The earliest attestation of the word in Greek and of the worship of the winds by the Greeks, are perhaps the Mycenaean Greek word-forms ?, a-ne-mo-i-je-re-ja, , a-ne-mo,i-je-re-ja, i.e. "priestess of the winds". These words, written in Linear B, are found on the KN Fp 1 and KN Fp 13 tablets.
Tower of the Winds in ancient Athens, part of the frieze depicting the Greek wind gods Boreas (north wind, on the left) and Skiron (northwesterly wind, on the right)
Of the four chief Anemoi, Boreas (Aquilo in Roman mythology) is the north wind and bringer of cold winter air, Zephyrus (Favonius in Latin) is the west wind and bringer of light spring and early-summer breezes, and Notus (Auster in Latin) is the south wind and bringer of the storms of late summer and autumn; Eurus, the southeast (or according to some, the east) wind, was not associated with any of the three Greek seasons, and is the only one of these four Anemoi not mentioned in Hesiod's Theogony or in the Orphic hymns.
The deities equivalent to the Anemoi in Roman mythology were the Venti (Latin, "winds"). These gods had different names, but were otherwise very similar to their Greek counterparts, borrowing their attributes and being frequently conflated with them. Ptolomy's world map listed 12 winds: Septentrio (N), Aquilo (NNE), Vulturnus (NE), Subsolanus (E), Eurus (SE), Euroauster (SSE), Austerulnotus (S), Euronotus (SSW), Affricus (SW), Ephirus (W), Eurus (NW), Circius (NNW).
Boreas (, Boréas; also , Borrhâs) is the Greek god of the cold north wind and the bringer of winter. Although he was normally taken as the north wind, the Roman writers Aulus Gellius and Pliny the Elder both took Boreas as a northeast wind, equivalent to the Roman Aquilo. Boreas is depicted as being very strong, with a violent temper to match. He was frequently shown as a winged old man with shaggy hair and beard, holding a conch shell and wearing a billowing cloak.Pausanias wrote that Boreas had snakes instead of feet, though in art he was usually depicted with winged human feet.
Boreas was closely associated with horses. He was said to have fathered twelve colts after taking the form of a stallion, to the mares of Erichthonius, king of Dardania. These were said to be able to run across a field of grain without trampling the plants. Pliny the Elder (Natural History iv.35 and viii.67) thought that mares might stand with their hindquarters to the North Wind and bear foals without a stallion. The Greeks believed that his home was in Thrace, and Herodotus and Pliny both describe a northern land known as Hyperborea "Beyond the North Wind" where people lived in complete happiness and had extraordinarily long lifespans. He is said to have fathered three giant Hyperborean priests of Apollo by Chione.
Boreas was also said to have kidnapped Orithyia, an Athenian princess, from the Ilisos. Boreas had taken a fancy to Orithyia and had initially pleaded for her favours, hoping to persuade her. When this failed, he reverted to his usual temper and abducted her as she danced on the banks of the Ilisos. Boreas wrapped Orithyia up in a cloud, married her, and with her, Boreas fathered two sons--the Boreads, Zethes and Calais--and two daughters--Chione, goddess of snow, and Cleopatra.
From then on, the Athenians saw Boreas as a relative by marriage. When Athens was threatened by Xerxes, the people prayed to Boreas, who was said to have then caused winds to sink 400 Persian ships. A cult was established in Athens in 480 B. C. E. in gratitude to the Boreas for destroying the approaching Persian fleet. A similar event had occurred twelve years earlier, and Herodotus writes:
Now I cannot say if this was really why the Persians were caught at anchor by the stormwind, but the Athenians are quite positive that, just as Boreas helped them before, so Boreas was responsible for what happened on this occasion also. And when they went home they built the god a shrine by the River Ilissus.
The abduction of Orithyia was popular in Athens before and after the Persian War, and was frequently depicted on vase paintings. In these paintings, Boreas was portrayed as a bearded man in a tunic, with shaggy hair that is sometimes frosted and spiked. The abduction was also dramatized in Aeschylus's lost play Oreithyia.
In other accounts, Boreas was the father of Butes (by another woman) and the lover of the nymph Pitys.
The Roman equivalent of Boreas was Aquilo. This north (and slightly east) wind was associated with winter. The poet Virgil writes:
Interea magnum sol circumvolvitur annum,
et glacialis hiemps aquilonibus asperat undas.
Now had the sun rolled through the year's full circle,
and the waves were rough with icy winter's northern gales
For the wind which came directly from the north the Romans sometimes used the name Septentrio, which refers to the seven (septem) stars of the Plow or Big Dipper constellation. The name "Septentrio" gave rise to the pre-modern compass point Septentrionalis.
Zephyrus, sometimes known in English as just Zephyr. (?, Zéphyros), in Latin Favonius, is the Greek god of the west wind. The gentlest of the winds, Zephyrus is known as the fructifying wind, the messenger of spring. It was thought that Zephyrus lived in a cave in Thrace.
Zephyrus was reported as having several wives in different stories. He was said to be the husband of Iris, goddess of the rainbow. He abducted the goddess Chloris, and gave her the domain of flowers. With Chloris, he fathered Karpos ("fruit"). He is said to have vied for Chloris's love with his brother Boreas, eventually winning her devotion. Additionally, with yet another sister and lover, the harpyPodarge (also known as Celaeno), Zephyrus was said to be the father of Balius and Xanthus, Achilles' horses.
In the story of Eros and Psyche, Zephyrus served Eros (or Cupid) by transporting Psyche to his abode.
Zephyrus was also claimed to have killed one of Apollo's many male lovers Hyacinth out of jealousy. Hyacinth was killed by a discus thrown by Apollo. Though according to some sources, his death was said to be an accident, others said that Zephyrus was the true culprit, having blown the discus off course.
Zephyrus' Roman equivalent was Favonius (the 'favouring') who held dominion over plants and flowers. The Roman poet Horace writes:
quid fles, Asterie, quem tibi candidi
primo restituent vere Favonii?
Why do you weep, Asterie, for the man whom the bright west winds
will restore to you at the beginning of spring?
Notus (, Nótos) was the Greek god of the south wind. He was associated with the desiccating hot wind of the rise of Sirius after midsummer, was thought to bring the storms of late summer and autumn, and was feared as a destroyer of crops.
A statue of Notus.
Notus' equivalent in Roman mythology was Auster, the embodiment of the sirocco wind, a southerly wind which brings cloudy weather, powerful winds and rain to southern Europe. (Auster gave us the compas point Australis and the name Australia.) The Auster winds are mentioned in Virgil's Aeneid Book II, lines 304-307:
in segetem veluti cum flamma furentibus Austrisincidit,
aut rapidus montano flumine torrens
sternit agros, sternit sata laeta boumque labores,
praecipitesque trahit silvas
Just as when a flame falls on the standing grain while the South Winds rage,
or a rushing mountain stream lays low the fields,
lays low the glad crops and labors of oxen,
and drags down forests headlong.
Another Roman poet, Tibullus 1.1, lines 47-48, speaks of the pleasure of lying in bed on rainy winter days:
aut, gelidas hibernus aquas cum fuderit Auster,
securum somnos igne iuvante sequi
or when the winter South Wind has poured out his cold waters,
to fall asleep carefree with the help of a fire.
The name "Australia" (the 'southern land') is derived from Auster.
Eurus (, Euros) according to some was the southeast wind, but according to others the east wind. On the Tower of the Winds in Athens, Eurus occupies the southeast side, while Apeliotes is in the east. However, it is widely accepted[who?] that Eurus is the east wind, while Apeliotes is the southeast wind.
Eurus' Roman counterpart is Vulturnus, according to Pliny the Elder; but for Aulus Gellius Volturnus was the equivalent of the southeast wind Euronotus. Generally in the Latin poets the name Eurus is used for the east or southeast wind, as in Greek.
Eurus is a wind of storm, described as a turbulent wind during storms and tossing ships on the sea. He is referred to as the "savior of Sparta" in a Homeric paean, or poem. Eurus is also called the "hot wind" by Nonnus in Dionysiaca. Eurus is closely related to Helios in passages of the Dionysiaca, being called from his place near Helios' palace, Phaethon, where the sun rose in the east.
Four lesser wind deities appear in a few ancient sources, such as at the Tower of the Winds in Athens:
Kaikias (or Caecius) is the Greek deity of the northeast wind. He is shown on the monument as a bearded man with a shield full of hailstones.
Apeliotes (or Apheliotes) (the name means 'from the (rising) sun') is the Greek deity of the southeast wind. As this wind was thought to cause a refreshing rain particularly beneficial to farmers, he is often depicted wearing high boots and carrying fruit, draped in a light cloth concealing some flowers or grain. He is clean-shaven, with curly hair and a friendly expression. Because Apeliotes is a minor god, he was often syncretized with Eurus, the east wind. The Roman counterpart of Apeliotes is Subsolanus.
Skiron was the name used in Athens for the wind which blew from the Scironian rocks (a geographical feature near Kineta to the west of Athens). On the Tower of the Winds, however, he appears on the northwest side. His name is related to Skirophorion, the last of the three months of spring in the Attic calendar. He is depicted as a bearded man tilting a cauldron, representing the onset of winter. His Roman counterpart is Caurus or Corus. Caurus is also one of the oldest Roman wind-deities, and numbered among the di indigetes ("indigenous gods"), a group of abstract and largely minor numinous entities. The Roman poet Virgil writes when describing steppe winter weather near the Sea of Azov:
Semper hiemps, semper spirantes frigora cauri
Always winter, always the northwest winds breathing cold
Lips is the Greek deity of the southwest wind, often depicted holding the stern of a ship. His Roman equivalent was Africus, due to the Roman province Africa being to the southwest of Italy. This name is thought to be derived from the name of a North African tribe, the Afri.
Other minor wind deities included:
Argestes "clearing", a wind blowing from about the same direction as Skiron (Caurus), and probably another name for it
Aparctias, sometimes called the north wind instead of Boreas
Thrascias, the north-northwest wind (sometimes called in Latin Circius)
Euronotus, the wind blowing from the direction, as its name suggests, between Euros and Notus, that is, a south-southeast wind (Euroauster to the Romans)
Libonotus, the south-southwest wind, known as Austro-Africus to the Romans
Meses, another name for the northwest wind
Olympias, apparently identified with Skiron/Argestes
Phoenicias, another name for the southeast wind ("the one blowing from Phoenicia", due to this land lying to the southeast of Greece)
In popular culture
The Anemoi are occasionally referenced in popular culture. Notably, they make appearances in Percy Jackson & the Olympians and The Heroes of Olympus, two fantasy series by Rick Riordan. In Riordan's first novel, Zephyrus (referred to as "Zephyr") is said to have a role in bringing the demigod children of female Greek gods down to Earth, from Mount Olympus. In The Last Olympian, all four Anemoi and several minor wind gods are involved in the defense of Mount Olympus against Kronos (the TitanCronus), the first series's chief antagonist. Both the Greek and the Roman forms of the Anemoi appear in Riordan's second series. Boreas is a central character in The Lost Hero, and his children Khione, Calais, and Zetes continue to have important roles throughout the series. He resides in Quebec City, and is described as "sturdily built...with dark purple wings" when in his Greek form, and as "taller and thinner" when Roman.Notus/Auster appears in The House of Hades as a counselor of sorts to the protagonists. His Roman form is described as laid-back, disinterested in mortal affairs, and stormy; while his Greek form is quick to anger, more in-touch with the human world, and wears a wreath of barley. Favonius/Zephyros also appears in that novel, described as a deeply tanned man with wings the colors of a sunset and holding a basket of unripe fruit. He takes two of the protagonists to meet his master, Cupid, whom he serves as punishment for accidentally killing a man he and Apollo loved during a game of quoits.
Eurus was the name of Sherlock Holmes's sister in the BBC adaptation. Red letters interspersed in the credits at the end of the Sherlock episode "The Final Problem" spelled out Anemoi.
The California Zephyr, a renowned American cross-country passenger train route, was named after Zephyrus.
In the 2014 video game Ryse: Son of Rome, Aquilo is featured as an antagonist to the main character, attempting to bring about the fall of Rome. He was disguised initially as Commodus' assistant, then was alongside Nero during the duel, and later on was behind the Barbarian attack upon Marius's family's estate and the aftermath.
In the American animated television series, The Venture Bros., Lips, Caecius, and Skiron of the lesser winds are represented by the characters "The Investors", though these characters may be related to their respective Anemoi in name only. The Investors are depicted as a trio of mysterious men in business suits who possess mysterious powers and abilities. Their behavior and appearance is almost demonic in nature, making them a formidable and ominous presence within the series. The fourth Anemos (specifically, Apeliotes the southeast wind) is implied to be the character Dr. Henry Killinger, as he is explained to be the fourth brother of the said trio. Dr. Henry Killinger is removed in appearance and action from his brothers, as he is seemingly depicted as benevolent, while the Investors appear to be generally malevolent in nature.
American folk rock band The Oh Hellos began work on four EPs in 2017 that are each aligned with one of the four primary Anemoi; releasing Notos in 2017, Eurus in 2018, and both Boreas and Zephyrus in 2020. Each EP explores musical and poetic themes of the Anemoi for which they are named (e.g. summer, storms, and destruction in Notos; winter, hibernation, and cold in Boreas), draw from the artists' personal histories and conflicts, and make use of leitmotifs to link each work together as part of a greater whole.