Andrzej Witold Wajda ( Polish: ; 6 March 1926 - 9 October 2016) was a ['andj 'vajda] Polish film and theatre director. Recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the  Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary  Golden Lion and  Honorary Golden Bear Awards, he was a prominent member of the " Polish Film School". He was known especially for his trilogy of war films consisting of (1955), A Generation (1956) and Kana? (1958). Ashes and Diamonds 
He is considered one of the world's most renowned filmmakers
whose works chronicled his native country's political and social evolution  and dealt with the myths of Polish  national identity offering insightful analyses of the universal element of the Polish experience - the struggle to maintain dignity under the most trying circumstances.
Four of his films have been nominated for the
Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film: (1975), The Promised Land  (1979), The Maids of Wilko  (1981) and Man of Iron (2007). Katy? 
Wajda was born in
Suwa?ki, Poland, the son of Aniela (née Bia?ow?s), a school teacher, and Jakub Wajda, an army officer.  Wajda's father was murdered by the Soviets in 1940 in what came to be known as the  Katyn massacre. In 1942, he joined the Polish resistance and served in the  Home Army. After the war, he studied to be a painter at Kraków's Academy of Fine Arts before entering the ?ód? Film School. 
After Wajda's apprenticeship to director
Aleksander Ford, Wajda was given the opportunity to direct his own film. (1955) was his first major film. At the same time Wajda began his work as a director in theatre, including A Generation Michael V. Gazzo's (1959), A Hatful of Rain (1960), and Hamlet (1963) by Two for the Seesaw William Gibson. Wajda made two more increasingly accomplished films, which developed further the anti-war theme of A Generation: (1956) ( Kana? Special Jury Prize at Cannes Film Festival in 1957, shared with Bergman's ) and The Seventh Seal (1958) with Ashes and Diamonds Zbigniew Cybulski. 
While capable of turning out mainstream commercial fare (often dismissed as "trivial" by critics), Wajda was more interested in works of
allegory and  symbolism, and certain symbols (such as setting fire to a glass of liquor, representing the flame of youthful idealism that was extinguished by the war) recur often in his films.  (1959) is full of Lotna surrealistic and symbolic scenes and shots, but he managed to explore other styles, making new wave style (1960) with music by Innocent Sorcerers Krzysztof Komeda, starring Roman Polanski and Jerzy Skolimowski (who was also a co-script writer) in the episodes. Then Wajda directed (1961), the story of Jacob, a Jewish boy, who wants to survive during the Nazi occupation of Poland. In the mid-1960s Wajda made Samson (1965) based on the novel by Polish writer The Ashes Stefan ?eromski and directed several films abroad: (1962), Love at Twenty Siberian Lady Macbeth  (1962) and  (1968).
Gates To Paradise
In 1967, Cybulski was killed in a train accident, whereupon the director articulated his grief with
Everything for Sale (1968), considered one of his most personal films, using the technique of a film-within-a-film to tell the story of a film maker's life and work. The following year he directed an ironic satire  Hunting Flies with the script written by  Janusz G?owacki and a short television film called based on a screenplay by Przek?adaniec Stanis?aw Lem. 
Andrzej Wajda (center), c. 1970
The 1970s were the most prolific artistic period for Wajda, who made over ten films:
(1970), Landscape After the Battle (1971), Pilate and Others (1972) - the film version of the famous Polish poetic drama by The Wedding Stanis?aw Wyspia?ski, (1974), The Promised Land (1976) - the film takes place in two time periods, the first film showing the episodes of Man of Marble Stalinism in Poland, (1976), The Shadow Line (the other title: Rough Treatment (1978), Without Anesthesia) (1980), starring The Orchestra Conductor John Gielgud; and two psychological and existential films based upon novels by Jaros?aw Iwaszkiewicz - (1970) and The Birch Wood The Maids of Wilko (1979).  The Birch Wood was entered into the 7th Moscow International Film Festival where Wajda won the Golden Prize for Direction. 
Wajda continued to work in theatre, including
, Dostoyevsky's Play Strindberg and The Possessed Nastasja Filippovna - Wajda's version of , The Idiot November Night by Wyspia?ski, by S?awomir Mro?ek, The Immigrants The Danton Affair or The Dreams of Reason. 
Wajda during filming in 1974
Wajda's later commitment to Poland's burgeoning
Solidarity movement was manifested in (1981), a thematic sequel to Man of Iron The Man of Marble, with Solidarity leader Lech Wasa appearing as himself in the latter film. The film sequence is loosely based on the life of Anna Walentynowicz, a hero of socialist labor Stakhanovite turned dissident and alludes to events from real life, such as the firing of Walentynowicz from the shipyard and the underground wedding of Bogdan Borusewicz to Alina Pienkowska. The director's involvement in this movement would prompt the Polish government to force Wajda's production company out of business. For the film, Wajda won the  Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival.
In 1983, he directed
, starring Danton Gérard Depardieu in the title role, a film set in 1794 (Year Two of the French Republican Calendar) dealing with the Post-Revolutionary Terror. Made against the backdrop of the martial law in Poland, Wajda showed how easily revolution can change into terror and start to "eat its own children." For this film Wajda was honoured with the  Louis Delluc Prize and a César Award for Best Director. In the 1980s he also made (1983) featuring A Love in Germany Hanna Schygulla, The Chronicle of Amorous Incidents (1986) an adaptation of Tadeusz Konwicki's novel and (1988) based on The Possessed Dostoyevsky's novel. In theatre he prepared an interpretation of Dostoyevsky's (1984) and other unique spectacles such as Crime and Punishment Antygone, his sequential versions or an old Jewish play Hamlet . In 1989, he was the President of the Jury at the The Dybbuk 16th Moscow International Film Festival. 
Career after 1990
During the filming of
In 1990, Andrzej Wajda was honoured by the
European Film Awards for his lifetime achievement, only the third director to be so honoured, after Federico Fellini and Ingmar Bergman. In the early 1990s, he was elected a senator and also appointed artistic director of Warsaw's Teatr Powszechny. He continued to make films set during World War II, including Korczak (1990), a story about a Jewish-Polish doctor who takes care of orphan children, in  The Crowned-Eagle Ring (1993) and (1995) specifically on Jewish-Polish relations. In 1994, Wajda presented his own film version of Holy Week Dostoyevsky's novel The Idiot in the movie , Nastasja starring Japanese actor Tamasoburo Bando in the double role of Prince Mishkin and Nastasja. The film's cinematographer was  Pawel Edelman, who subsequently became one of Wajda's great collaborators. In 1996, the director went in a different direction with , Miss Nobody a coming-of-age drama that explored the darker and more spiritual aspects of a relationship between three high-school girls. In 1999, Wajda released the epic film  , Pan Tadeusz based on the  epic poem of the Polish 19th-century romantic poet Adam Mickiewicz.
A year later, at the
2000 Academy Awards, Wajda was presented with an honorary Oscar for his contribution to world cinema; he subsequently donated the award to  Kraków's Jagiellonian University. In 2002, Wajda directed  , a film version of his 1980s comedy theatre production, with The Revenge Roman Polanski in one of the main roles. In February 2006, Wajda received an Honorary Golden Bear for lifetime achievement at the Berlin International Film Festival. In 2007,  was released, a well-received film about the Katy? Katyn massacre, in which Wajda's father was murdered; the director also shows the dramatic situation of those who await their relatives (mothers, wives and children). The film was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film Oscar in 2008. 
Wajda followed it with
(2009) with Sweet Rush Krystyna Janda as a main character. It is partly based upon a short Jaros?aw Iwaszkiewicz novel. The film is dedicated to Edward K?osi?ski, Janda's husband, a cinematographer and a long-time Wajda friend and co-worker who died of cancer the same year. For this film Wajda was awarded by Alfred Bauer Prize at the 2009 Berlin International Film Festival. He received the Prix FIPRESCI during the 2009 European Film Awards. ( Walesa. Man of Hope Wasa. Cz?owiek z nadziei), Wajda's biography of Lech Wasa, based on a script by Janusz G?owacki and starring Robert Wi?ckiewicz in the title role, had its world premiere at the 2013 Venice International Film Festival. His last film was the 2016 ( Afterimage Powidoki), starring Bogus?aw Linda as Polish avant-garde painter W?adys?aw Strzemi?ski.
Wajda founded The Japanese Centre of Art and Technology in
Kraków in 1994. In 2002, he founded and led his own film school with Polish filmmaker Wojciech Marczewski. Students of Wajda School take part in different film courses led by famous European film makers. 
Personal life and death
Wajda was married four times. His third wife was actress
Beata Tyszkiewicz with whom he had a daughter, Karolina (born 1967). His fourth wife was the theatre costume designer and actress Krystyna Zachwatowicz. 
In September 2009, Wajda called for the release of director
Roman Polanski after he was arrested in Switzerland in relation to his 1977 charge for drugging and raping a 13-year-old girl. 
Wajda died in
Warsaw on 9 October 2016 at the age of 90 from pulmonary failure.  He was buried at  Salwator Cemetery in Kraków.
Awards and honours 2012:
Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary;  2011:
Order of the White Eagle (the highest Polish distinction), Commander of the Order of Three Stars (Latvia);  2010:
Order of Friendship of the Russian Federation, Order of Danica Hrvatska (Croatia);  2008:
Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (Ukraine),  Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (Estonia);  2007: Nomination for an
Academy Award for ; Katy? 2006:
Order for Merits to Lithuania;  2006:
Honorary Golden Bear for lifetime achievement at the 56th Berlin International Film Festival;  2005: Gold
Medal for Merit to Culture - Gloria Artis;  2001: Commander's Cross of
Legion d'Honneur of the French Republic, Great Cross of the  Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Doctor Honoris Causa of the Moscow State Academy of Choreography; 2000:
Academy Honorary Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences;  2000:
Doctor Honoris Causa of the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts, Order of Merit of the Italian Republic;  1999:
Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta, Freedom Award for film-making and for "unparalleled commitment to freedom" at the Freedom Film Festival in Berlin, the Crystal Iris for life achievement at the National Film Festival in Brussels; 1997:
Praemium Imperiale Award of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Art, Silver Bear for life achievement and, specifically, for , at the 46th Holy Week Berlin Film Festival (1996); Best Director Award for at the 13th Miss Nobody Festroia International Film Festival, Portugal; 1997: Honourable Mention at the
47th Berlin International Film Festival for ; Miss Nobody  1996:
Silver Bear for an outstanding artistic contribution at the 46th Berlin International Film Festival for ; Wielki tydzie?  1995:
Order of the Rising Sun (Japan), Doctor Honoris Causa of Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, Witkacy Prize - Critics' Circle Award of the Polish ITI Centre for the promotion of the Polish theatre abroad and Doctor Honoris Causa of the Lumière University Lyon 2 in Lyon, France; 1994:
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France); 1990: European Felix Award for life achievement and an outstanding achievement and artistic conduct at the
Cannes International Film Festival; 1989:
Doctor Honoris Causa of the Jagiellonian University; 1988: Nomination for the
Golden Bear at the 38th Berlin International Film Festival for ; Les Possédés  1987:
Kyoto Prize of the Japanese Inamori Foundation for contribution to the development of science, technology and ideas;  1986: The
Luigi Pirandello Award for activity and achievement in the area of theatre; 1985:
Herder Prize for contribution to strengthening cultural relations with nations of Eastern and Southern Europe; 1983:
César Award of the French Academy of Film Art and Technology for ; Danton 1982:
Knight of Legion d'Honneur (France); Onassis Foundation Award for work for human rights and dignity; 1981:
Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival for ; Man of Iron 1981: Nomination of an
Academy Award for ; Man of Iron 1981:
Doctor Honoris Causa of the University of Washington; 1980:
FIPRESCI and Basque Cultural Society awards at the San Sebastián International Film Festival for ; The Orchestra Conductor 1979: Golden Lions at the 6th
Gdynia Film Festival for , The Maids of Wilko Prize of the Ecumenical Jury at the Cannes International Film Festival for , Life Achievement Award at the La Rochelle International Film Festival and Without Anesthesia Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius for contribution to the development of Polish-Bulgarian cultural co-operation; 1979: Nomination for an
Academy Award for ; The Maids of Wilko 1978: Golden Lions at the 5th
Gdynia Film Festival for , Jury Award and Best Director Award at the 18th Without Anesthesia Cartagena Film Festival (Colombia) for ; Promised Land 1976: Journalists Award at the 3rd
Brussels International Film Festival for , Golden Spike for Promised Land The Promised Land at the Valladolid Film Festival; 1975: Golden Prize at the
9th Moscow International Film Festival for .; The Promised Land  1975: Nomination for an
Academy Award for ; The Promised Land 1973: Silver Shell at the
San Sebastian International Film Festival for directing ; The Wedding 1964:
Officer's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta;  1959: Jury and
FIPRESCI Award at the Venice Film Festival for , Ashes and Diamonds Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta; 1957: Special Jury Prize at the Cannes International Film Festival for . Kana? 
The Bad Boy ( Z?y ch?opiec, 1951 short film)
The Pottery at Ilza ( Ceramika ilzecka, 1951 short film)
While you are sleeping ( Kiedy ty ?pisz, 1953 short film)
( A Generation Pokolenie, 1955)
( Towards the Sun Id? do s?o?ca, documentary on Xawery Dunikowski, 1955)
( Ashes and Diamonds Popió? i diament 1958)
( Innocent Sorcerers Niewinni czarodzieje, 1960)
( Siberian Lady Macbeth Powiatowa lady Makbet, 1961)
( Love at Twenty L'amour à vingt ans, 1962)
( The Ashes Popioly, 1965)
Roly Poly ( , 1968) Przek?adaniec
( Gates to Paradise Bramy Raju, 1968)
( Everything for Sale Wszystko na sprzeda?, 1969)
( Hunting Flies Polowanie na muchy, 1969)
( The Birch Wood Brzezina, 1970)
( Landscape After the Battle Krajobraz po bitwie, 1970)
( Pilate and Others Pilatus und andere, 1972)
( The Wedding Wesele, 1973)
( The Promised Land Ziemia obiecana, 1974)
( The Shadow Line/Smuga Cienia Smuga cienia, 1976)
( Man of Marble Cz?owiek z marmuru, 1977)
aka Without Anesthesia Rough Treatment ( Bez znieczulenia, 1978)
( The Maids of Wilko Panny z Wilka, 1979)
As years go by, as days go by ( Z biegiem lat, z biegiem dni, 1980 TV series)
( The Orchestra Conductor Dyrygent, 1980)
( Man of Iron Cz?owiek z ?elaza, 1981)
( A Love in Germany Eine Liebe in Deutschland, 1983)
( A Chronicle of Amorous Accidents Kronika wypadków mi?osnych, 1985)
( The French as seen by... Proust contre la déchéance, 1988)
( The Possessed Les possédes, 1988)
The Crowned-Eagle Ring ( Pier?cionek z or?em w koronie, 1992)
( Holy Week Wielki Tydzie?, 1995)
( Miss Nobody Panna Nikt, 1996)
(1999) Pan Tadeusz
Bigda idzie ( Bigda idzie!, 1999 TV theatre)
The Condemnation of Franciszek Klos ( Wyrok na Franciszka K?osa, 2000)
June night ( Noc czerwcowa, 2001 TV theatre)
Broken Silence ( Przerwane milczenie, 2002)
( The Revenge Zemsta, 2002)
Man of Hope ( Czlowiek z nadziei, 2005 short film)
( Sweet Rush Tatarak, 2009)
( Walesa. Man of Hope Wasa. Cz?owiek z nadziei, 2013) (2016) Afterimage
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