Arab Emirates.[63]

On October 24, 2017, BNZ (Bank of New Zealand) became the second bank in New Zealand to offer Apple Pay to their customers with eligible Visa cards.[64]

On November 28, 2017, Bendigo Bank was the first bank after the denied ACCC authorization to roll out Apple Pay to its Mastercard customers.[65]

2018

On February 1, 2018, Apple has confirmed that Apple Pay will arrive in Brazil as it announces its fiscal first-quarter results for 2018.

On March 28, 2018, Bendigo and Adelaide Bank subsidiary and neobank Up announced support for multiple mobile wallets, one being Apple Pay.[66]

On March 30, 2018, iOS 11.3 released, Apple Pay supports the Shanghai Public Transport Card (SPTC) and Beijing Transportation Card for local buses, subways and other public transportation. The SPTC can also be used for public transportation in cities that have joined the City Union plan.[67]

On April 4, 2018, Apple Pay launched in Brazil with Itaú Unibanco (including Credicard).[68]

On May 1, 2018, Apple has confirmed that Apple Pay will arrive in Norway, Poland, and Ukraine as it announces its fiscal second quarter results for 2018.

On July 31, 2018, Tim Cook announced on the Q3 2018 Earnings Call, that Apple Pay would launch in Germany later in 2018.[72]

On August 14, 2018, Apple Pay expanded in Brazil to include Banco Bradesco and Banco do Brasil.[73]

On November 5, 2018, Apple announced the launch banks for the upcoming launch in Germany. This includes Deutsche Bank, HypoVereinsbank, comdirect, Fidor Bank, Hanseatic Bank, N26, bunq, VimPay and boon. by Wirecard.[74] American Express will also support all self-issued cards from launch. Payments networks include American Express, Mastercard (along with the debit brand Maestro), and Visa. The German national debit card scheme Girocard will not be part of the launch.

On September 18, 2018, similar to the Bank of America ATM rollout, ANZ made their contactless ATM available to all mobile wallets including Apple Pay. Contactless withdrawals were previously exclusive to their proprietary ANZ Mobile Wallet app.

On November 8, 2018, Bendigo and Adelaide Bank subsidiary and neobank Up announced their instant provisioning service, being the second bank in Australia to do so. It also allows for customers to start using the banking service with Apple Pay before their physical card arrives.[75]

On November 28, 2018, Apple Pay launched in Belgium with an exclusive partnership with BNP Paribas Fortis, along with its subsidiaries Fintro and Hello bank![76] and support for the MasterCard, Maestro and Visa payment networks. In Kazakhstan Apple Pay launched with support from ATFBank, Eurasian Bank, Halyk Bank, Sberbank, Bank CenterCredit and ForteBank.[77]

On December 11, 2018, Apple launched Apple Pay in Germany along with a press conference at the Allianz Arena in Munich, the home stadium of the major football team Bayern München.[78] Apple also announced more banks to follow in 2019, including the major banks DKB, ING, Consorsbank (BNP Paribas), Consors Finanz (BNP Paribas), and the British FinTech Revolut. Meanwhile, on the same day as the launch in Germany, the German Public Savings Banks Association (DSGV / Sparkasse), with the largest share of consumer banking in Germany, has announced that it is seeking to gain access to the NFC chip in iPhones for their own proprietary payment solution.[79]

On December 14, 2018, Commonwealth Bank announced Apple Pay on its social media, which would launch in January 2019 for its customers.[80]

2019

On January 14, 2019, Apple Pay was confirmed by local banks in Czech Republic,[81] where it is expected to launch on February 19,[82] and Slovakia and Slovenia with launch expected during March.[83]

On January 18, 2019, Apple Pay announced support for dual-network debit cards in Australia. ANZ Visa debit cardholders can choose to pay via the Visa network (Credit) or the eftpos network (savings and cheque).[84]Eftpos also announced that Apple Pay can be used for cash out at Bunnings Warehouse and McDonald's with more participating retailers rolling out later.[85]

On January 22, 2019, Apple reportedly rejected a plan to launch[86] Apple Pay in Belarus.

On January 23, 2019, after two years of the declined ACCC determination, Commonwealth Bank and its subsidiary Bankwest rolled out Apple Pay to personal cardholders.[87][88]

On January 28, 2019, news surfaced in Germany[89] that the Volks- and Raiffeisenbanken (through BVR - National Association of German Cooperative Banks) were in negotiations to launch Apple Pay later in 2019. The co-operative banks are one of the three main pillars of Germanys unique retail banking structure, with a market share of around 20%.[90]

On March 25, 2019, Apple Card was announced in partnership with Goldman Sachs and Mastercard.[91]

On March 27, 2019, Austrian bank Erste Bank und Sparkasse, prepaid service boon. from Wirecard, German bank N26, Slovakian bank Slovenská sporitea,[83] and Romanian banks ING Bank Romania and Banca Transilvania announced that Apple Pay is coming soon to Austria, Romania, Estonia, Greece, Portugal, and others.[92][93][94] An upcoming announcement had become apparent after Austria had been marked as a supported country in an Apple Pay world map shown during the Apple Keynote earlier that week.[95]

On April 2, 2019, Apple Pay had its first addition of banks in Germany after the launch in late 2018.[]Consors Finanz (BNP Paribas), Monese, Viabuy,[96] Crosscard,[97] and Fleetmoney[98] joined the 12 launch banks.[]Westpac New Zealand launched Apple Pay on this date as well.[99]

On April 4, 2019, Slovakian bank mBank announced upcoming support for Apple Pay on their website.[100]

On April 4, 2019, BGL BNP Paribas bank announced on Twitter account that Apple Pay is coming to Luxembourg soon.[101]

On April 12, 2019, Portuguese bank Crédito Agrícula announced upcoming support for Apple Pay on their website.[102]

On April 24, 2019, Apple launched Apple Pay in Austria with Erste Bank und Sparkasse and N26. Other services marked as coming soon are, amongst others, Bank Austria, Revolut and VIMpay. In Germany, Consorsbank (BNP Paribas) was added to the list of supported banks. In Spain, interbank network EURO 6000 and all its members (ABANCA, Caixa Ontinyent, CajaSur, Cecabank, iberCaja, Kutxabank, Liberbank and Unicaja Banco) started to offer support for Apple Pay.

On April 24, 2019, Slovakian bank Tatra banka announced upcoming support for Apple Pay on their Facebook page.

On May 1, 2019, ING announced that it will bring Apple Pay to the Netherlands, being the first Dutch bank to do so.[103]

On May 8, 2019, Apple Pay launched in Iceland with Landsbankinn and Arion Bank.[104][105]

On May 15, 2019, Monese announced that they will bring Apple Pay to Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Liechtenstein, Latvia, Malta, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

On May 21, 2019, NAB and its subsidiary UBank rolled out Apple Pay. Apple Pay is available in Hungary (with Maestro and MasterCard) and Luxembourg.[106][107]Monese started supporting Apple Pay in Iceland & Norway. Portland area transit card Hop Fastpass began Apple Pay support.[108]

On May 29, 2019, Revolut started support for Apple Pay in the United Kingdom and France.

On May 30, 2019, Revolut started support for Apple Pay in Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.

On June 11, 2019, Apple Pay launched in the Netherlands with ING. Also Monese started supporting Apple Pay in Austria.

On June 12, 2019, Banca Comercial? Român? announced that it has been working with Apple to implement Apple Pay in Romania.

On June 18, 2019, Deutsche Kreditbank launched Apple Pay in Germany to its over 4m customers, being the 20th bank to launch the payment service to customers in the country.

On June 26, 2019, Apple Pay officially launched in Romania with the support of the following banks: Banca Transilvania, ING Bank, Unicredit Bank, Orange Money, Edenred, Revolut and Monese. In Greece Apple Pay launched with the following banks: Revolut, Monese and N26. Edenred Greece also started supporting Apple Pay. Apple Pay was also launched in the following countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Portugal, Slovakia and Slovenia. In Germany, the co-operative Volks- und Raiffeisenbanken (through BVR)[109] and the public savings bank Sparkasse announced[110] an Apple Pay launch later in 2019. The two banks have a combined retail banking market share of around 70%.

On July 2, 2019, support for Apple Pay rolled out to customers with Erste Bank (with VISA card support too) and Granit Bank in Hungary and Klarna in Germany. Moreover, Apple Pay officially launched in Faroe Islands with Betri Bank.[111]

On July 10, 2019, support for Apple Pay rolled out to customers of Islandsbanki in Iceland.[112]

On July 12, 2019, Head of the Digital Technologies Department of the General Directorate of Payment Systems and Digital Technologies of National Bank of the Republic of Belarus, Anton Padrez announced upcoming support of Apple Pay[113][114] in Belarus by the end of 2019 on FinMobile conference.

As of July 16, 2019, all countries in the European Economic Area (EEA) support Apple Pay since the expansion of Monese and Revolut.

On August 6, 2019, Apple Pay launched in Macau with Union Pay by Banco Nacional Ultramarino and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Macau).[115][116]

On September 3, 2019, Apple Pay launched in Georgia with Bank of Georgia,[117]TBC Bank,[118] VTB Bank Georgia[119] and Liberty Bank.[120] Moreover, four more banks in the Netherlands rolled out support for Apple Pay: bunq, Monese, N26 and Revolut.[121] Dutch banks ABN AMRO and Rabobank announced support for Apple Pay is coming soon.[122][123]N26 also started support for Apple Pay in Switzerland and Iceland.

On October 15, 2019, the major international banks ING (bring the payment service to Germany) and Deutsche Bank (expanding to Italy after Germany and Spain previously) expanded their coverage in Europe. FinTech bunq expanded Apple Pay support to Austria. Phyre rolled out support for Apple Pay in Bulgaria. ABN Amro starts supporting Apple Pay in The Netherlands.

On November 5,2019, The Spuerkeess bank announced that its customers could now use Apple Pay as a means of payment.[124]

On November 5, 2019, First Investment Bank is the first bank in Bulgaria to roll out support for Apple Pay.[125]

On November 19, 2019, Apple Pay launched in Belarus with BPS-Sberbank[126] with support of Mastercard and Visa cards.

On December 2, 2019, Bank of Valletta is the first national bank in Malta to announce that Apple Pay support for their Visa debit and credit cards is "coming soon".[127][128] The service rolled out to customers on December 10, 2019[129][130]

On December 4, 2019, support for Apple Pay rolled out to customers of Alfa-Bank, BSB Bank, Belagroprombank, Belarusbank, Belgazprombank, MTBank, Priorbank and VTB in Belarus with support of Mastercard and Visa cards.[131][132]

On December 4, 2019, support for Apple Pay rolled out to customers of iCard Bulgaria[133]

On December 10, 2019, support for Apple Pay rolled out to customers of UniCredit Bulbank [134]

2020

On January 28, 2020, Apple Pay launched in Montenegro with Crnogorska Komercijalna Banka[135] with support of Mastercard and Visa cards.

On January 30, 2020, Curve announced that its customers could now use Apple Pay as a means of payment.[136]

On April 1, 2020, TransferWise announced that its customers could now use Apple Pay as a means of payment. [137]

On April 7, 2020, Alpha Bank becomes the first Greek bank that launches Apple Pay in Greece, only for Visa cards. [138][139]

On April 8, 2020, Beijing T-union transit card, Yikatong marked with T-union and Shenzhen transit card were launched in Apple Pay and the cards could be used to pay the fares of the public transport in more 300 cities of China. At the same time, Beijing transit card(Yikatong) was removed, but the early added cards still could be used.[140]

On April 21, 2020, Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken Germany and announced that their customers could now use Apple Pay as a means of payment. [141][142]

On April 22, 2020, Raiffeisenbank (Bulgaria) announced that its customers could now use Apple Pay as a means of payment.[143][144] On April 28, 2020, Westpac has become the last of Australia's big four banks to announce Apple Pay support for its customers. [145]

On June 1, 2020, Octopus card was launched in Apple Pay and the cards could be used in Hong Kong public transport, convenience stores, etc.. Only iPhone 8 and Apple Watch Series 3 or newer models were supported due to the Octopus card using FeliCa technology. Other models, including iPhone 7 series sold in Japan that support FeliCa, do not support the Octopus card.[146][147]

Raiffeisen Bank (Serbia) has announced changes to its terms and conditions, effective June 15, 2020, announcing that Apple Pay will be available for Visa cards issued by the bank [148], with Serbia becoming a new market for Apple Pay. The same month, it was announced that the European Commission (EC) will take two probes against Apple, the one being against Apple Pay. According to EC, "Apple is 'abusing' its control of the wallet through a policy that blocks third-party payment access to its NFC hardware, which enables contactless payments. Apple opposed the claim and cited the coronavirus pandemic as a result of the increased number of people using contactless paying.[149]

On June 30, 2020, Mastercard Serbia has enabled its customers who are clients of ProCredit Bank Serbia to use Apple Pay.[150] On the same day Raiffeisen Bank (Serbia) offered Apple Pay to its Visa clients.[151] On the same day, OTP Bank Serbia announced the arrival of Apple Pay on its Twitter account.[152]

On July 21, 2020, OTP Bank Serbia announced that its Mastercard customers could now use Apple Pay.[153] On the same day Erste Bank Croatia offered Apple Pay to its Visa clients.[154]

On August 6, 2020, Pasmo announced that its service will be avaliable on Apple Pay within 2020.[155]

Availability

Global availability of Apple Pay - Dark Blue: Available (60 countries) Light Blue: Coming Soon (2 countries)

Supported countries

[156]
Date Support for payment cards issued in
October 20, 2014  United States
(except  Puerto Rico & other unincorporated territories)
July 14, 2015  United Kingdom
(excluding British Overseas Territories)
November 17, 2015  Canada
November 19, 2015  Australia
February 18, 2016  China
April 19, 2016  Singapore
July 7, 2016   Switzerland
July 19, 2016  France
 Monaco
July 20, 2016  Hong Kong
October 4, 2016  Russia
October 13, 2016  New Zealand
October 25, 2016  Japan
December 1, 2016  Spain
March 7, 2017  Guernsey
 Ireland
 Isle of Man
 Jersey
March 29, 2017  Taiwan
May 17, 2017  Italy
 San Marino
  Vatican City
October 24, 2017  Denmark
 Greenland
 Finland
 Sweden
 United Arab Emirates
April 4, 2018  Brazil
May 17, 2018  Ukraine
June 19, 2018  Poland
June 20, 2018  Norway
November 28, 2018  Kazakhstan
 Belgium
December 11, 2018  Germany
February 19, 2019  Czech Republic
 Saudi Arabia
April 24, 2019  Austria
May 8, 2019  Iceland
May 21, 2019  Hungary
 Luxembourg
June 11, 2019  Netherlands
June 26, 2019  Bulgaria
 Croatia
 Cyprus
(except  Northern Cyprus)
 Estonia
 Greece
 Latvia
 Liechtenstein
 Lithuania
 Malta
 Portugal
 Romania
 Slovakia
 Slovenia
July 2, 2019  Faroe Islands
August 6, 2019  Macau
September 3, 2019  Georgia
November 19, 2019  Belarus
January 28, 2020  Montenegro
June 30, 2020  Serbia

Supported Payment Networks and Card Schemes

Supported loyalty programs

These programs are conveyed through NFC via Apple Pay's VAS protocol.

Country Retailer One Tap/Two Tap
Australia Woolworths' Everyday Rewards[173] Two Tap
France Carrefour's Carrefour Card[174] One Tap & Two Tap
Japan d Point[175] One Tap & Two Tap
Ponta[176] One Tap & Two Tap
United Kingdom Nando's Nando Card[177] Two Tap
United States Coca-Cola's Vending Pass[178] One Tap
Dave & Buster's Power Card[179] One Tap
Jimmy John's Freaky Fast Rewards[180] One Tap
Kohl's Yes2You Rewards[181] One Tap
Maverik's Adventure Club[182] One Tap
Panera Bread's MyPanera[183] One Tap
Quiznos' Toasty Points[184] One Tap
Walgreens' Balance Rewards[185] Two Tap
Yogurtland's Real Rewards[186] One Tap

Usage within public transport systems

Country Area Express Transit/Travel Fare Payment Method(s)
Australia Sydney Debit and credit cards
Belarus Minsk Debit and credit cards
Brazil Rio de Janeiro (only MetrôRio) Visa debit and credit cards
Sao Paulo (only SPTrans) Elo, Mastercard and Visa debit and credit cards
Canada Vancouver Credit cards
China Beijing Yes Transit cards
Guangzhou Yes Transit cards
Hangzhou UnionPay (CUP) debit and credit cards
Harbin UnionPay (CUP) debit and credit cards
Kunming UnionPay (CUP) debit and credit cards
Lanzhou UnionPay (CUP) debit and credit cards
Nanjing UnionPay (CUP) debit and credit cards
Shanghai Yes Transit cards
Shenzhen Yes Transit cards
Tianjin UnionPay (CUP) debit and credit cards
Xiamen UnionPay (CUP) debit and credit cards
Georgia Tbilisi Bank of Georgia debit and credit cards
Hong Kong Hong Kong Yes All forms of transit that support Octopus card
Japan Countrywide Yes All forms of transit that support Suica
Russia Moscow Debit and credit cards
Novosibirsk Debit and credit cards
Saint Petersburg Debit and credit cards
Singapore Countrywide Mastercard and Visa debit and credit cards
United Kingdom London Yes Debit and credit cards
United States Chicago Debit and credit cards
Miami Debit and credit cards
New York City Yes Debit and credit cards
Portland Yes Hop FastPass, debit and credit cards

Supported campus identifications

Available through Transact eAccounts, CBORD GET Mobile, or the respective school's app on the Apple App Store, depending on the university's provider and implementation.

Reception

Reviews

Journalists noted the multiple previously unsuccessful efforts of other retailers to build mobile payments services,[6][23] including those of PayPal, Walmart, Target,[6]Google Wallet, and Softcard.[23] They noted that previous efforts did not solve customer inconvenience issues, and felt that Apple Pay potentially did.[6]The Verge Adrianne Jeffries noted that mobile payment market fragmentation was partially due to Apple's refusal to enter the market. BusinessWeek's Joshua Brustein added that Apple has a history of letting "first movers fail" with an early version of the service before releasing "a more polished version of the same idea".[6]The Verge Dieter Bohn called Apple Pay the "week's most revolutionary product" and the announcement "a classic Apple moment of simplification and integration", and the partnership between payments services and Apple "a rare piece of collaboration and agreement". He predicted that the service's effect on the mobile payments industry would be similar to the iPhone's effect on the smartphone industry.[23] Nathaniel Popper of The New York Times referred to the banks' level of coordination with Apple as "elaborate" and indicative of mutual "preparation and investment".[12] Some analysts added that the service could reduce the standard credit card transaction fees over time since fees traditionally cover credit card fraud. The banks were willing to work with Apple in the face of efforts like Bitcoin and the Merchant Customer Exchange, which seeks to work around the card networks.[12]

Early reviews of the service regarded it as easy to use, but were not sure whether the service would become widely adopted.[195][196]The Verge Nilay Patel wrote that the product demo was "remarkably smooth" and "a cohesive user experience".[195] Patel said the process took five to ten seconds at a retail card reader and added that it may be less smooth at stores such as Walgreens, where cashiers prompt customers for loyalty cards and charity donations.[195]The New York Times Neil Irwin wrote that Apple exaggerated the inconvenience of credit cards. Among the plastic card's benefits, he included how others could make purchases on another's behalf and how dead cell phones could leave the owner stranded.[196]

In a 2018 publication released by Consumer Reports, Apple Pay was the leading payment service.[197]

Adoption

Paying for coffee with Square's Apple Pay reader

Apple announced that more than one million credit cards had been registered on Apple Pay in the first three days of its availability,[198] making it the largest mobile payment system in the US at the time.[199] There were 220,000 participating vendors when it launched.[200][201] Outside the United States and the United Kingdom, Apple Pay can be used with American and British payment cards at compatible NFC-based payment terminals.[202][203][204]

In the United States, Apple faced opposition by the mobile payments industry, particularly the Merchant Customer Exchange (MCX) which was trialing a competing system known as CurrentC. Several participants of CurrentC, such as Best Buy, Walmart, and Publix had initially stated that they would not accept Apple Pay as a result of exclusivity deals. CVS Pharmacy and Rite-Aid subsequently disabled all NFC payment systems in favor of CurrentC,[12][205][206] although due to the exclusivity period ending in August 2015, Rite Aid has begun accepting it August 15, 2015.[207][208]Best Buy has begun to accept Apple Pay at all stores starting in October 2015.[209]

Target's CEO Brian Cornell said that they would be open to accepting Apple Pay eventually after the conversion to chip and PIN technology is done, but they remain involved with MCX.[210] On January 22, 2019, Target announced the roll-out of Apple Pay support to all of its US stores.[211]

Transport for London, one of Apple Pay's official UK launch partners and one of the largest contactless merchants in the world, became the UK's most used Apple Pay merchant.[212][213][214][215]

As of February 11, 2016, 20% of iPhone 6 users in the United States reported using the service at least once.[216] Apple maintains an up-to-date list of merchants who accept Apple Pay on its website.[217]

On June 2, 2016, according to Fortune, Apple said its mobile payment platform is gaining a million new users each week, yet the company did not reveal the total number of Apple Pay users. Apple also revealed that transaction volume through the service is five times what it was a year ago, and that payment volume within apps more than doubled in the second half of 2015.[218]

With the launch of Apple Pay in China, the service hit three million provisions inside its first three days, while, more generally, it is adding one million new users per week worldwide.[219]

On July 11, 2016 Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) confirmed that it accepts Apple Pay at all of its over 850 stores in Ontario, Canada. LCBO had been gradually rolling out Apple Pay support since June at its stores, which had NFC-based terminals for contactless payments.[220]

Starting on August 19, 2016, Apple Pay will be available in Chick-fil-A restaurants across the United States, allowing fast food buyers to make their purchases both in-store and at the drive-thru using Apple Pay.[221]

On September 7, 2016, Wayfair announced that they will support Apple Pay in Safari on iPhone, iPad, and Mac at launch.[222]

On May 22, 2018, TransLink announced support for Apple Pay at all fare gates and on buses.[223]

On July 31, 2018, Tim Cook announced that both CVS and 7-Eleven in the United States will support the service.[224]

On May 31, 2019 New York City Transit announced support for Apple Pay at its OMNYPAY terminals on busses and subways. [225]

On August 21, 2019 and December 23, 2019, Miami Dade Transit announced support for Apple Pay at all fare gates and on buses.[226]

In Feb 2020, Apple Pay accounts for 5% of global card transactions[227] On April 4, 2020 Publix CEO Todd Jones announced Publix would be supporting Apple Pay immediately to help consumers fight COVID-19.[228]

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